195 relations: Acheiropoieta, Adam Elsheimer, Africa (Roman province), Al-Karak, Anatolia, Antioch, Ar-Rum, Arabah, Arabia Petraea, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic literature, Arabs, Ardashir III, Arezzo, Aristocracy, Armenians, Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Augustus (title), Azarmidokht, Baghdad, Bahram Chobin, Balkans, Basileus, Battle of Mu'tah, Battle of Nineveh (627), Battle of Yarmouk, Büyükada, Bithynia, Bonus (patrician), Bonus (Sirmium), Boran, Bosporus, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty, Byzantine military manuals, Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Cambridge University Press, Cappadocia, Cartagena, Spain, Carthage, Caucasus, Chalcedon, Christian, Church of the East, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Colossus of Barletta, Constans II, Constantin Zuckerman, Constantine III (Byzantine emperor), Constantine the Great, ..., Constantinople, Consul, Council of Chalcedon, Croats, Cyprus, Cyril Mango, Dalmatia (theme), Damascus, Dastagird, David Saharuni, Deaf-mute, Diocese of Egypt, Disability, Dumbarton Oaks, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Early Muslim conquests, Easter, Edward Gibbon, Egypt, Egypt (Roman province), Encyclopædia Iranica, Epic poetry, Eudoxia Epiphania, Exarch, Exarchate of Africa, Excubitors, Exile, Fabia Eudokia, Fall of the Sasanian Empire, Flavia (gens), Foederati, Fresco, Gaza City, Göktürks, Germans, Ghassanids, Golden Legend, Gozo, Great Palace of Constantinople, Greek language, Hadith, Hannibal, Harvard University, Helena (empress), Heraclius, Heraclius the Elder, Heraklonas, Heresy, Hieronymus Wolf, History of Iran, History of Islam, History of Russia, Ibn Kathir, Incest, Islam, Jerusalem, Jesus, Jewish revolt against Heraclius, Jews, John Athalarichos, Justinian I, Kavadh II, Kenya, Kerygma, Khosrow II, King of Kings, Late antiquity, Latin, Levant, List of Byzantine emperors, List of Roman consuls, Liverpool University Press, Lone Star College–Tomball, Martina (empress), Maurice (emperor), Maurice's Balkan campaigns, Medieval Academy of America, Mesopotamia, Monophysitism, Monothelitism, Muhammad, Muslim conquest of Persia, Negev, Nicetas (cousin of Heraclius), Nicomedia, Non-Muslim interactants with Muslims during Muhammad's era, Oxford University Press, Palestine (region), Pannonian Avars, Paralysis, Patriarch, Persian language, Phocas, Piero della Francesca, Political mutilation in Byzantine culture, Pope John IV, Porga of Croatia, Prince Islands, Priscus (general), Prophetic biography, Rûm, Reaktion Books, Revue des Études Arméniennes, Rhahzadh, Rhodes, Roman Empire, Roman Syria, Sakellarios, Sasanian conquest of Egypt, Sasanian Empire, Scipio Africanus, Sea of Galilee, Sebeos, Serbs, Sergius I of Constantinople, Shahin Vahmanzadegan, Shahraplakan, Shahrbaraz, Sicily, Siege of Constantinople (626), Slavic paganism, Slavs, SOAS, University of London, Spania, Stanford University Press, Städel Museum, Strategikon of Maurice, Swahili language, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The History of the True Cross, The Other Press, Theme (Byzantine district), Theodore (brother of Heraclius), Theodosius (son of Maurice), Third Perso-Turkic War, Tong Yabghu Qaghan, Tremissis, True Cross, Turkey, United Armenia, Utendi wa Tambuka, Visigoths, Western Turkic Khaganate, Wiley-Blackwell, Yazdegerd III. Expand index (145 more) » « Shrink index
Acheiropoieta (Medieval Greek: ἀχειροποίητα, "made without hand"; singular acheiropoieton) — also called Icons Made Without Hands (and variants) — are Christian icons which are said to have come into existence miraculously, not created by a human.
