314 relations: Abbot, Act Concerning Peter's Pence and Dispensations, Act of Parliament, Acts of Supremacy, Admiralty, Affinity (canon law), Albert Pollard, Alison Weir, Ambrose Lupo, Anglicanism, Anglo-Irish people, Anne Boleyn, Anne of Cleves, Anne Stafford, Countess of Huntingdon, Annulment, Anthony St Leger (Lord Deputy of Ireland), Antonia Fraser, Aquitaine, Archbishop of Canterbury, Arquebus, Arthur, Prince of Wales, Attainder, Ballantine Books, Battle of Flodden, Battle of Pavia, Battle of Solway Moss, Battle of the Solent, Battle of the Spurs, Berkshire, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Bill (weapon), Bill of attainder, Bishop of Exeter, Book of Common Prayer, Book of Leviticus, Calais, Canterbury Cathedral, Carlisle, Cumbria, Carthusian Martyrs, Catherine Carey, Catherine Howard, Catherine of Aragon, Catherine of Valois, Catherine Parr, Catholic Church, Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, Cestui que, Chaperone (social), Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, Charles I of England, ..., Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Christ Church, Oxford, Christmas carol, Church of England, Church of Ireland, Cinque Ports, Connacht, Consummation, Cornwall, Crown of Ireland Act 1542, Cultural depictions of Henry VIII of England, Curia regis, David Loades, David Starkey, Defence of the Seven Sacraments, Device Forts, Dice, Dissolution of the Monasteries, Divine right of kings, Dover, Dover Castle, Dowry, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of York, Dunstable Priory, Earl Marshal, Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, Edmund Dudley, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, Edward IV of England, Edward Poynings, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, Edward VI of England, Eleanor of Austria, Elizabeth Blount, Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth of York, Elizabeth Woodville, Enabling act, England and Wales, English claims to the French throne, English monarchs' family tree, English Reformation, English Reformation Parliament, Excommunication, Excommunication (Catholic Church), Executor, False pregnancy, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Fidei defensor, Fief, Field of the Cloth of Gold, First Succession Act, Fleur-de-lis, France, Francis Dereham, Francis I of France, Francis I, Duke of Lorraine, Franciscans, Geoffrey Elton, George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford, Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, Gout, Grace (style), Gray's Inn, Great Bible, Greensleeves, Greenwich, Hampton Court Palace, Hans Holbein the Younger, Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset, Henry II of England, Henry IV of England, Henry VII of England, Henry, Duke of Cornwall, Heraldry, High treason, History of the Constitution of the United Kingdom, Holy See, House of Lords, House of Tudor, House of York, Inventory of Henry VIII of England, Isabella I of Castile, Issue (genealogy), Italian War of 1542–46, Jack Scarisbrick, Jacquetta of Luxembourg, James FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Desmond, James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault, James IV of Scotland, James V of Scotland, James VI and I, Jane Seymour, John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, John Fisher, John Guy (historian), Jousting, Kell antigen system, Kent, King's College Chapel, Cambridge, Kingdom of Burgundy, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Ireland, Lacey Baldwin Smith, Lady-in-waiting, Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, Leinster, List of Acts of the Parliament of England, 1485–1601, List of English consorts, List of English monarchs, List of rulers of Lorraine, List of wives of King Henry VIII, Liturgy, London, Longbow, Lord, Lord Darcy, Lord Deputy of Ireland, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Protector, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, Lord Warden of the Marches, Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, Lordship of Ireland, Lorenzo Campeggio, Los Angeles Times, Louis XII of France, Lute, Lutheranism, Madge Shelton, Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso, Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, Margaret Tudor, Martin Luther, Mary Boleyn, Mary FitzRoy, Duchess of Richmond and Somerset, Mary I of England, Mary Rose, Mary Shelton, Mary Tudor, Queen of France, Mary, Queen of Scots, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, McLeod syndrome, Militia, Miscarriage, Monarchy of Ireland, Montreuil, Pas-de-Calais, Munster, Muster (military), Nicholas Carew (courtier), Nonsuch Palace, Oath of Supremacy, Oatlands Palace, Order of the Bath, Order of the Garter, Order of the Golden Fleece, Owen Tudor, Palace of Placentia, Palace of Westminster, Palace of Whitehall, Papal supremacy, Parliament of Ireland, Parliament of Scotland, Pastime with Good Company, Patronage, Philip II of Spain, Piers Butler, 8th Earl of Ormond, Pike (weapon), Pilgrimage of Grace, Pillory, Polymath, Pope Adrian IV, Pope Clement VII, Pope Julius II, Pope Leo X, Pope