163 relations: Absolute monarchy in France, Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I Saadi, Act of God, Alexandre Dumas, Alfonsina Orsini, Animaniacs, Anna Jagiellon, Anne of Brittany, Basilica of St Denis, Battle of Jarnac, Battle of Moncontour, Book of hours, Bussy D'Ambois, Capetian dynasty, Catherine de' Medici, Catholic Church, Catholic League (French), Charles de Bourbon (cardinal), Charles II de Valois, Duke of Orléans, Charles IX of France, Charles, Count of Angoulême, Charles, Duke of Guise, Charles, Duke of Orléans, Château de Blois, Château de Saint-Cloud, Chicot, Christopher Marlowe, Clarice Orsini, Claude of France, Coat of arms, Coronation of the French monarch, Counts and Dukes of Angoulême, Counts and dukes of Anjou, Dangerous Beauty, Day of the Barricades, Diane de France, Dominican Order, Duke of Orléans, Edict of Beaulieu, Eleanor Hibbert, Elizabeth (film), Elizabeth I of England, Elmer Fudd, Emmanuel Chabrier, François Clouet, France–Morocco relations, Francis I of France, Francis II of France, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, Francis, Duke of Anjou, ..., Franco-Ottoman alliance, French nobility, French Wars of Religion, Gary Ferguson, George Chapman, Golden Liberty, Guillaume Bérard, Heir presumptive, Henrician Articles, Henry I, Duke of Guise, Henry II of France, Henry IV of France, History of Poland in the Early Modern era (1569–1795), House of Bourbon, House of Habsburg, House of Valois, Huguenots, Interrex (Poland), Intolerance (film), Jacques Cartier, Jacques Clément, Jake Weber, Jakub Uchański, Jan Kochanowski, Jean de Monluc, Jeanne de Bourbon, Duchess of Bourbon, Jeff Bennett, John Dryden, John III, Count of Auvergne, John VIII, Count of Vendôme, John, Count of Angoulême, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of France, Kraków, La Reine Margot (1954 film), La Reine Margot (1994 film), La Reine Margot (novel), Le roi malgré lui, Les Mignons, List of Animaniacs characters, List of French monarchs, List of Polish monarchs, List of rulers of Lithuania, Lorenzo de' Medici, Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, Louis Duret, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, Louis IX of France, Louis of Valois, Louis XII of France, Louise of Lorraine, Louise of Savoy, Louvre, Madame de La Fayette, Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, Malcontents (France), Margaret of Bourbon (1438–1483), Margaret of Foix, Margaret of Valois, Marie of Cleves, Duchess of Orléans, Mass (liturgy), Michel Zevaco, Nathaniel Lee, New France, New World, NNDB, Notre-Dame de Paris, Opéra comique, Order of chivalry, Order of Saint Michael, Order of the Holy Spirit, Ottoman Empire, Pacta conventa, Palace of Fontainebleau, Parliament of Tours, Pascal Greggory, Paul the Apostle, Pentecost, Philip II, Duke of Savoy, Piero the Unfortunate, Pierre Matthieu, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Ottoman alliance, Political system, Politique, Psalms, Queen Jezebel (novel), Regional accents of English, Reign (TV series), Reims Cathedral, Robert Merle, Royal elections in Poland, Saint-Cloud, Salic law, Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Siege of La Rochelle (1572–73), Sigismund II Augustus, Spanish Armada, Spanish Empire, St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, Stanley J. Weyman, Stephen Báthory, Szlachta, The Massacre at Paris, The Princess of Montpensier, The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois, Toleration, Varicose veins, Veronica Franco, Vincent Cassel, War of the Three Henrys, Wawel Castle, Wawel Cathedral. Expand index (113 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy in France slowly emerged in the 16th century and became firmly established during the 17th century.
Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I (أبو مروان عبد الملك الغازي), often simply Abd al-Malik or Mulay Abdelmalek (died 4 August 1578), was the Saadi Sultan of Morocco from 1576 until his death right after the Battle of Ksar El Kebir against Portugal in 1578.
