203 relations: Act of Parliament, Alice FitzAlan, Countess of Kent, Alison Weir, Alum, Anglesey, Antwerp, Arthur, Prince of Wales, Auld Alliance, Avoirdupois system, Bastard feudalism, Battle of Agincourt, Battle of Bosworth Field, Battle of Stoke Field, Battle of Tewkesbury, Beaumaris Castle, Bernard André, Bert Fields, Bishop of Chichester, Bretons, British Isles, Brittany, Burgundian Netherlands, Cadwaladr, Calais, Carmarthen Castle, Catch-22 (logic), Catherine of Aragon, Catherine of Lancaster, Catherine of Valois, Catholic Church, Cestui que, Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, Charles V of France, Charles VI of France, Chemical substance, Clements Markham, Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, Constance of Castile, Duchess of Lancaster, Cornwall, Cultural depictions of Henry VII of England, Curia regis, Deheubarth, Dispensation (canon law), Dry dock, Duke of Somerset, Dye, Earl of Pembroke, Earl of Richmond, Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, Edmund Dudley, ..., Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, Ednyfed Fychan, Edward III of England, Edward IV of England, Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, Edward Story, Edward V of England, Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth of York, Elizabeth Tudor (1492–1495), Entrepôt, Exchequer, Excommunication, Flemish people, Francis Bacon, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, Francis Lovell, 1st Viscount Lovell, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, Grace (style), Gram, Hanseatic League, Heir apparent, Henry IV of England, Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Henry V of England, Henry VI of England, Henry VIII of England, High treason, HMNB Portsmouth, House of Beaufort, House of Lancaster, House of Tudor, House of York, Imperial units, Intercursus Magnus, International yard and pound, Ireland, Isabeau of Bavaria, Isabella I of Castile, James IV of Scotland, James V of Scotland, James VI and I, Janina Ramirez, Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, Joanna of Bourbon, Joanna of Castile, Joanna of Naples (1478–1518), John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln, John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, John Dynham, 1st Baron Dynham, John Morton (cardinal), John of Gaunt, Jonathan Foyle, Justice of the peace, Katherine Swynford, Knight, Lady Jane Grey, Lambert Simnel, Legitimacy (family law), Leicester, Letters patent, Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, List of English monarchs, List of French consorts, List of Scottish consorts, Lord High Treasurer, Lordship of Ireland, Louis XII of France, Low Countries, Ludlow Castle, Mab Darogan, Maredudd ap Tudur, Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso, Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, Margaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence, Margaret of York, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, Margaret Tudor, Mary Tudor, Queen of France, Mary, Queen of Scots, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Mercenary, Middle Ages, Mordant, Morton's fork, New Monarchs, Nottingham, Order of the Golden Fleece, Ottoman Empire, Owain Glyndŵr, Owen Tudor, Papal bull, Parliament of England, Peace of Étaples, Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Perkin Warbeck, Philip I of Castile, Pierre Landais, Polydore Vergil, Pope Innocent VIII, Pope Julius II, Pound (mass), Prince of Wales, Princes in the Tower, Privy council, Rennes Cathedral, Rhys ap Gruffydd, Rhys ap Tewdwr, Richard Empson, Richard Foxe, Richard II of England, Richard III of England, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, Richmond Palace, Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke, Roland de Velville, Royal Arms of England, Saint George's Cross, Stafford and Lovell rebellion, Star Chamber, Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria, Style of the British sovereign, Surrey, Sweating sickness, Taddea Visconti, Tewkesbury Abbey, Textile, Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, Titulus Regius, Tower of London, Treason Act 1495, Treaty of Medina del Campo (1489), Treaty of Perpetual Peace, Tuberculosis, Tudor navy, Tudor rose, Tudors of Penmynydd, Tudur ap Goronwy, Wars of the Roses, Westminster Abbey, William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1469), William Stanley (Battle of Bosworth). Expand index (153 more) » « Shrink index
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
Alice Holland, Countess of Kent (c. 1350 – 17 March 1416), LG, formerly Lady Alice Fitzalan, was an English noblewoman, a daughter of the 10th Earl of Arundel, and the wife of the 2nd Earl of Kent, the half-brother of King Richard II.
Alison Weir (born 8 July 1951) is a British writer of history books, and latterly historical novels, mostly in the form of biographies about British royalty.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Arthur Tudor (19 September 1486 – 2 April 1502) was Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Duke of Cornwall.
The Auld Alliance (Scots for "Old Alliance") was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France.
The avoirdupois system (abbreviated avdp) is a measurement system of weights which uses pounds and ounces as units.
