43 relations: Alfonso X of Castile, Basque language, Battlement, Blanche of Artois, Brie (region), Capetian House of Anjou, Castle, Catholic Church, Count of Champagne, Crown lands of France, Dante Alighieri, Divine Comedy, Estella-Lizarra, French language, Fueros of Navarre, Gascony, Heir presumptive, Homage (feudal), House of Blois, Joan I of Navarre, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Navarre, List of French monarchs, List of Navarrese monarchs, Los Arcos, Louis IX of France, Luis Suárez Fernández, Margaret of Bourbon, Queen of Navarre, Pamplona, Pamplona Cathedral, Philip III of France, Philip IV of France, Philip of Castile, Purgatory, Regent, Robert I, Count of Artois, Spanish language, Theobald I of Navarre, Theobald II of Navarre, Treaty of Paris (1259), Viana, Spain, Violant of Castile.
Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i.e., a defensive low wall between chest-height and head-height), in which gaps or indentations, which are often rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences.
Blanche of Artois (Blanka; 1248 – 2 May 1302) was a member of the Capetian House of Artois who, as queen dowager, held regency over the Kingdom of Navarre and the County of Champagne.
Brie is a historic region of northern France notable in modern times for Brie cheese.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Count of Champagne was the ruler of the region of Champagne from 950 to 1316.
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
Estella (Spanish) or Lizarra (Basque) is a town located in the autonomous community of Navarre, in northern Spain.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Fueros of Navarre (Fuero General de Navarra, Nafarroako Foru Orokorra, meaning in English General Charter of Navarre) were the laws of the Kingdom of Navarre up to 1841, tracing its origins to the Early Middle Ages and issued from Basque consuetudinary law prevalent across the (western) Pyrenees.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent, male or female, or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.
Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).
The House of Blois is a lineage derived from the Frankish nobility, whose principal members were often named Theobald (Thibaud, Thibault, Thibaut in French).
Joan I of Navarre (14 January 1273 – 31 March/2 April 1305) (Basque: Joana I.a Nafarroakoa) was queen regnant of Navarre and ruling countess of Champagne from 1274 until 1305; she was also queen consort of France by marriage to Philip IV of France.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
This is a list of the kings and queens of Pamplona, later Navarre.
Los Arcos is a town and Spanish municipality, in the Chartered Community of Navarre, situated in the administrative division of Estella, in the region of East Estella and is 62km from the capital of the community, Pamplona.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Luis Suárez Fernández (born 25 June 1924 in Gijón) is a Spanish historian, originally a medievalist, who has extended his studies to include modern and recent history.
Margaret of Bourbon (Marguerite; 1217 – 12 April 1256) was Queen of Navarre and Countess of Champagne from 1232 until 1253 as the third wife of Theobald I of Navarre.
Pamplona (Pampelune) or Iruña (alternative spelling: Iruñea) is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre.
The Pamplona Cathedral (Santa María la Real) is a Roman Catholic church in the archdiocese of Pamplona, Spain.
Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (le Hardi), was King of France from 1270 to 1285, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
Philip of Castile (Felipe de Castilla y Suabia; 1231 – 28 November 1274) was an Infante of Castile and son of Ferdinand III, King of Castile and León, and his first queen, Beatrice of Swabia.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Robert I (25 September 1216 – 8 February 1250), called the Good, was the first Count of Artois, the fifth (and second surviving) son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Theobald I (Thibaut, Teobaldo; 30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), also called the Troubadour and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234.
Theobald II (Tibalt II.a, Teobaldo II; c. 1239 - 4 December, 1270) was King of Navarre and also Count of Champagne and Brie, ruling as Theobald V (Thibaud V), from 1253 until his death in 1270.
The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on 4 December 1259 ending 100 years of conflicts between the Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.
Viana is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain.
Violant of Castile (Violante de Castilla y Aragón; 1265–1287/1308), infanta of Castile and Lady of Biscay on her marriage to Diego López V de Haro.