In legal usage throughout the English-speaking world, an act of God is a natural hazard outside human control, such as an earthquake or tsunami, for which no person can be held responsible.
Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.
Alfonsina Orsini (1472–1520) was a Regent of Florence.
Animaniacs is an American animated comedy television series created by Tom Ruegger.
Anna Jagiellon (Anna Jagiellonka, Ona Jogailaitė; 18 October 1523 – 12 November 1596) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in her own right from 1575 to 1586.
Anne of Brittany (25/26 January 1477 – 9 January 1514) was Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and queen consort of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
The Battle of Jarnac on 13 March 1569 was an encounter during the French Wars of Religion between the Catholic forces of Marshal Gaspard de Saulx, sieur de Tavannes, and the Huguenots, near the nadir of their fortunes, financed by Reinhold von Krockow (who was wounded in the battle) and led by Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, who was killed after his surrender and his body paraded on an ass in Jarnac, to Catholic jeers.
The Battle of Moncontour occurred on 3 October 1569 between the Catholic forces of King Charles IX of France and the Huguenots during the "Third War" (1568-1570) of the French Wars of Religion.
The book of hours is a Christian devotional book popular in the Middle Ages.
The Tragedy of Bussy D'Ambois (1603–1607) is a Jacobean stage play written by George Chapman.
The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet.
Catherine de Medici (Italian: Caterina de Medici,; French: Catherine de Médicis,; 13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic League of France (Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion.
Charles de Bourbon (22 September 1523 – 9 May 1590) was a French cardinal.
Charles II of Orléans (22 January 1522 – 9 September 1545) was the third son of Francis I and Claude of France.
Charles IX (27 June 1550 – 30 May 1574) was a French monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1560 until his death from tuberculosis.
Charles d'Orléans (1459 – 1 January 1496) was the Count of Angoulême from 1467 until his death.
Charles de Lorraine, 4th Duke of Guise (2 August 1571 – 30 September 1640) was the son of Henry I, Duke of Guise and Catherine of Cleves.
Charles of Orléans (24 November 1394 – 5 January 1465) was Duke of Orléans from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy.
The Royal Château de Blois (French: "Château Royal de Blois") is located in the Loir-et-Cher département in the Loire Valley, in France, in the center of the city of Blois.
The Château de Saint-Cloud was a palace in France, built on a site overlooking the Seine at Saint-Cloud in Hauts-de-Seine, about west of Paris.
Chicot (c. 1540—1591), real name Jean-Antoine d'Anglerais, was the jester of King Henry III of France and later Henry IV.
Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593), was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.
Clarice Orsini (1450–1488) was the daughter of Jacopo Orsini, and his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini.
Claude of France (13 October 1499 – 20 July 1524) was a queen consort of France by marriage to Francis I. She was also ruling Duchess of Brittany from 1514.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The accession of the King of France was legitimized by coronation ceremony performed with the Crown of Charlemagne at Notre-Dame de Reims.
Angoulême (L'Angoumois) in western France was part of the Carolingian Empire as the kingdom of Aquitaine.
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong.
Dangerous Beauty is a 1998 American biographical drama film directed by Marshall Herskovitz and starring Catherine McCormack, Rufus Sewell, and Oliver Platt.
In the French Wars of Religion, the Day of the Barricades (in Journée des barricades), 12 May 1588, was an outwardly spontaneous public uprising in staunchly Catholic Paris against the moderate, hesitant, temporizing policies of Henry III.
Diane de France, suo jure Duchess of Angoulême (25 July 1538 – 11 January 1619) was the natural (illegitimate) daughter of Henry II, King of France, and his Piedmontese mistress Filippa Duci.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Duke of Orléans (Duc d'Orléans) was a title reserved for French royalty, first created in 1344 by Philip VI in favor of his son Philip of Valois.
The Edict of Beaulieu (also known at the time as the Peace of Monsieur) was promulgated from Beaulieu-lès-Loches on 6 May 1576 by Henry III of France, who was pressured by Alençon's support of the Protestant army besieging Paris that spring.