Adam Elsheimer (18 March 1578 – 11 December 1610) was a German artist working in Rome who died at only thirty-two, but was very influential in the early 17th century in the field of Baroque paintings.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Al-Karak (الكرك), also known as just Karak or Kerak, is a city in Jordan known for its Crusader castle, the Kerak Castle.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Sūrat ar-Rūm (سورة الروم, "The Romans") is the 30th surah of the Quran.
The Arabah (وادي عربة, Wādī ʻAraba), or Arava/Aravah (הָעֲרָבָה, HaAravah, lit. "desolate and dry area"), as it is known by its respective Arabic and Hebrew names, is a geographic area south of the Dead Sea basin, which forms part of the border between Israel to the west and Jordan to the east.
Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province (Provincia Arabia) or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the 2nd century; it consisted of the former Nabataean Kingdom in Jordan, southern Levant, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Arabian Peninsula.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Ardashir III (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر سوم), (born c. 62127 April 630) was king of the Sasanian Empire from 6 September 628 to 27 April 630 while Emperor Heraclius acted as regent by decree of Ardashir's late father Kavadh II.
Arezzo is a city and comune in Italy, capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Arsacid dynasty, known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni), ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.
Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
Azarmidokht (Middle Persian: Āzarmīgdukht, آزرمیدخت) was Sasanian queen of Persia from to 630 to 631, and daughter of Khosrow II.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahrām Chōbīn (Middle Persian:; بهرام چوبین), also known by his epithet Mihrevandak ("servant of Mihr (Mithra)", was a famous spahbed (senior army commander) during late sixth-century Iran. He usurped the Sasanian throne from Khosrow II, ruling for a year as Bahram VI (590-591). However, he was later defeated by Khosrow II and was forced to flee.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
The Battle of Mu'tah (معركة مؤتة, غزوة مؤتة) was fought in September 629 C.E. (1 Jumada al-awwal 8 A.H.), near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad and the forces of the Byzantine Empire.
The Battle of Nineveh (Ἡ μάχη τῆς Νινευί) was the climactic battle of the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628.
The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Büyükada (Πρίγκηπος or Πρίγκιπος, rendered Prinkipos or Prinkipo) is the largest of the nine so-called Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmara, near Istanbul, with an area of about.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
Bonus (Βῶνος or Βόνος, died 627) was a Byzantine statesman and general, one of the closest associates of Emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), who played a leading role in the successful defense of the imperial capital, Constantinople, during the Avar–Persian siege of 626.
Bonus (Βῶνος or Βόνος, also Bonos or Bonosus, was a Byzantine general, active in the reign of Justin II (r. 565–578). He is known to have been situated at Sirmium, spending his career defending the Byzantine Empire against the Avars. He might have been a magister militum per Illyricum. The main source about him is Menander Protector.Martindale, Jones & Morris (1992), pp. 241-242.
BoranDaryaee, T. (1999).
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Empire was ruled by emperors of the dynasty of Heraclius between 610 and 711.
This article lists and briefly discusses the most important of a large number of treatises on military science produced in the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Cartagena (Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Colossus of Barletta is a large bronze statue of an Eastern Roman Emperor, nearly three times life size (5.11 meters, or about 16 feet 7 inches) and currently located in Barletta, Italy.
Constans II (Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668.
Constantin Zuckerman (born 1957) is a French historian and Professor of Byzantine studies at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris.
Constantine III (Κωνσταντῖνος Γ΄; Heraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus; 3 May 612 – 20 April or 24/26 May 641) was Eastern Roman Emperor for four months in 641, making him the shortest reigning Byzantine emperor.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyril Alexander Mango (14 April 1928, Istanbul) is a British scholar of the history, art, and architecture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Theme of Dalmatia (θέμα Δαλματίας/Δελματίας, thema Dalmatias/Delmatias) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea in Southeastern Europe, headquartered at Jadera (later called Zara and now Zadar).
