119 relations: Abdominal pain, Adenoid, Aflatoxin, Alcohol abuse, Alcoholic drink, Alcoholism, Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, Alpha-fetoprotein, Amazon basin, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, Anabolic steroid, Anaplasia, Angiogenesis, Anorexia (symptom), Apoptosis, Ascites, Asia, Aspergillus, Aspergillus flavus, Autopsy, Biliary atresia, Biochemical Pharmacology (journal), Biopsy, Cancer epigenetics, Cancer staging, Cancer vaccine, Carcinogenesis, Central Asia, China, Cholestasis, Cirrhosis, Cisplatin, Coagulopathy, Colorectal cancer, Cryoablation, CT scan, Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, Diabetes mellitus, Diarrhea, Everolimus, Fatigue, Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, Gene, Glycogen, Haemophilia, Hemihypertrophy, Hepatitis, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B vaccine, ..., Hepatitis C, Hepatocellular adenoma, Hepatocyte, Hereditary coproporphyria, HFE hereditary haemochromatosis, High-intensity focused ultrasound, Histopathology, Insulin, Insulin-like growth factor, Interventional radiology, Iron overload, Japan, Jaundice, LI-RADS, Liver cancer, Liver transplantation, Lymphovascular invasion, Magnetic resonance imaging, Median, Medical imaging, Medical ultrasound, Metabolic syndrome, Metastasis, Milan criteria, MRI contrast agent, Nausea, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Non-coding RNA, North America, Oncology, Oncolytic virus, Oncovirus, Organoid, Orphan drug, Pasireotide, Peanut, Percutaneous ethanol injection, Pexastimogene devacirepvec, Pleomorphism (cytology), Porphyria, Porphyria cutanea tarda, Portal hypertension, Portal vein embolization, Protein, Radiocontrast agent, Radiofrequency ablation, Radiology, Reactive nitrogen species, Reactive oxygen species, Segmental resection, Selective internal radiation therapy, Sensitivity and specificity, SIR-Spheres, Sorafenib, Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Systematic review, TheraSphere, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, TUC338, United States, Vaccination, Variegate porphyria, Vomiting, West Africa, Western Europe, Wilson's disease, World Health Organization, Yttrium. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
The adenoid, also known as a pharyngeal tonsil or nasopharyngeal tonsil, is the superior-most of the tonsils.
Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains.
Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD or AATD) is a genetic disorder that may result in lung disease or liver disease.
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, or alpha fetal protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) is a leading organization of scientists and health care professionals committed to preventing and curing liver disease.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anaplasia (from ἀνά ana, "backward" + πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a condition of cells with poor cellular differentiation, losing the morphological characteristics of mature cells and their orientation with respect to each other and to endothelial cells.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.
Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Biliary atresia, also known as extrahepatic ductopenia and progressive obliterative cholangiopathy, is a childhood disease of the liver in which one or more bile ducts are abnormally narrow, blocked, or absent.
Biochemical Pharmacology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Cancer epigenetics is the study of epigenetic modifications to the DNA of cancer cells that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
A bleeding disorder (coagulopathy) is a condition that affects the way the blood clots.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Cryoablation is a process that uses extreme cold to destroy tissue.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), also known as protein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), is an abnormal form of the coagulation protein, prothrombin.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FHCC) is a rare form of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that typically affects young adults and is characterized, under the microscope, by laminated fibrous layers interspersed between the tumour cells.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.
Hemihypertrophy, now more commonly referred to as hemihyperplasia in the medical literature, is a condition in which one side of the body or a part of one side of the body is larger than the other to an extent considered greater than the normal variation.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis B. The first dose is recommended within 24 hours of birth with either two or three more doses given after that.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Hepatocellular adenoma (also known as hepatic adenoma or hepadenoma) is a rare, benign liver tumor.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is a disorder of heme biosynthesis, classified as an acute hepatic porphyria.
Haemochromatosis (or hemochromatosis) type 1 autosomal recessive is a hereditary disease characterized by excessive intestinal absorption of dietary iron resulting in a pathological increase in total body iron stores.
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an early stage medical technology that is in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin.
Interventional radiology (IR), sometimes known as vascular and interventional radiology (VIR), is a medical specialty which provides minimally invasive image-guided diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Iron overload (variously known as haemochromatosis, hemochromatosis, hemochromocytosis, Celtic curse, Irish illness, British gene, Scottish sickness and bronzing diabetes) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (aka LI-RADS) is a quality assurance tool created and trademarked by the American College of Radiology in 2011 to standardize the reporting and data collection of CT and MR imaging patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), or primary cancer of the liver cells.
Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver.
Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another person (allograft).
Lymphovascular invasion (LVI or lymphovascular space invasion) is spread of a cancer to the blood vessels and/or lymphatics.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
In transplantation medicine, the Milan criteria are set of criteria applied in consideration of patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for liver transplantation with intent to cure their disease.
MRI contrast agents are contrast agents used to improve the visibility of internal body structures in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells.
An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer.
An organoid is a miniaturized and simplified version of an organ produced in vitro in three dimensions that shows realistic micro-anatomy.
An orphan drug is a pharmaceutical agent that has been developed specifically to treat a rare medical condition, the condition itself being referred to as an orphan disease.
Pasireotide (SOM230, trade name Signifor) is an orphan drug approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of Cushing's disease in patients who fail or are ineligible for surgical therapy.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
Percutaneous ethanol injection is a possible treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma.
JX-594 is an oncolytic virus (also known as Pexa-Vec, INN pexastimogene devacirepvec) originally constructed in Dr.
Pleomorphism is a term used in histology and cytopathology to describe variability in the size, shape and staining of cells and/or their nuclei.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is the most common subtype of porphyria.
Portal hypertension is hypertension (high blood pressure) in the hepatic portal system – made up of the portal vein and its branches, that drain from most of the intestine to the liver.
Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a preoperative procedure performed in interventional radiology to initiate hypertrophy of the anticipated future liver remnant a couple weeks prior to a major liver resection procedure.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure in which part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from medium frequency alternating current (in the range of 350–500 kHz).
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are a family of antimicrobial molecules derived from nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide (O2•−) produced via the enzymatic activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and NADPH oxidase respectively.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Segmental resection (or segmentectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove part of an organ or gland, as a sub-type of a resection, which might involve removing the whole body part.
Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as transarterial radioembolization (TARE), radioembolization or intra-arterial microbrachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy used in interventional radiology to treat cancer.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
SIR-Spheres microspheres are used to treat patients with unresectable liver cancer.
Sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar), is a kinase inhibitor drug approved for the treatment of primary kidney cancer (advanced renal cell carcinoma), advanced primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and radioactive iodine resistant advanced thyroid carcinoma.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
TheraSphere is a radiotherapy treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that consists of millions of microscopic, radioactive glass microspheres (20–30 micrometres in diameter) being infused into the arteries that feed liver tumors.
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (also called transarterial chemoembolization or TACE) is a minimally invasive procedure performed in interventional radiology to restrict a tumor's blood supply.
TUC338 (transcribed ultra-conserved region 338) is an ultra-conserved element which is transcribed to give a non-coding RNA.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Variegate porphyria, also known by several other names, is an autosomal dominant porphyria that can have acute (severe but usually not long-lasting) symptoms along with symptoms that affect the skin.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Carcinoma, hepatocellular, Hepatic cancer, Hepatic carcinoma, Hepatic neoplasia, Hepatic neoplasms, Hepatic tumor, Hepatocarcinogen, Hepatocarcinoma, Hepatocellular cancer, Hepatoma, Liver Cancer, Liver neoplasms, Secondary liver cancer.