Bastard feudalism is a somewhat controversial term invented by 19th century historians to characterize the form feudalism took in the Late Middle Ages, primarily in England.
The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt) was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War.
The Battle of Bosworth Field (or Battle of Bosworth) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century.
The Battle of Stoke Field on 16 June 1487 may be considered the last battle of the Wars of the Roses, since it was the last major engagement between contenders for the throne whose claims derived from descent from the houses of Lancaster and York respectively.
The Battle of Tewkesbury, which took place on 4 May 1471, was one of the decisive battles of the Wars of the Roses.
Beaumaris Castle (Castell Biwmares), located in the town of the same name on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales, was built as part of Edward I's campaign to conquer the north of Wales after 1282.
Bernard André, O.E.S.A. (1450–1522), also known as Andreas, was a French Augustinian friar and poet, who was a noted chronicler of the reign of Henry VII of England, and poet laureate.
Bertram Fields (born March 31, 1929) is an American lawyer noted for his work in the field of entertainment law.
The Bishop of Chichester is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers the counties of East and West Sussex. The see is based in the City of Chichester where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity. On 3 May 2012 the appointment was announced of Martin Warner, Bishop of Whitby, as the next Bishop of Chichester. His enthronement took place on 25 November 2012 in Chichester Cathedral. The bishop's residence is The Palace, Chichester. Since 2015, Warner has also fulfilled the diocesan-wide role of alternative episcopal oversight, following the decision by Mark Sowerby, Bishop of Horsham, to recognise the orders of priests and bishops who are women.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (Pays-Bas Bourguignons., Bourgondische Nederlanden, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482.
Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon (also spelled Cadwalader or Cadwallader in English) was king of Gwynedd in Wales from around 655 to 682.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Carmarthen Castle (Welsh: Castell Caerfyrddin) is a ruined castle in Carmarthen, West Wales, UK.
A catch-22 is a paradoxical situation from which an individual cannot escape because of contradictory rules.
Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur.
Catherine of Lancaster (Castilian: Catalina; 31 March 1373 – 2 June 1418) was Queen of Castile by marriage to King Henry III of Castile.
Catherine of Valois (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437) was the queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cestui que (also cestuy que, "cestui a que") is a shortened version of cestui a que use le feoffment fuit fait, literally, "The person for whose use the feoffment was made." It is a Law French phrase of medieval English invention, which appears in the legal phrases cestui que trust, cestui que use, or cestui que vie.
Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, 1st Viscount Lisle, (22 August 1545) was the son of Sir William Brandon and Elizabeth Bruyn.
Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called "the Wise" (le Sage; Sapiens), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.
Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422), called the Beloved (le Bien-Aimé) and the Mad (le Fol or le Fou), was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Sir Clements Robert Markham (1830 – 1916) was an English geographer, explorer, and writer.
The Company of Merchant Adventurers of London brought together London's leading overseas merchants in a regulated company in the early 15th century, in the nature of a guild.
Constance of Castile (1354 – 24 March 1394) was claimant of the Castilian throne after the death of her father Peter, King of Castile and León, also known as Peter the Cruel.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Henry VII of England has been depicted a number of times in popular culture.
Curia regis is a Latin term meaning "royal council" or "king's court." It was the name given to councils of advisors and administrators who served early French kings as well as to those serving Norman and later kings of England.
Deheubarth (lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South") was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia).
In the jurisprudence of canon law of the Catholic Church, a dispensation is the exemption from the immediate obligation of law in certain cases.
A dry dock (sometimes dry-dock or drydock) is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform.
Duke of Somerset is a title in the peerage of England that has been created several times.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
The Earldom of Pembroke is a title in the Peerage of England that was first created in the 12th century by King Stephen of England.
The now-extinct title of Earl of Richmond was created many times in the Peerage of England.
Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, KG (1406 – 22 May 1455), was an English nobleman and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses and in the Hundred Years' War.
Edmund Dudley (c. 1462Gunn 2010 or 1471/1472 – 17 August 1510) was an English administrator and a financial agent of King Henry VII.
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (Welsh: Edmwnd Tudur, 11 June 1430 – 3 November 1456, also known as Edmund of Hadham), was the father of King Henry VII of England and a member of the Tudor family of Penmynydd, North Wales.
Ednyfed Fychan (1170 – 1246), full name Ednyfed Fychan ap Cynwrig, was a Welsh warrior who became seneschal to the Kingdom of Gwynedd in Northern Wales, serving Llywelyn the Great and his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death.