Eleanor Alice Hibbert (née Burford; 1 September 1906 – 18 January 1993) was an English author who combined imagination with facts to bring history alive through novels of fiction and romance.
Elizabeth is a 1998 British biographical drama film written by Michael Hirst, directed by Shekhar Kapur, and starring Cate Blanchett in the title role of Queen Elizabeth I of England, alongside Geoffrey Rush, Christopher Eccleston, Joseph Fiennes, John Gielgud, Fanny Ardant, and Richard Attenborough.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elmer J. Fudd is a fictional cartoon character and one of the most famous Looney Tunes characters, and the de facto archenemy of Bugs Bunny.
Alexis Emmanuel Chabrier (January 18, 1841September 13, 1894) was a French Romantic composer and pianist.
François Clouet (c. 1510 – 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist and painter, particularly known for his detailed portraits of the French ruling family.
France–Morocco relations are bilateral relations between Morocco and France.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Francis II (François II) (19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) was a King of France of the House of Valois-Angoulême from 1559 to 1560.
Francis II of Brittany (in Breton Frañsez II, in French François II) (23 June 1433 – 9 September 1488) was Duke of Brittany from 1458 to his death.
Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon (Hercule François; 18 March 1555 – 10 June 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.
The Franco-Ottoman alliance, also Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France Francis I and the Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent.
The French nobility (la noblesse) was a privileged social class in France during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790.
The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.
Gary Ferguson (born March 19, 1963), a specialist of French Renaissance literature and culture, is the Douglas Huntly Gordon Distinguished Professor of French at the University of Virginia.
George Chapman (Hitchin, Hertfordshire, c. 1559 – London, 12 May 1634) was an English dramatist, translator, and poet.
Golden Liberty (Aurea Libertas; Złota Wolność, Auksinė laisvė), sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth (Szlachecka or Złota wolność szlachecka, aureă lībertās) was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Guillaume Bérard was a French Consul established in Fez, Morocco, in 1577 by Henry III of France.
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent, male or female, or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.
The Henrician Articles or King Henry's Articles (Polish: Artykuły henrykowskie, Latin: Articuli Henriciani) were a permanent contract between the "Polish nation" (i.e., the szlachta (nobility) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and a newly elected king upon his election to the throne that stated the fundamental principles of governance and constitutional law in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu (31 December 1550 – 23 December 1588), sometimes called Le Balafré (Scarface), was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna d'Este.
Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The institution of interrex existed in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, whose ruling classes liked to view their Republic (Rzeczpospolita) or Commonwealth as an heir to Roman republican traditions.
Intolerance is a 1916 epic silent film directed by D. W. Griffith.
Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
Jacques Clément (1567 – 1 August 1589) was a French conspirator and the killer of king Henry III.
Jake Weber (born 12 March 1963) is an English actor, known in film for his role as Michael in Dawn of the Dead and for his role as Drew in Meet Joe Black.
Jakub Uchański (1502–81), of Radwan coat of arms, was an archbishop of Gniezno and primate of Poland from 1562 to 1581, interrex from 1572 to 1573 and from 1574 to 1575.
Jan Kochanowski (1530 – 22 August 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.
Jean de Monluc (died 1579) was a French noble, clergyman, diplomat, and courtier.
Jeanne de Bourbon (1465 – 22 January 1511) was a daughter of John II, Count of Vendôme and Isabelle de Beauvau.
Jeff Bennett (born October 2, 1962) is an American voice actor and singer.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John III of Auvergne (1467 – 28 March 1501), Count of Auvergne, was the son of Bertrand VI of Auvergne and Louise de la Trémoille (1432 – 10 April 1474), Dame de Boussac, the daughter of Georges de la Trémoille.
John VIII de Bourbon (1425 - 6 January 1477) was Count of Vendôme from 1466 until his death.
John of Orléans, Count of Angoulême and of Périgord (26 June 1399 – 30 April 1467), was a younger son of Louis I, Duke of Orléans, and Valentina Visconti, and a grandson of Charles V of France.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
La Reine Margot is a 1954 French drama film directed by Jean Dréville, scripted by Abel Gance from the novel La Reine Margot by Alexandre Dumas.