Paul III, Portcullis, Portrait of Henry VIII, Praemunire, Prince of Wales, Prior, Privy council, Proclamation by the Crown Act 1539, Real tennis, Richard de la Pole, Richard Empson, Richard Foxe, Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich, Richard Sampson, Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, Robert Aske (political leader), Robert Barnes (martyr), Rough Wooing, Royal Navy, Royal prerogative, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, Scottish Royal tapestry collection, Scurvy, Second Succession Act, Sight-reading, Solicitor General for England and Wales, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Star Chamber, Statute in Restraint of Appeals, Stillbirth, Style of the British sovereign, Style of the French sovereign, Submission of the Clergy, Suffragan Bishops Act 1534, Supplication against the Ordinaries, Suppression of Religious Houses Act 1535, Supreme Head of the Church of England, Sweating sickness, Syphilis, Ten Commandments, Thérouanne, The 1511 Westminster Tournament Roll, The London Encyclopaedia, The Pale, Thirty-nine Articles, Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden, Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond, Thomas Cranmer, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Culpeper, Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare, Thomas Gerrard, Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset, Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, Thomas More, Thomas Wolsey, Tonnage and poundage, Tournai, Tower Green, Tower of London, Treasons Act 1534, Treaty of Greenwich, Treaty of London (1518), Treaty of the More, Trinity College, Cambridge, Tudor navy, Tudor period, Tudor rose, Ulster, Valor Ecclesiasticus, Virginals, Wales, War of the League of Cambrai, War wagon, Westminster Abbey, William de Berkeley, 1st Marquess of Berkeley, William Knight (bishop), William Scott (died 1524), William Tyndale, William Warham, William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, Windsor Castle. 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Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
The Ecclesiastical Licences Act 1533 (25 Hen 8 c 21), also known as the Act Concerning Peter's Pence and Dispensations, is an Act of the Parliament of England.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
The Acts of Supremacy are two acts of the Parliament of England passed in 1534 and 1559 which established King Henry VIII of England and subsequent monarchs as the supreme head of the Church of England.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
In Catholic canon law, affinity is an impediment to marriage of a couple due to the relationship which either party has as a result of a kinship relationship created by another marriage or as a result of extramarital intercourse.
Albert Frederick Pollard (16 December 1869 – 3 August 1948) was a British historian who specialized in the Tudor period.
Alison Weir (born 8 July 1951) is a British writer of history books, and latterly historical novels, mostly in the form of biographies about British royalty.
Ambrose, Ambrosius or Ambrosio Lupo (died 10 February 1591) was a court musician and composer to the English court from the time of Henry VIII to that of Elizabeth I, and the first of a dynasty of such court musicians.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anglo-Irish is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify a social class in Ireland, whose members are mostly the descendants and successors of the English Protestant Ascendancy.
Anne Boleyn (1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII.
Anne of Cleves (Anna von Kleve; 22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557) was Queen of England from 6 January to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII.
Anne Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon (née Lady Anne Stafford) (c. 1483–1544) was the daughter of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, and Lady Katherine Woodville.
Annulment is a legal procedure within secular and religious legal systems for declaring a marriage null and void.
Sir Anthony St Leger, KG (or Sellenger; 1496 – 16 March 1559), of Ulcombe and Leeds Castle in Kent, was an English politician and Lord Deputy of Ireland during the Tudor period.
Lady Antonia Margaret Caroline Fraser, (née Pakenham; born 27 August 1932) is a British author of history, novels, biographies and detective fiction.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century.
Arthur Tudor (19 September 1486 – 2 April 1502) was Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Duke of Cornwall.
In English criminal law, attainder or attinctura was the metaphorical "stain" or "corruption of blood" which arose from being condemned for a serious capital crime (felony or treason).
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
The Battle of Flodden, Flodden Field, or occasionally Branxton (Brainston Moor) was a military combat in the War of the League of Cambrai between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, resulting in an English victory.