Edward of Westminster (13 October 1453 – 4 May 1471), also known as Edward of Lancaster, was the only son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret of Anjou.
Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick (25 February 1475 – 28 November 1499) was the son of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, and a potential claimant to the English throne during the reigns of both Richard III (1483–1485) and his successor, Henry VII (1485–1509).
Edward Story (or Storey; died 1503) was an English priest, Bishop of Carlisle, 1468–1477, and Bishop of Chichester, 1477–1503.
Edward V (2 November 1470 –)R.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was the wife of Henry VII and the first Tudor queen.
Elizabeth Tudor (2 July 1492 – 14 September 1495) was the second daughter and fourth child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York.
An entrepôt or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again.
In the civil service of the United Kingdom, Her Majesty’s Exchequer, or just the Exchequer, is the accounting process of central government and the government's current account i.e. money held from taxation and other government revenues in the Consolidated Fund.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Francis II of Brittany (in Breton Frañsez II, in French François II) (23 June 1433 – 9 September 1488) was Duke of Brittany from 1458 to his death.
Francis Lovell, 9th Baron Lovell, 6th Baron Holand, later 1st Viscount Lovell KG (1456 – probably 1487) was an English nobleman who was an ally of King Richard III during the War of the Roses.
George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, 1st Earl of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Warwick (21 October 144918 February 1478) was the third surviving son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of English Kings Edward IV and Richard III.
Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare KG (born –), known variously as "Garret the Great" (Gearóid Mór) or "The Great Earl" (An tIarla Mór), was Ireland's premier peer.
His Grace or Her Grace is an English style used for various high-ranking personages.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland (c. 1449 – 28 April 1489) was an English aristocrat during the Wars of the Roses.
Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, KG (4 September 1454 – 2 November 1483) was an English nobleman known as the namesake of Buckingham's rebellion, a failed but significant collection of uprisings in England and parts of Wales against Richard III of England in October 1483.
Henry Stuart (or Stewart), Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567.
Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
Her Majesty's Naval Base, Portsmouth (HMNB Portsmouth) is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the British Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Clyde and HMNB Devonport).
The House of Beaufort is an English noble family, which originated in the fourteenth century and played an important role in the Wars of the Roses in the fifteenth century.
The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
The Intercursus Magnus was a major and long-lasting commercial treaty signed in February 1496 by King Henry VII of England and Duke Philip IV of Burgundy.
The international yard and pound are two units of measurement that were the subject of an agreement among representatives of six nations signed on 1 July 1959, namely the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Isabeau of Bavaria (or Isabelle; also Elisabeth of Bavaria-Ingolstadt; c. 1370 – 24 September 1435) was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death.
James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Janina Sara Maria Ramirez (née Maleczek; 7 July 1980), sometimes credited as Nina Ramirez, is a British art and cultural historian and TV presenter, based in Woodstock, Oxfordshire.
Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, Earl of Pembroke, KG (Welsh: Siasbar ab Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur ap Goronwy) (c. November 1431 – 21/26 December 1495) was the uncle of King Henry VII of England and a leading architect of his nephew's successful conquest of England and Wales in 1485.
Joanna of Bourbon (3 February 1338 – 6 February 1378) was Queen of France by marriage to King Charles V. She acted as his political adviser and was appointed potential regent in case of a minor regency.
Joanna (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555), known historically as Joanna the Mad (Juana la Loca), was Queen of Castile from 1504, and of Aragon from 1516.
Joanna of Naples (15 April 1479 – 27 August 1518) was the Queen consort of Naples by marriage to Ferdinand II of Naples.
John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, (1403 – 27 May 1444) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
John Beaufort, 1st Marquess of Somerset and 1st Marquess of Dorset, later only 1st Earl of Somerset, KG (c. 1373 – 16 March 1410) was an English nobleman and politician.
John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln (1462/1464 – 16 June 1487) was a leading figure in the Yorkist aristocracy during the Wars of the Roses.
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford (8 September 1442 – 10 March 1513), the second son of John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, and Elizabeth Howard, was one of the principal Lancastrian commanders during the English Wars of the Roses.
John Dynham, 1st Baron Dynham (c. 1433–1501) of Nutwell in the parish of Woodbury and of Hartland, both in Devon, was an English peer and politician.
John Morton (c.1420 – 15 September 1500) was an English prelate who served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1486 until his death and also Lord Chancellor of England from 1487.
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English nobleman, soldier, statesman, and prince, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England.
Jonathan Foyle is an architectural historian, broadcaster and advocate for heritage sites.
A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.
Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster (25 November 1350 – 10 May 1403) (also spelled Katharine or Catherine), was the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Lady Jane Grey (Her exact date of birth is uncertain; many historians agree on the long-held estimate of 1537 while others set it in the later half of 1536 based on newer research. – 12 February 1554), known also as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as "the Nine Days' Queen", was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.
Lambert Simnel (c. 1477 – c. 1525) was a pretender to the throne of England.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, KG (29 November 133817 October 1368) was the third son, but the second son to survive infancy, of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
This is a list of the women who have been queens consort or empresses consort of the French monarchy.
The consorts of the monarchs of Scotland bore titles derived from their marriage.
The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Acts of Union of 1707.
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Ludlow Castle is a ruined medieval fortification in the town of the same name in the English county of Shropshire, standing on a promontory overlooking the River Teme.
Y Mab Darogan (meaning "The Destined/Prophesised Son" or "Son of Destiny") is a messianic figure of Welsh legend, destined to force the English out of Britain and reclaim it for its Celtic inhabitants.
Maredudd ap Tudur (died c. 1406) was a Welsh soldier and nobleman from the Tudor family of Penmynydd.
Margaret Beauchamp (c. 1410 – before 3 June 1482) was the daughter of Sir John Beauchamp, de jure 3rd Baron Beauchamp of Bletsoe, and his second wife, Edith Stourton.
Lady Margaret Beaufort (usually pronounced:,; or), later Countess of Richmond and Derby (31 May 1441/1443 – 29 June 1509), was the mother of King Henry VII and paternal grandmother of King Henry VIII of England.
Margaret Holland, Countess of Somerset (1385 – 31 December 1439) was the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, who was the son of Joan "the Fair Maid of Kent" (granddaughter of Edward I of England, wife of Edward the Black Prince and mother of Richard II of England).
Margaret of York (3 May 1446 – 23 November 1503)—also by marriage known as Margaret of Burgundy—was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Charles the Bold and acted as a protector of the duchy after his death.
Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury (14 August 1473 – 27 May 1541), was an English peeress.
Margaret Tudor (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541) was Queen of Scots from 1503 until 1513 by marriage to James IV of Scotland and then, after her husband died fighting the English, she became regent for their son James V of Scotland from 1513 until 1515.
Mary Tudor (18 March 1496 – 25 June 1533) was an English princess who was briefly Queen of France and later progenitor of a family that claimed the English throne.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A mordant or dye fixative is a substance used to set (i.e. bind) dyes on fabrics by forming a coordination complex with the dye, which then attaches to the fabric (or tissue).
A Morton's fork is a type of false dilemma in which contradictory observations lead to the same conclusion.
The New Monarchs was a concept developed by European historians during the first half of the 20th century to characterize 15th-century European rulers who unified their respective nations, creating stable and centralized governments.
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro, Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Owain Glyndŵr (c. 1359 – c. 1415), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, was a Welsh ruler and the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) but to many, viewed as an unofficial king.
Sir Owen Tudor (Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur,Tudur is sometimes given as Tewdwr, an etymologically unrelated name, see House of Tudor#Ascent to the throne for details. 1400 – 2 February 1461) was a Welsh courtier and the second husband of Catherine of Valois (1401–1437), Henry V's widow.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Peace of Etaples was signed in Étaples (northern France) between the kings Charles VIII Valois of France and Henry VII Tudor of England on 3 November 1492.
Pembroke Castle (Castell Penfro) is a medieval castle in Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, West Wales.
Pembrokeshire (or; Sir Benfro) is a county in the southwest of Wales.
Perkin Warbeck (c. 1474 – 23 November 1499) was a pretender to the English throne.
Philip I (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506) called the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile.
Pierre Landais (1430-1485) was a Breton politician who became the principal adviser and chief minister to Francis II, Duke of Brittany.
Polidoro Virgili, commonly Latinised as Polydorus Vergilius, or anglicised as Polydore Vergil (or Virgil), and often known as Polydore Vergil of Urbino (c. 1470 – 18 April 1555) was an Italian humanist scholar, historian, priest and diplomat, who spent most of his life in England.
Pope Innocent VIII (Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
"The Princes in the Tower" is an expression frequently used to refer to Edward V, King of England and Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
Rennes Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Rennes) is a Roman Catholic church located in the town of Rennes, France.
Rhys ap Gruffydd or ap Gruffudd (often anglicised to "Griffith") (1132 – 28 April 1197) was the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1155 to 1197.
Rhys ap Tewdwr (before 1065 – 1093) was a king of Deheubarth in Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great.