La Reine Margot is a 1994 French period film directed by Patrice Chéreau, and written by himself along with Danièle Thompson, based on the 1845 historical novel La Reine Margot by Alexandre Dumas.
La Reine Margot (English:Queen Margot) is a historical novel written in 1845 by Alexandre Dumas, père.
Le roi malgré lui (King in Spite of Himself or The reluctant king) is an opéra-comique in three acts by Emmanuel Chabrier of 1887 with an original libretto by Emile de Najac and Paul Burani.
Les Mignons (from mignon, French for "the darlings" or "the dainty ones") was a term used by polemicists in the toxic atmosphere of the French Wars of Religion and taken up by the people of Paris, to designate the favourites of Henry III of France, from his return from Poland to reign in France in 1574, to his assassination in 1589, a disastrous end to which the perception of effeminate weakness contributed.
This is a list of characters in the Warner Bros. animated television series, Animaniacs.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy.
Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici, (12 September 1492 – 4 May 1519) was the ruler of Florence from 1516 until his death in 1519.
Louis Duret was a French physician to Charles IX of France and his brother Henry III of France as their chief physician.
Louis II, Cardinal of Guise (6 July 1555, Dampierre – 24 December 1588, Château de Blois), was the third son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna d'Este.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Louis of France (3 February 154924 October 1550), also known as Louis III, Duke of Orléans was the second son and fourth child of Henry II (31 March 151910 July 1559), King of France and his wife, Catherine de' Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino and his wife Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne.
Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504.
Louise of Lorraine (French: Louise de Lorraine) (30 April 1553 – 29 January 1601) was a Queen consort of France from 1575 until 1589 by marriage to Henry III of France.
Louise of Savoy (11 September 1476 – 22 September 1531) was a French noble and regent, Duchess suo jure of Auvergne and Bourbon, Duchess of Nemours, and the mother of King Francis I. She was politically active and served as the Regent of France in 1515, in 1525–1526 and in 1529.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Marie-Madeleine Pioche de La Vergne, comtesse de La Fayette (baptized 18 March 1634 – 25 May 1693), better known as Madame de La Fayette, was a French writer, the author of La Princesse de Clèves, France's first historical novel and one of the earliest novels in literature.
Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne (1498 – 28 April 1519) was a younger daughter of Jean III de La Tour (1467– 28 March 1501), Count of Auvergne and Lauraguais, and Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme (1465–1511).
The Malcontents were a faction of gentlemen in the Fifth French War of Religion (1574–1576).
Margaret of Bourbon (5 February 1438 – 24 April 1483) was the daughter of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon (1401–1456) and Agnes of Burgundy (1407–1476).
Margaret of Foix (French: Marguerite de Foix; c. 1449 – 15 May 1486) was Duchess of Brittany from 1474 to 1486 by marriage to Francis II, Duke of Brittany.
Margaret of Valois (Marguerite, 14 May 1553 – 27 March 1615), commonly Margot, was a French princess of the Valois dynasty who became queen consort of Navarre and later also of France.
Marie of Cleves (19 September 1426 – 23 August 1487) was the third wife of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and the mother of his only son, King Louis XII of France.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
Michel Zevaco (also written as Zévaco) (1 February 1860, Ajaccio - 8 August 1918, Eaubonne) was a French journalist, novelist, publisher, film director, and anti-clerical as well as anarchist activist.
Nathaniel Lee (c. 1653 – 6 May 1692) was an English dramatist.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The Notable Names Database (NNDB) is an online database of biographical details of over 40,000 people of note.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
Opéra comique (plural: opéras comiques) is a genre of French opera that contains spoken dialogue and arias.
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.
The Order of Saint Michael (Ordre de Saint-Michel) is a French dynastic order of chivalry, founded by Louis XI of France on 1 August 1469, in competitive response to the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, Louis' chief competitor for the allegiance of the great houses of France, the Dukes of Orléans, Berry, and Brittany.