The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–26.
The Battle of Solway Moss took place on Solway Moss near the River Esk on the English side of the Anglo-Scottish border in November 1542 between English and Scottish forces.
The naval Battle of the Solent took place on 18 and 19 July 1545 during the Italian Wars between the fleets of Francis I of France and Henry VIII of England, in the Solent between Hampshire and the Isle of Wight.
The Battle of the Spurs, or Battle of Guinegate, took place on 16 August 1513.
Berkshire (abbreviated Berks, in the 17th century sometimes spelled Barkeshire as it is pronounced) is a county in south east England, west of London and is one of the home counties.
Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.
The bill is a polearm weapon used by infantry in medieval Europe.
A bill of attainder (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder or bill of pains and penalties) is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them, often without a trial.
The Bishop of Exeter is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Exeter in the Province of Canterbury.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England.
Carlisle (or from Cumbric: Caer Luel Cathair Luail) is the county town of Cumbria.
The Carthusian martyrs are those members of the Carthusian monastic order who have been persecuted and killed because of their Christian faith and their adherence to the Catholic religion.
Catherine Carey, after her marriage Catherine Knollys and later Lady Knollys (c. 1524 – 15 January 1569), was chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I, who was her first cousin.
Catherine Howard (– 13 February 1542) was Queen of England from 1540 until 1541, as the fifth wife of Henry VIII.
Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur.
Catherine of Valois (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437) was the queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422.
Catherine Parr (alternatively spelled Katherine, Katheryn or Katharine, signed 'Katheryn the Quene KP') was Queen of England and Ireland (1543–47) as the last of the six wives of King Henry VIII, and the final queen consort of the House of Tudor.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cecily Neville, Duchess of York (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495) was an English noblewoman, the wife of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (1411–1460), and the mother of two kings of England, Edward IV and Richard III.
Cestui que (also cestuy que, "cestui a que") is a shortened version of cestui a que use le feoffment fuit fait, literally, "The person for whose use the feoffment was made." It is a Law French phrase of medieval English invention, which appears in the legal phrases cestui que trust, cestui que use, or cestui que vie.
A chaperone (also spelled chaperon) in its original social usage was a person who for propriety's sake accompanied an unmarried girl in public: usually she was an older married woman, and most commonly the girl's own mother.
Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, 1st Viscount Lisle, (22 August 1545) was the son of Sir William Brandon and Elizabeth Bruyn.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Christ Church (Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ædēs, of Christ, and thus sometimes known as "The House") is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.
A Christmas carol (also called a noël, from the French word meaning "Christmas") is a carol (song or hymn) whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, and which is traditionally sung on Christmas itself or during the surrounding holiday season.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The Confederation of Cinque Ports is a historic series of coastal towns in Kent and Sussex.
ConnachtPage five of An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Contaetha agus Cúigí) 2003 clearly lists the official spellings of the names of the four provinces of the country with Connacht listed for both languages; when used without the term 'The province of' / 'Cúige'.
In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage, often called simply consummation, is the first (or first officially credited) act of sexual intercourse between two people, either following their marriage to each other or after a prolonged romantic attraction.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 is an Act of the Parliament of Ireland (33 Hen. 8 c. 1) which created the title of King of Ireland for King Henry VIII of England and his successors, who previously ruled the island as Lord of Ireland.
Henry VIII of England and his reign have been depicted in art, film, literature, music, opera, plays, and television.
Curia regis is a Latin term meaning "royal council" or "king's court." It was the name given to councils of advisors and administrators who served early French kings as well as to those serving Norman and later kings of England.
David Michael Loades (19 January 1934 – 21 April 2016) Retrieved 2011-03-11 was a British historian specialising in the Tudor era.
David Robert StarkeyStarkey had his middle name in 1986 when he stood for election but it was not mentioned when he was awarded his CBE in 2007.
The Defence of the Seven Sacraments (in Latin: Assertio Septem Sacramentorum) is a theological treatise published in 1521, written by King Henry VIII of England, allegedly with the assistance of Thomas More.
The Device Forts, also known as Henrician castles and blockhouses, were a series of artillery fortifications built to defend the coast of England and Wales by Henry VIII.