Sir Richard Empson (c. 1450 – 17 August 1510), minister of Henry VII, was a son of Peter Empson.
Richard Foxe (sometimes Richard Fox) (1448 – 5 October 1528) was an English churchman, successively Bishop of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester, Lord Privy Seal, and founder of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (jure uxoris), 6th Earl of Salisbury, (22 November 1428 – 14 April 1471), known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was an English nobleman, administrator, and military commander.
Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York KG (born 17 August 1473), was the sixth child and second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville, born in Shrewsbury.
Richmond Palace was a royal residence on the River Thames in England that stood in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke, de jure 9th Baron Latimer (c. 1452 – 23 August 1502), KG, of Brook (anciently "Broke"), in the parish of Heywood, near Westbury in Wiltshire, was one of the chief commanders of the royal forces of King Henry VII against the Cornish Rebellion of 1497.
Sir Roland de Velville (1471/4 - 25 June 1535, also Vielleville, Veleville, or Vieilleville)See Peter Beauclerk-Dewar & Roger Powell, "King Henry VII (1457-1509):Roland de Velville (1474-1535)", in Royal Bastards: Illegitimate Children of the British Royal Family (Gloucestershire, U.K.: The History Press, 2008), e-book edition, pp.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
In heraldry, the Saint George's Cross, also called Cross of Saint George, is a red cross on a white background, which from the Late Middle Ages became associated with Saint George, the military saint, often depicted as a crusader.
The Stafford and Lovell rebellion was the first armed uprising against King Henry VII after he won the crown at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.
The Star Chamber (Latin: Camera stellata) was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters.
Stephen III (1337 – 26 September 1413), called the Magnificent or the Fop (Stephan der Kneißl), was the Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt from 1375.
The precise style of British sovereigns has varied over the years.
Surrey is a county in South East England, and one of the home counties.
Sweating sickness, also known as "English sweating sickness" or "English sweate" (sudor anglicus), was a mysterious and highly contagious disease that struck England, and later continental Europe, in a series of epidemics beginning in 1485.
Taddea Visconti, Duchess of Bavaria (1351 – 28 September 1381) was an Italian noblewoman of the Visconti family, the ruling house in Milan from 1277 to 1447.
The Abbey Church of St Mary the Virgin, Tewkesbury, (commonly known as Tewkesbury Abbey), in the English county of Gloucestershire, is a parish church and a former Benedictine monastery.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thomas Holland (also known as de Holland), 2nd Earl of Kent, 3rd Baron Holand KG (1350/1354 – 25 April 1397) was an English nobleman and a councillor of his half-brother, King Richard II of England.
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443 – 21 May 1524), styled Earl of Surrey from 1483 to 1485 and again from 1489 to 1514, was an English nobleman and politician.
Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, KG (1435 – 29 July 1504) was an English nobleman and politician.
Titulus Regius ("royal title" in Latin) is a statute of the Parliament of England, issued in 1484, by which the title of King of England was given to Richard III.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Act 11 Hen 7 c 1 (sometimes informally referred to as the Treason Act 1495 or as the Rex de facto statute) is an Act of the Parliament of England which was passed in the reign of Henry VII of England.
The Treaty of Medina del Campo was an agreement developed on March 26, 1489 between England and the nascent Spain.
The Treaty of Perpetual Peace was signed by James IV of Scotland and Henry VII of England in 1502.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The Tudor navy was the navy of the Kingdom of England under the ruling Tudor dynasty (1485–1603).
The Tudor rose (sometimes called the Union rose) is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster.
The Tudors of Penmynydd were a noble and aristocratic family, connected with the village of Penmynydd in Anglesey, North Wales, who were very influential in Welsh (and later English) politics.
Tudur ap Goronwy (died about 1367) was a Welsh landowner, soldier and administrator of the Tudors of Penmynydd family from the island of Anglesey.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke KG (c. 1423 – 27 July 1469), known as "Black William", was a Welsh nobleman, politician, and courtier.
Sir William Stanley KG (c. 1435 – 16 February 1495) was an English soldier and the younger brother of Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby.
Edmund Tudor, 1st Duke of Somerset, Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset, Edward Tudor (son of Henry VII), Harri Tudur, Hen. 7, Henri VII d'Angleterre, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Henry VII (England), Henry VII (of England), Henry VII Tudor, Henry VII, King of England, Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, Henry VII, of England, Henry Vii, Henry of Richmond, Henry, Earl of Richmond, Katherine Tudor (1503), Katherine Tudor, Princess of England, King Henry VII, King Henry VII of England, Solomon of England.