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dastagird (also spelled as Dastgerd, Dastigird and Daskara), was an ancient Sasanian city in present-day Iraq, and was close to its capital, Ctesiphon.
David Saharuni (Դաւիթ Սահարունի, Dawit' Saharuni) was sparapet, curopalates, ishkhan, and presiding prince of Byzantine-controlled Armenia from 635 to 638.
Deaf-mute is a term which was used historically to identify a person who was either deaf using a sign language or both deaf and could not speak.
The Diocese of Egypt (Dioecesis Aegypti, Διοίκησις Αἰγύπτου) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire (from 395 the Eastern Roman Empire), incorporating the provinces of Egypt and Cyrenaica.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Dumbarton Oaks is a historic estate in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C. It was the residence and garden of Robert Woods Bliss (1875–1962) and his wife Mildred Barnes Bliss (1879–1969).
Dumbarton Oaks Papers (DOP) is an academic journal founded in 1941 for the publication of articles relating to civilizations of the late antique, early medieval, and Byzantine periods.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Eudoxia Epiphania (Επιφανεία.) (also known as Epiphania, Eudocia or Eudokia) was the only daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudokia.
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.
The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered at Carthage, Tunisia, which encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean.
The Excubitors (excubitores or excubiti, literally "those out of bed", i.e. "sentinels"; transcribed into Greek as ἐξκουβίτορες or ἐξκούβιτοι) were founded in c. 460 as the imperial guards of the early Byzantine emperors.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Eudokia or Eudocia (c. 580 – 13 August 612), originally named Fabia, was a Byzantine woman who became the first empress-consort of Heraclius from 610 to her death in 612.
The Sasanian era is one of the most influential periods in Iran's history.
The gens Flavia was a plebeian family at Rome.
Foederatus (in English; pl. foederati) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The Ghassanids (الغساسنة; al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") was an Arab kingdom, founded by descendants of the Azd tribe from Yemen who immigrated in the early 3rd century to the Levant region, where some merged with Hellenized Christian communities, converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD while others may have already been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution.
The Golden Legend (Latin: Legenda aurea or Legenda sanctorum) is a collection of hagiographies by Blessed Jacobus de Varagine that was widely read in late medieval Europe.
Gozo (Għawdex,, formerly Gaulos) is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Great Palace of Constantinople (Μέγα Παλάτιον, Méga Palátion; Latin: Palatium Magnum, Turkish: Büyük Saray), also known as the Sacred Palace (Ἱερὸν Παλάτιον, Hieròn Palátion; Latin: Sacrum Palatium), was the large Imperial Byzantine palace complex located in the south-eastern end of the peninsula now known as Old Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), in modern Turkey.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Helena, or Saint Helena (Greek: Ἁγία Ἑλένη, Hagía Helénē, Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; –), was an Empress of the Roman Empire, and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Heraclius the Elder (Heraclius; Ἡράκλειος; died 610) was an East Roman (Byzantine) general and the father of Byzantine emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641).
Constantine Heraclius (Κωνσταντῖνος Ἡράκλειος; Latin: Flavius Constantinus Heraclius (Heraclianus) Augustus; 626–641), commonly known by the diminutive Heraklonas or Herakleonas (Ἡρακλωνᾶς/Ἡρακλεωνᾶς), or rarely, Heraclius II, was the son of Heraclius and his niece Martina.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Hieronymus Wolf (13 August 1516 - 8 October 1580) was a sixteenth-century German historian and humanist, most famous for introducing a system of Byzantine historiography that eventually became the standard in works of medieval Greek history.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Jewish revolt against Heraclius was part of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 and is considered the last serious Jewish attempt for gaining autonomy in the Land of Israel prior to modern times.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Shērōē (also spelled Shīrūya, شیرویه in New Persian), better known by his dynastic name of Kavadh II (kwʾt' Kawād; New قباد Qobād or Qabād), was king of the Sasanian Empire briefly in 628.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kerygma (from the ancient Greek word κῆρυγμα kêrugma) is a Greek word used in the New Testament for "preaching" (see Luke 4:18-19, Romans 10:14). It is related to the Greek verb κηρύσσω kērússō, literally meaning "to cry or proclaim as a herald" and being used in the sense of "to proclaim, announce, preach".
Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.
The genitive phrase King of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs or Holy of Holies), but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah), Hellenistic and Christian traditions.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.
Liverpool University Press, founded in 1899, is the third oldest university press in England after Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press.
Lone Star College–Tomball (formerly Tomball College) is one of six colleges in the Lone Star College System (LSCS).
Martina (died after 641) was the second Empress consort of the Byzantine Empire by marriage to Heraclius, and Regent in 641 with her son.
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.
Maurice's Balkan campaigns were a series of military expeditions conducted by Eastern Roman Emperor Maurice (reigned 582–602) in an attempt to defend the Balkan provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Avars and the Slavs.
The Medieval Academy of America, MAA (spelled Mediaeval until 1980) is the largest organization in the United States promoting excellence in the field of medieval studies.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
Monothelitism or monotheletism (from Greek μονοθελητισμός "doctrine of one will") is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a Christological doctrine, that formally emerged in Armenia and Syria in 629.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
Nicetas or Niketas (Νικήτας) was the cousin of Emperor Heraclius.
Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.
This is a list of the non-Muslim interactants with Muslims during Muhammad's era.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Phocas (Flavius Phocas Augustus; Φωκᾶς, Phokas; – 5 October 610) was Byzantine Emperor from 602 to 610.
Piero della Francesca (c. 1415 – 12 October 1492) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
Mutilation in the Byzantine Empire was a common method of punishment for criminals of the era but it also had a role in the empire's political life.
Pope John IV (Ioannes IV; died 12 October 642) reigned from 24 December 640 to his death in 642.
Porga (Iranian pouru-gâo, translated as "rich in cattle") was a ruler of the White Croats who was baptized during the reign of Heraclius (610-641).
The Prince Islands (Πριγκηπονήσια, Prens Adaları, alternatively written as Princes' Islands in which the "princes" are plural (meaning "Islands of the Princes"); or Kızıl Adalar ("Red Islands") in Turkish); officially just Adalar ("Islands"), are an archipelago off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara.
Priscus or Priskos (Πρῖσκος; died 613) was a leading East Roman (Byzantine) general during the reigns of the Byzantine emperors Maurice (reigned 582–602), Phocas (r. 602–610) and Heraclius (r. 610–641).
In Islam, Al-sīra al-Nabawiyya (Prophetic biography), Sīrat Rasūl Allāh (Life of the Messenger of God), or just Al-sīra are the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad from which, in addition to the Quran and trustable Hadiths, most historical information about his life and the early period of Islam is derived.
Rûm, also transliterated as Roum or Rhum (in Koine Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, Rhomaioi, meaning "Romans"; in Arabic الرُّومُ ar-Rūm; in Persian and Ottoman Turkish روم Rûm; in Rum), is a generic term used at different times in the Muslim world to refer to.
Reaktion Books is an independent book publisher based in Islington, London, England.
Revue des Études Arméniennes is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes articles relating to Classical and medieval Armenian history, art history, philology, linguistics, and literature.
Rhahzadh (Middle Persian: Rāhzād), originally Roch Vehan (from *rwzbyhn Rōzbehān, "son of Rōzbeh"), known in Byzantine sources as Rhazates (Greek: Ῥαζάτης) was a Persian general of Armenian origin under Sassanid king Khosrau II (r. 590–628).
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
A sakellarios (σακελλάριος) is an official entrusted with administrative and financial duties (cf. sakellē or sakellion, "purse, treasury").
Between 618 and 621 AD, the Sassanid Persian army defeated the Byzantine forces in Egypt and occupied the province.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder and Scipio the Great, was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time.
The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.
Sebeos was a 7th-century Armenian bishop and historian.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Sergius I (d. 9 December 638 in Constantinople) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 610 to 638.