Dice (singular die or dice; from Old French dé; from Latin datum "something which is given or played") are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
Dover Castle is a medieval castle in Dover, Kent, England.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Duke of Cornwall is a title in the Peerage of England, traditionally held by the eldest son of the reigning British monarch, previously the English monarch.
The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Priory Church of St Peter with its monastery (Dunstable Priory) was founded in 1132 by Henry I for Augustinian Canons in Dunstable, Bedfordshire, England.
Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal, Marischal or Marshall) is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England (then, following the Act of Union 1800, in the United Kingdom).
Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, 6th Earl of Suffolk, KG (c.1471 – 30 April 1513), Duke of Suffolk, was a son of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk and his wife Elizabeth of York.
Edmund Dudley (c. 1462Gunn 2010 or 1471/1472 – 17 August 1510) was an English administrator and a financial agent of King Henry VII.
Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (Welsh: Edmwnd Tudur, 11 June 1430 – 3 November 1456, also known as Edmund of Hadham), was the father of King Henry VII of England and a member of the Tudor family of Penmynydd, North Wales.
Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death.
Sir Edward Poynings KG (1459 – 22 October 1521) was an English soldier, administrator and diplomat, and Lord Deputy of Ireland under King Henry VII of England.
Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. 1500 – 22 January 1552) was Lord Protector of England during part of the Tudor period from 1547 until 1549 during the minority of his nephew, King Edward VI (1547–1553).
Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham (3 February 1478 – 17 May 1521) was an English nobleman.
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
Eleanor of Austria (15 November 1498 – 25 February 1558), also called Eleanor of Castile, was born an Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Castile from the House of Habsburg, and subsequently became Queen consort of Portugal (1518–1521) and of France (1530–1547).
Elizabeth Blount (// – 1539/1540), commonly known during her lifetime as Bessie Blount, was a mistress of Henry VIII of England.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was the wife of Henry VII and the first Tudor queen.
Elizabeth Woodville (also spelled Wydville, Wydeville, or WidvileAlthough spelling of the family name is usually modernised to "Woodville", it was spelled "Wydeville" in contemporary publications by Caxton and her tomb at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle is inscribed thus; "Edward IV and his Queen Elizabeth Widvile".) (c. 1437Karen Lindsey, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived, xviii, Perseus Books, 1995 – 8 June 1492) was Queen consort of England as the spouse of King Edward IV from 1464 until his death in 1483.
An enabling act is a piece of legislation by which a legislative body grants an entity which depends on it (for authorization or legitimacy) the power to take certain actions.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
This is the English monarchs' family tree for England (and Wales after 1282) from Alfred the Great to Elizabeth I of England.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
The English Reformation Parliament, which sat from 3 November 1529 to 14 April 1536, was the English Parliament that passed the major pieces of legislation leading to the Break with Rome and establishment of the Church of England.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
For the canonical penalty of excommunication as regulated by the Code of Canon Law of 1917 and the present Code, see excommunication#Catholic Church.
An executor is someone who is responsible for executing, or following through on, an assigned task or duty.
False pregnancy, also known as phantom, hysterical pregnancy, pregnancy scares or pseudocyesis, is the appearance of clinical or subclinical signs and symptoms associated with pregnancy when the person is not actually pregnant.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
The Field of the Cloth of Gold (Camp du Drap d'Or) was a site in Balinghem between Ardres in France and Guînes in the then-English Pale of Calais that hosted a summit from 7 to 24 June 1520, between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France.
The First Succession Act of Henry VIII's reign was passed by the Parliament of England in March 1534.
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Dereham (c 1513 – executed) was a Tudor courtier whose involvement with Henry VIII's fifth Queen, Catherine Howard in her youth, was a principal cause of the Queen's execution.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Francis I (François Ier de Lorraine) (23 August 1517 – 12 June 1545) was Duke of Lorraine from 1544–1545.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Sir Geoffrey Rudolph Elton (born Gottfried Rudolf Otto Ehrenberg; 17 August 1921 – 4 December 1994) was a German-born British political and constitutional historian, specialising in the Tudor period.
George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford (c.1503 /c. April 1504 – 17 May 1536) was an English courtier and nobleman, and the brother of queen consort Anne Boleyn.
Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare KG (born –), known variously as "Garret the Great" (Gearóid Mór) or "The Great Earl" (An tIarla Mór), was Ireland's premier peer.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
His Grace or Her Grace is an English style used for various high-ranking personages.
The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London.
The Great Bible of 1539 was the first authorized edition of the Bible in English, authorized by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England.
"Greensleeves" is a traditional English folk song and tune, over a ground either of the form called a romanesca; or its slight variant, the passamezzo antico; or the passamezzo antico in its verses and the romanesca in its reprise; or of the Andalusian progression in its verses and the romanesca or passamezzo antico in its reprise.
Greenwich is an area of south east London, England, located east-southeast of Charing Cross.
Hampton Court Palace is a royal palace in the borough of Richmond upon Thames, London, England, south west and upstream of central London on the River Thames.
Hans Holbein the Younger (Hans Holbein der Jüngere) (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century.
Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon KG (4 March 1526 – 23 July 1596), was an English nobleman and courtier.
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset (15 June 1519 – 23 July 1536), was the son of King Henry VIII of England and his mistress, Elizabeth Blount, and the only illegitimate offspring whom Henry VIII acknowledged.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry, Duke of Cornwall (1 January – 22 February 1511), was the first child of King Henry VIII of England and his first wife Catherine of Aragon.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
The Constitution of the United Kingdom has evolved over a long period of time beginning in the predecessor states to the United Kingdom and continuing to the present day.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet.
The Inventory of Henry VIII of England compiled in 1547 is a list of the possessions of the crown, now in the British Library as Harley Ms.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
In genealogy and wills, issue refers to a person's lineal descendants.
The Italian War of 1542–46 was a conflict late in the Italian Wars, pitting Francis I of France and Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England.
Professor John Joseph Scarisbrick MBE FRHistS (often shortened to J.J. Scarisbrick) is a British historian who taught at the University of Warwick.
Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Countess Rivers (1415/1416 – 30 May 1472) was the eldest daughter of Peter I of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, Conversano and Brienne, and his wife Margaret of Baux (Margherita del Balzo of Andria).
James FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Desmond (d. 1529) was the son of Maurice FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Desmond.
James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault and 2nd Earl of Arran (c. 1516 – 22 January 1575), was a regent for Mary, Queen of Scots.
James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death.
James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jane Seymour (c. 150824 October 1537) was Queen of England from 1536 to 1537 as the third wife of King Henry VIII.
John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, (1403 – 27 May 1444) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
John Fisher (c. 19 October 1469 – 22 June 1535), venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop, cardinal, and theologian.
John Alexander Guy (born 16 January 1949) is a British historian and biographer.
Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament.
The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell–Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
King's College Chapel is the chapel at King's College in the University of Cambridge.
Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
Lacey Baldwin Smith (1922 – September 8, 2013) was an historian and author specialising in 16th-century England.
A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman.
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nghymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.
Leinster (— Laighin / Cúige Laighean — /) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland.
This is a list of Acts of the Parliament of England for the years 1485–1601 (i.e. during the reign of the House of Tudor).
The English royal consorts were the spouses of the reigning monarchs of the Kingdom of England who were not themselves monarchs of England: spouses of some English monarchs who were themselves English monarchs are not listed, comprising Mary I and Philip who reigned together in the 16th century, and William III and Mary II who reigned together in the 17th century.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
The rulers of Lorraine have held different posts under different governments over different regions.
In legal terms, Henry VIII of England had only three wives, because three of his putative marriages were annulled.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A longbow is a type of bow that is tall – roughly equal to the height of the user – allowing the archer a fairly long draw, at least to the jaw.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
Lord Darcy may refer to.
The Lord Deputy was the representative of the monarch and head of the Irish executive under English rule, during the Lordship of Ireland and then the Kingdom of Ireland.
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922.
Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protectors) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for the head of state.
The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom.
The Lord Warden of the Marches was an office in the governments of Scotland and England.
The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom are the 26 bishops of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal.
In the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Lords Temporal are secular members of the House of Lords.
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
Lorenzo Campeggio (1474–1539) was an Italian cardinal and politician.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Margaret Shelton (likely died before 1555) was the sister of Mary Shelton, and may have been a mistress of Henry VIII of England.
Margaret Beauchamp (c. 1410 – before 3 June 1482) was the daughter of Sir John Beauchamp, de jure 3rd Baron Beauchamp of Bletsoe, and his second wife, Edith Stourton.