The Order of the Holy Spirit, also known as the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit (Ordre du Saint-Esprit or Ordre des chevaliers du Saint-Esprit; sometimes translated into English as the Order of the Holy Ghost), is a French order of chivalry founded by Henry III of France in 1578.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Pacta conventa (Latin for "articles of agreement") was a contractual agreement, from 1573 to 1764 entered into between the "Polish nation" (i.e., the szlachta (nobility) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and a newly elected king upon his "free election" (''wolna elekcja'') to the throne.
The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux.
The Parliament of Tours was a faction of parliamentarians from the parliament of Paris faithful to the king and sitting at Tours from June 1589 to April 1594.
Pascal Greggory (born 8 September 1954) is a French actor.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The Christian feast day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday.
Philip II (5 February 1438 – 7 November 1497), surnamed the Landless, was the Duke of Savoy for a brief reign from 1496 to 1497.
Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici (15 February 1472 – 28 December 1503), called Piero the Unfortunate, was the gran maestro of Florence from 1492 until his exile in 1494.
Pierre Matthieu (1563–1621) was a French writer, poet, historian and dramatist.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
A Polish–Ottoman alliance, based on several treaties, occurred during the 16th century between the kingdom of Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire, as the Ottomans were expanding into Central Europe.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, politiques were those in a position of power who put the success and well-being of their state above all else.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Queen Jezebel is a 1953 historical novel by Jean Plaidy first published by Robert Hale in the UK.
Spoken English shows great variation across regions where it is the predominant language.
Reign is an American historical romantic drama television series following the early exploits of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Reims Cathedral (Our Lady of Reims, Notre-Dame de Reims) is a Roman Catholic church in Reims, France, built in the High Gothic style.
Robert Merle (28 August 1908 – 27 March 2004) was a French novelist.
Royal elections in Poland (wolna elekcja, lit. free election) was the election of individual kings, rather than of dynasties, to the Polish throne.
Saint-Cloud is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
The general sejm (sejm walny, also translated as the full or ordinary sejm) was the bicameral parliament of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Siege of La Rochelle of 1572–1573 was a massive military assault on the Huguenot-held city of La Rochelle by Catholic troops during the fourth phase of the French Wars of Religion, following the August 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.
Sigismund II Augustus (Zygmunt II August, Ruthenian: Żygimont II Awgust, Žygimantas II Augustas, Sigismund II.) (1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572) was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548.
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Stanley John Weyman (pronounced, 7 August 1855 – 10 April 1928) was an English writer of historical romance.
Stephen Báthory (Báthory István; Stefan Batory; Steponas Batoras; 27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586) was Voivode of Transylvania (1571–76), Prince of Transylvania (1576–86), from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576-1586).
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
The Massacre at Paris is an Elizabethan play by the English dramatist Christopher Marlowe (1593) and a Restoration drama by Nathaniel Lee (1689), the later chiefly remembered for a song by Henry Purcell.
The Princess of Montpensier (La Princesse de Montpensier) is a 2010 French period romance film directed by Bertrand Tavernier, inspired by the novel of the same name published anonymously by Madame de La Fayette in 1662.
The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois is a Jacobean revenge tragedy written by George Chapman.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted.
Veronica Franco (1546–1591) was an Italian poet and courtesan in 16th-century Venice.
Vincent Cassel (born Vincent Crochon, 23 November 1966) is a French actor.
The War of the Three Henrys (1587–1589) was the eighth and final conflict in the series of civil wars in France known as the Wars of Religion.
The Wawel Castle is a castle residency located in central Kraków, Poland.
The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus on the Wawel Hill (królewska bazylika archikatedralna śś.), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (katedra wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland.
Alexandre Edouard de France, Alexandre Édouard de France, Henri III, Henri III of France, Henri de Valois, Henry III (of France), Henry III Valois, Henry III de Valois, Henry III of Anjou, Henry III of France and Poland, Henry III of Poland, Henry III of Poland and France, Henry III, King of France, Henry Valois, Henry of Poland, Henry of Valois, Henry, Duke of Anjou, Henryk II Walezy, Henryk III Walezy, Henryk Walezy, King Henri III.