Shahen or Shahin (Middle Persian: Shāhēn Vahūmanzādagān, in Greek sources: Σαὴν; died ca. 626) was a senior Sasanian general (spahbed) during the reign of Khosrau II (590–628).
Shahraplakan (translit), rendered Sarablangas (Σαραβλαγγᾶς) in Greek sources, was a Sassanid Persian general who participated in the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628.
Shahrbaraz or Shahrvaraz (died 9 June 630) was king of the Sasanian Empire from 27 April 630 to 9 June 630.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Constantinople in 626 by the Sassanid Persians and Avars, aided by large numbers of allied Slavs, ended in a strategic victory for the Byzantines.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
SOAS University of London (the School of Oriental and African Studies), is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Spania (Provincia Spaniae) was a province of the Byzantine Empire from 552 until 624 in the south of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The Städel Museum, officially the Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, is an art museum in Frankfurt, with one of the most important collections in Germany.
The Strategikon or Strategicon (Στρατηγικόν) is a manual of war traditionally regarded as written in the late 6th century and usually attributed to the Byzantine Emperor Maurice.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon.
The History of the True Cross or The Legend of the True Cross is a sequence of frescoes painted by Piero della Francesca in the Basilica of San Francesco in Arezzo.
The Other Press is the independent student newspaper of Douglas College, a multi-campus public college in British Columbia, Canada.
The themes or themata (θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire.
Theodore (Theodorus, Θεόδωρος; fl. c. 610 – 636) was the brother (or half-brother) of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), a curopalates and leading general in Heraclius' wars against the Persians and against the Arab invasions.
Theodosius (Θεοδόσιος; August 4, 583/585 – after November 27, 602) was the eldest son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice (r. 582–602) and was co-emperor from 590 until his deposition and execution during a military revolt in November 602.
The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Tong Yabghu Qaghan (r. 618–628 or 630) (also known as T'ung Yabghu, Ton Yabghu, Tong Yabghu Khagan, Tun Yabghu, and Tong Yabğu, Traditional Chinese 統葉護可汗, Simplified Chinese: 统叶护可汗, pinyin Tǒngyèhù Kěhán, Wade-Giles: t'ung-yeh-hu k'o-han) was khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate from 618 to 628 AD.
The tremissis or tremis (Greek: τριμίσιον, trimision) was a small solid gold coin of Late Antiquity.
The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
United Armenia (classical Միացեալ Հայաստան, reformed: Միացյալ Հայաստան, translit. Miatsyal Hayastan), also known as Greater Armenia or Great Armenia, is an Armenian ethno-nationalist irredentist concept referring to areas within the traditional Armenian homeland—the Armenian Highland—which are currently or have historically been mostly populated by Armenians.
Utend̠i wa Tambuka or Utenzi wa Tambuka ("The Story of Tambuka"), also known as Kyuo kya Hereḳali (the book of Heraclius), is an epic poem in the Swahili language, dated 1728.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
The Western Turkic Khaganate or Onoq Khaganate was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 593–603) after the split of the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina clan) into the Western khaganate and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. At its height, the Western Turkic Khaganate included what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and parts of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Russia. The ruling elite or perhaps the whole confederation was called Onoq or "ten arrows", possibly from oğuz (literally "arrow"), a subdivision of the Turkic tribes. A connection to the earlier Onogurs, which also means 'ten tribes', is questionable. The khaganate's capitals were Navekat (the summer capital) and Suyab (the principal capital), both situated in the Chui River valley of Kyrgyzstan, to the east from Bishkek. Tong Yabgu's summer capital was near Tashkent and his winter capital Suyab. Turkic rule in Mongolia was restored as Second Turkic Khaganate in 682.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Yazdegerd III or Yazdgerd III (literally meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد; Izdegerdes in classical sources), was the thirty-eighth and last king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran from 632 to 651.
Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, Emperor Heraclius, Flavius Augustus Heraclius, Flavius Heraclius Augustus, Heracleios, Heraclius I, Heraclius the younger, Herakleios, Hirqal, Martinos, Martinos (son of Heraclius).