Lady Margaret Beaufort (usually pronounced:,; or), later Countess of Richmond and Derby (31 May 1441/1443 – 29 June 1509), was the mother of King Henry VII and paternal grandmother of King Henry VIII of England.
Margaret Tudor (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541) was Queen of Scots from 1503 until 1513 by marriage to James IV of Scotland and then, after her husband died fighting the English, she became regent for their son James V of Scotland from 1513 until 1515.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Mary Boleyn, also known as Lady Mary (c. 1499/1500 – 19 July 1543), was the sister of English queen Anne Boleyn, whose family enjoyed considerable influence during the reign of King Henry VIII.
Mary FitzRoy, Duchess of Richmond and Somerset (Howard; 1519 – 7 December 1557), born Lady Mary Howard, was the only daughter-in-law of King Henry VIII of England, being the wife of his only acknowledged illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
The Mary Rose is a carrack-type warship of the English Tudor navy of King Henry VIII.
Mary Shelton (1510×15–1570/71) was one of the contributors to the Devonshire manuscript.
Mary Tudor (18 March 1496 – 25 June 1533) was an English princess who was briefly Queen of France and later progenitor of a family that claimed the English throne.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
McLeod syndrome (or McLeod phenomenon) is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder that may affect the blood, brain, peripheral nerves, muscle, and heart.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
Montreuil or Montreuil-sur-Mer is a sub-prefecture in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Munster (an Mhumhain / Cúige Mumhan,.
The term muster means the process or event of accounting for members in a military unit.
Sir Nicholas Carew (c. 1496–3 March 1539), KG, of Beddington in Surrey, was an English courtier and diplomat during the reign of King Henry VIII.
Nonsuch Palace was a Tudor royal palace, built by Henry VIII in Surrey, England; it stood from 1538 to 1682–83.
The Oath of Supremacy required any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
Oatlands Palace is a former Tudor and Stuart royal palace which took the place of the former manor of the village of Oatlands in Surrey, England.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro, Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella.
Sir Owen Tudor (Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur,Tudur is sometimes given as Tewdwr, an etymologically unrelated name, see House of Tudor#Ascent to the throne for details. 1400 – 2 February 1461) was a Welsh courtier and the second husband of Catherine of Valois (1401–1437), Henry V's widow.
The Palace of Placentia was an English Royal Palace built by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, in 1443, in Greenwich, on the banks of the River Thames, downstream from London.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Palace of Whitehall (or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House of 1622, were destroyed by fire.
Papal supremacy is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that the Pope, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ and as pastor of the entire Christian Church, has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered: that, in brief, "the Pope enjoys, by divine institution, supreme, full, immediate, and universal power in the care of souls." The doctrine had the most significance in the relationship between the church and the temporal state, in matters such as ecclesiastic privileges, the actions of monarchs and even successions.
The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
"Pastime with Good Company", also known as "The King's Ballad" ("The Kynges Balade"), is an English folk song written by King Henry VIII in the beginning of the 16th century, shortly after his coronation.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Piers Butler, 8th Earl of Ormond, 1st Earl of Ossory (1467 – 26 August, 1539) also known as (Irish Piers Ruadh) Red Piers, was from the Polestown branch of the Butler family of Ireland.
A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry.
The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular uprising that began in Yorkshire in October 1536, before spreading to other parts of Northern England including Cumberland, Northumberland and north Lancashire, under the leadership of lawyer Robert Aske.
The pillory was a device made of a wooden or metal framework erected on a post, with holes for securing the head and hands, formerly used for punishment by public humiliation and often further physical abuse.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
Pope Clement VII (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
A portcullis (from the French porte coulissante, "sliding door") is a heavy vertically-closing gate typically found in medieval fortifications, consisting of a latticed grille made of wood, metal, or a combination of the two, which slides down grooves inset within each jamb of the gateway.
Portrait of Henry VIII is a lost work by Hans Holbein the Younger depicting Henry VIII.
