142 relations: Abdominal pain, Acupuncture, Acute liver failure, Adefovir, Alanine transaminase, Alcohol, Antibody, Antigen, Antiviral drug, Aplastic anemia, Arsphenamine, Assay, Assisted reproductive technology, Baruch Samuel Blumberg, Blood, Blood test, Blood transfusion, Body fluid, Bremen, Bronze Age, Capsid, Carboxypeptidase D, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chemotherapy, Chronic condition, Cirrhosis, Condom, Cryoglobulinemia, Cytokine, Cytotoxic T cell, David Dane, Dialysis, DNA, DNA polymerase, Drug injection, DsDNA-RT virus, Duck hepatitis B virus, East Asia, Elastography, Electron microscope, Endemic (epidemiology), Endemism, Endocytosis, Entecavir, Epidemiology, Epitope, Fatigue, Gastroenterology, ..., Genetic code, Genome, Genotype, Gianotti–Crosti syndrome, Ground glass hepatocyte, HBcAg, HBeAg, HBsAg, Hepadnaviridae, Hepatitis, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B in China, Hepatitis B vaccine, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis B virus precore mutant, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatocyte, HIV, Hominidae, Hypodermic needle, Icosahedron, Immune response, Immune system, Immunodeficiency, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, Immunosuppressive drug, Infection, Infectious causes of cancer, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Interferon, Itch, Jaundice, Kidney disease, Lamivudine, Lipid, Liver, Liver transplantation, Lymph, Membranous glomerulonephritis, Messenger RNA, Molecule, Mummy, National Institutes of Health, Necrotizing vasculitis, Needle sharing, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleotide, Oncovirus, Peginterferon alfa-2a, PEGylation, Peptide, Platelet, Polyarteritis nodosa, Polymerase, Polymerase chain reaction, Protein, Proteolysis, Rash, Receptor (biochemistry), Retrovirus, Reverse transcriptase, RNA, San Domenico Maggiore, Serotype, Serum (blood), Serum sickness–like reaction, Sexual intercourse, Shotgun sequencing, SLC10A1, Smallpox, Sperm washing, Strain (biology), Sub-Saharan Africa, Syphilis, Tattoo, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil, The Jakarta Post, Transmission (medicine), Transmission electron microscopy, Vaccine, Vertically transmitted infection, Viral load, Virus, White blood cell, Window period, World Health Organization, World Hepatitis Day. Expand index (92 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80–90% of liver cells).
Adefovir is a prescription medicine used to treat (chronic) infections with hepatitis B virus.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.
Baruch Samuel Blumberg (July 28, 1925April 5, 2011) — known as Barry Blumberg — was an American physician, geneticist, and co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek), for his work on the hepatitis B virus while an investigator at the NIH.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
Carboxypeptidase D can refer to one of several enzymes.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Cryoglobulinemia, cryoglobulinaemia, or cryoglobulinemic disease, is a medical condition in which the blood contains large amounts of cryoglobulins – proteins (mostly immunoglobulins themselves) that become insoluble at reduced temperatures.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
David Maurice Surrey Dane, MRCS CRCP MB Bchir MRCP MRCPath FRCPath FRCP (25 March 1923 –9 April 1998) was a pre-eminent British pathologist and clinical virologist known for his pioneering work in infectious diseases including poliomyelitis and the early investigations into the efficacy of a number of vaccines.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).
dsDNA-RT viruses are the seventh group in the Baltimore virus classification.
Duck Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated DHBV, is part of the Avihepadnavirus genus of the Hepadnaviridae, and is the causal agent of duck hepatitis B. DHBV is a small DNA virus with a diameter of 40–45 nm.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Entecavir (ETV), sold under the brand name Baraclude, is an antiviral medication used in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
Gianotti–Crosti syndrome, also known as infantile papular acrodermatitis, papular acrodermatitis of childhood, and papulovesicular acrolocated syndrome, is a reaction of the skin to a viral infection.
In liver pathology, a ground glass hepatocyte, abbreviated GGH, is a liver parenchymal cell with a flat hazy and uniformly dull appearing cytoplasm on light microscopy.
HBcAg (core antigen) is a hepatitis B viral protein.
HBeAg is a hepatitis B viral protein.
HBsAg (also known as the Australia antigen) is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV).
Hepadnaviridae is a family of viruses.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis B is endemic in China.
Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis B. The first dose is recommended within 24 hours of birth with either two or three more doses given after that.
Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a double stranded DNA virus, a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, and a member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses.
A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg).
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Hepatitis D (hepatitis delta) is a disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped virusoid.
Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Hypodermic needle features A hypodermic needle (from Greek ὑπο- (under-), and δέρμα (skin)), one of a category of medical tools which enter the skin, called sharps, is a very thin, hollow tube with a sharp tip that contains a small opening at the pointed end.
In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Estimates place the worldwide risk of cancers from infectious causes at 16.1%.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC, is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another person (allograft).
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a slowly progressive disease of the kidney affecting mostly people between ages of 30 and 50 years, usually Caucasian.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Necrotizing vasculitis also called Systemic necrotizing vasculitus (SNV) is a category of vasculitis, comprising vasculitides that present with necrosis.
Needle sharing is the practice of intravenous drug-users by which a syringe is shared by multiple individuals to administer intravenous drugs, and is a primary vector for diseases which can be transmitted through blood (blood-borne pathogens).
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer.
Pegylated interferon alfa-2a, sold under the brand name Pegasys among others, is medication used to treat hepatitis C and hepatitis B. For hepatitis C it is typically used together with ribavirin and cure rates are between 24 and 92%.
PEGylation (often styled pegylation) is the process of both covalent and non-covalent attachment or amalgamation of polyethylene glycol (PEG, in pharmacy called macrogol) polymer chains to molecules and macrostructures, such as a drug, therapeutic protein or vesicle, which is then described as PEGylated (pegylated).
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), also known as panarteritis nodosa, periarteritis nodosa, Kussmaul disease, or Kussmaul-Maier disease, is a systemic necrotizing inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis) affecting small- or medium-sized muscular arteries, typically involving the arteries of the kidneys and other internal organs but generally sparing the lungs' circulation.
A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 184.108.40.206/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
San Domenico Maggiore is a church in Naples, founded by the friars of the Dominican Order, located in the square of the same name.
A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Serum sickness–like reactions (SSLRs) refer to adverse reactions that have symptoms similar to those of serum sickness (type III immune complex hypersensitivity) but in which immune complexes are not found.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
In genetics, shotgun sequencing is a method used for sequencing long DNA strands.
Sodium/bile acid cotransporter also known as the Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) or liver bile acid transporter (LBAT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC10A1 (solute carrier family 10 member 1) gene.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Sperm washing is the process in which individual sperms are separated from the semen.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.
Telbivudine is an antiviral drug used in the treatment of hepatitis B infection.
Tenofovir disoproxil, sold under the trade name Viread among others, is a medication used to treat chronic hepatitis B and to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
The Jakarta Post is a daily English language newspaper in Indonesia.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Viral load, also known as viral burden, viral titre or viral titer, is a numerical expression of the quantity of virus in a given volume.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
In medicine, the window period for a test designed to detect a specific disease (particularly infectious disease) is the time between first infection and when the test can reliably detect that infection.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World Hepatitis Day, observed on July 28 every year, aims to raise global awareness of hepatitis — a group of infectious diseases known as Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E — and encourage prevention, diagnosis and treatment.