In English history, praemunire or praemunire facias was a 14th-century law that prohibited the assertion or maintenance of papal jurisdiction, imperial or foreign, or some other alien jurisdiction or claim of supremacy in England, against the supremacy of the monarch.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", (or prioress for nuns) is an ecclesiastical title for a superior, usually lower in rank than an abbot or abbess.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The Proclamation by the Crown Act 1539 (31 Hen. 8 c. 8; also known as the Statute of Proclamations) was a law enacted by the English Reformation Parliament of Henry VIII.
Real tennis – one of several games sometimes called "the sport of kings" – is the original racquet sport from which the modern game of tennis (originally called "lawn tennis") is derived.
Richard de la Pole (1480 – 24 February 1525) was a pretender to the English crown.
Sir Richard Empson (c. 1450 – 17 August 1510), minister of Henry VII, was a son of Peter Empson.
Richard Foxe (sometimes Richard Fox) (1448 – 5 October 1528) was an English churchman, successively Bishop of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester, Lord Privy Seal, and founder of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
Richard of York (also known as Richard Plantagenet), 3rd Duke of York KG (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460), was a leading medieval English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother.
Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich (1496/97 – 12 June 1567), was Lord Chancellor during the reign of King Edward VI of England from 1547 until January 1552.
Richard Sampson (died 25 September 1554) was an English clergyman and composer of sacred music, who was Anglican bishop of Chichester and subsequently of Coventry and Lichfield.
Richard Woodville (or Wydeville), 1st Earl Rivers (1405 – 12 August 1469) was an English nobleman, best remembered as the father of Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville and the maternal grandfather of Edward V and the maternal great-grandfather of Henry VIII.
Robert Aske (1500 – 12 July 1537) was an English lawyer, who became a leader of rebellion in Yorkshire.
Robert Barnes (c. 1495 – 30 July 1540) was an English reformer and martyr.
The Rough Wooing (December 1543 – March 1551) was a war between Scotland and England.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (Modern Irish: Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, or, Ruairí Ó Conchúir; commonly anglicised as Rory O'Connor or Roderic O'Connor) (c. 1116 – 2 December 1198) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1193.
The Scottish royal tapestry collection was a group of tapestry hangings assembled to decorate the palaces of sixteenth-century kings and queens of Scotland.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
The Second Succession Act was a piece of legislation passed by the Parliament of England in June 1536, during the reign of Henry VIII.
Sight-reading, also called a prima vista (Italian meaning "at first sight"), is the reading and performing of a piece of music or song in music notation that the performer has not seen before.
Her Majesty's Solicitor General for England and Wales, known informally as the Solicitor General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Attorney General, whose duty is to advise the Crown and Cabinet on the law.
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style.
The Star Chamber (Latin: Camera stellata) was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters.
The Ecclesiastical Appeals Act 1532 (24 Hen 8 c 12), also called the Statute in Restraint of Appeals and the Act of Appeals, was an Act of the Parliament of England.
Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
The precise style of British sovereigns has varied over the years.
The precise style of French Sovereigns varied over the years.
The Submission of the Clergy was a process by which the Church of England gave up their power to formulate church laws without the King's licence and assent.
The Suffragan Bishops Act 1534 (26 Hen 8 c 14) is an Act of the Parliament of England that authorised the appointment of suffragan (i.e., assistant) bishops in England and Wales.
The Supplication against the Ordinaries was a petition passed by the House of Commons in 1532.
The Suppression of Religious Houses Act 1535 (27 Hen 8 c 28), also referred to as the Act for the Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries and as the Dissolution of Lesser Monasteries Act, was an Act of the Parliament of England.
The Supreme Head of the Church of England was a title created in 1531 for King Henry VIII of England, who was responsible for the foundation of the English Protestant church that broke away from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church after Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry in 1533 over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
Sweating sickness, also known as "English sweating sickness" or "English sweate" (sudor anglicus), was a mysterious and highly contagious disease that struck England, and later continental Europe, in a series of epidemics beginning in 1485.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.
Thérouanne (Dutch: Terwaan; French Flemish Terenburg) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
The 1511 Westminster Tournament Roll is a painted roll of 36 vellum membranes sewn together.
The London Encyclopaedia, first published in 1983, is a 1100-page historical reference work, on the United Kingdom's capital city, London.
The Pale (An Pháil in Irish) or the English Pale (An Pháil Shasanach or An Ghalltacht) was the part of Ireland that was directly under the control of the English government in the late Middle Ages.
The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation.
Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden KG, PC, KS (30 April 1544), was an English barrister and judge who served as Lord Chancellor of England from 1533 to 1544.
Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond, P.C. (1426 – 3 August, 1515) was the youngest son of James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond.
Thomas Cranmer (2 July 1489 – 21 March 1556) was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540.
Thomas Culpeper (1514 – 10 December 1541) was a courtier and close friend of Henry VIII, and related to two of his queens, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard.
Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare (1513 – 3 February, 1537), also known as Silken Thomas, was a leading figure in 16th-century Irish history.
Thomas Gerard (1500?–1540) (Gerrard, also Garret or Garrard) was an English Protestant reformer.
Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset (22 June 1477 – 10 October 1530) was an English peer, courtier, soldier and landowner.
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443 – 21 May 1524), styled Earl of Surrey from 1483 to 1485 and again from 1489 to 1514, was an English nobleman and politician.
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1473 – 25 August 1554) (Earl of Surrey from 1514), was a prominent Tudor politician.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530; sometimes spelled Woolsey or Wulcy) was an English churchman, statesman and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Tonnage and Poundage were certain duties and taxes first levied in Edward II's reign on every tun (cask) of imported wine, which came mostly from Spain and Portugal, and on every pound weight of merchandise exported or imported.
Tournai (Latin: Tornacum, Picard: Tornai), known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt.
Tower Green is a space within the Tower of London, a royal castle in London, where two English Queens consort and several other British nobles were executed by beheading.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Treasons Act 1534 (26 Hen. 8. c. 13) was an Act passed by the Parliament of England in 1534, during the reign of King Henry VIII.
The Treaty of Greenwich (also known as the Treaties of Greenwich) contained two agreements both signed on 1 July 1543 in Greenwich between representatives of England and Scotland.
The Treaty of London in 1518 was a non-aggression pact between the major European nations.
The Treaty of the More was concluded on 30 August 1525 between Henry VIII and the interim French government of Louise of Savoy.
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.
The Tudor navy was the navy of the Kingdom of England under the ruling Tudor dynasty (1485–1603).
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.
The Tudor rose (sometimes called the Union rose) is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
The Valor Ecclesiasticus (Latin: "church valuation") was a survey of the finances of the church in England, Wales and English controlled parts of Ireland made in 1535 on the orders of Henry VIII.
The virginals or virginal is a keyboard instrument of the harpsichord family.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars.
The Dongwu Che "war wagon" was a mobile armored cart used in Ancient China from the 5th century BC.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
William de Berkeley, 1st Marquess of Berkeley (1426 – 14 February 1492) was an English peer, given the epithet "The Waste-All" by the family biographer and steward John Smyth of Nibley.
William Knight (1475/76 – 1547) was the Secretary of State to Henry VIII of England, and Bishop of Bath and Wells.
Sir William Scott of Scot's Hall in Smeeth, Kent (1459 – 24 August 1524) was Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.
William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tynsdale, Tindall, Tindill, Tyndall; &ndash) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in the Protestant Reformation in the years leading up to his execution.
William Warham (c. 1450 – 22 August 1532) was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1503 to his death.
William of Jülich-Cleves-Berge (William I of Cleves, William V of Jülich-Berg) (Wilhelm der Reiche; 28 July 1516 – 5 January 1592) was a Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1539–1592).
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Bluff Hal, Bluff King Hal, Heinrich VIII, Hen. 8, Henry 8, Henry 8th, Henry Tudor VIII, Henry VIII, Henry VIII (1491-1547), Henry VIII (1491–1547), Henry VIII (England), Henry VIII Tudor, Henry VIII kids, Henry VIII of England and Ireland, Henry VIII of Ireland, Henry VIII the Musician, Henry VIII's compositions, Henry VIII, King of England, Henry VIII, of England, Henry VIIi, Henry the 8th, Henry the Eighth, Henry the VIII, Henry the eighth, Henry viii, Henry viii of england, Henry Ⅷ, Henry, Duke of York, HenryVIII, King Henry VIII, King Henry VIII of England, King henry 8, King henry the eighth, King henry viii of england, King of England Henry VIII, King who had six wives, My Great Matter, The Early Years of Henry VIII.