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Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. [1]

260 relations: A Thousand Splendid Suns, Abbas I of Persia, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath, Achaemenid Empire, Afghan National Army, Afghan National Security Forces, Afghanistan, Afghanistan–United States relations, Afsharid dynasty, Aga Khan Trust for Culture, AH1, AH76, AH77, Ahmad Samani, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Ahmed Khan of Herat, Ahnaf ibn Qais, Airborne forces, Al-Tabari, Alexander the Great, Ali al-Qari, Ali-Shir Nava'i, Alka Sadat, Alp-Tegin, Anglo-Persian War, Arachosia, Aria (region), Artacoana, Asian Development Bank, Avesta, Avestan geography, Awan (tribe), Bactria, Badghis Province, Balkh, Balkh Province, Bamyan, Barakzai dynasty, Bashlyk, Behistun Inscription, Bengal, Bessus, Bogra Khan, Boot, Border town, British Empire, Bronze, Caliphate, Chagatai Khanate, ..., Chaghcharan, Chandragupta Maurya, Church of the East, Conquest of the Western Turks, Consul (representative), Convent, Council Bluffs, Iowa, Darius I, Darwish, Delaram, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Dubai International Airport, Durrani, Durrani Empire, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Fiqh, Fire temple, Genghis Khan, Geography of Afghanistan, Ghaznavids, Ghazni Province, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, Ghor Province, Ghurid dynasty, Global Heritage Network, Goharshad Begum, Gorgan, Great Mosque of Herat, Greater Khorasan, Hadith, Hamdallah Mustawfi, Hamid Karzai International Airport, Hari (Afghanistan), Hatefi, Hazaras, Hephthalite Empire, Herat Citadel, Herat International Airport, Herat Province, Herat University, Herodotus, Highway 1 (Afghanistan), Hindu Kush, History of Afghanistan, History of the Jews in Afghanistan, Hotak dynasty, Hulagu Khan, Ibn Hawqal, Ilkhanate, Indira Gandhi International Airport, International Security Assistance Force, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Islam in Afghanistan, Islam Qala, Islamic State of Afghanistan, IslamOnline, Ismail I, Ismail Khan, Israel, Istakhri, Jami, Jumu'ah, Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, Kabulistan, Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād, Kandahar, Kandahar Province, Kandahar–Herat Highway, Kara Koyunlu, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Köppen climate classification, Khaf, Iran, Khaled Hosseini, Khalq, Khorasan Province, Khwaja 'Abd Allah Ansari shrine, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kurt dynasty, Lashkargah, Latif Nazemi, Lingua franca, List of cities in Afghanistan, List of diplomatic missions of the United States, List of governors of Herat, List of highways numbered 1, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mary, Turkmenistan, Mashhad, Mashhad International Airport, Maurya Empire, Maymana, Mazar-i-Sharif, Merv, Middle Ages, Ministry of Energy and Water (Afghanistan), Mirwais Sadiq, Mongol Empire, Mosque, Mujahideen, Muslim, Muslim conquests of Afghanistan, Nader Shah, Nancy Dupree, Naqsh-e Rustam, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nishapur, Northern Alliance, Nuh I, Nuh II, Nur Muhammad Taraki, Old Persian, Operation Enduring Freedom, Packard Humanities Institute, Pahlavi dynasty, Parthian Empire, Pashto, Pashtuns, Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, Persepolis, Persian language, Persian miniature, Polymath, Provinces of Afghanistan, Qizilbash, Quhistan, Qutb Shah, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Rail transport, Railway Gazette International, Rapping, Roman Empire, Routledge, Rumi, Russian Empire, Sabuktigin, Safavid dynasty, Saffarid dynasty, Salman Rushdie, Samanid Empire, Samarkand, Sasanian Empire, Satibarzanes, Satrap, Scythians, Seleucid Empire, Seleucus I Nicator, Seljuk Empire, Semi-arid climate, Serena Hotels, Shah Rukh, Shaybanids, Sher Khan Bandar, Shia Islam in Afghanistan, Siege of Herat (1838), Simcha Jacobovici, Sistan, Sonita Alizadeh, Southern Pashto, Soviet Armed Forces, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Strabo, Sufism, Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara, Sunni Islam, Synagogue, Taftazani, Tahir ibn Husayn, Tahirid dynasty, Tahmasp I, Taliban, Tang dynasty, The Enchantress of Florence, The Great Game, Time (magazine), Timur, Timurid dynasty, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Torghundi, Train Advise Assist Command – West, Transoxiana, Treaty of Paris (1857), Trousers, Tunic, Turkic peoples, Turkmenistan, Turkmens, Tus, Iran, UNESCO, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, University of Texas at Austin, Ustadh Sis, Uzbeks, Vanderbilt University, Wilayah, Wine, Xionites, Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar, Yahya ibn Asad, Yazid ibn al-Muhallab, Zaranj, Zoroastrianism, 1979 Herat uprising, 2001 uprising in Herat, 207th Corps (Afghanistan). Expand index (210 more) »

A Thousand Splendid Suns

A Thousand Splendid Suns is a 2007 novel by Afghan-American author Khaled Hosseini.

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Abbas I of Persia

Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Ashʿath (عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن الأشعث), commonly known as Ibn al-Ashʿath after his grandfather, was a distinguished Arab nobleman and general under the early Umayyad Caliphate, most notable for leading a failed rebellion against the Umayyad viceroy of the east, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, in 700–703.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Afghan National Army

The Afghan National Army (ANA) is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.

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Afghan National Security Forces

The Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), also known as the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF), consist of.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Afghanistan–United States relations

Afghanistan–United States relations can be traced to 1921 but the first contact between the two occurred further back in the 1830s when the first recorded person from the United States was visiting Afghanistan.

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Afsharid dynasty

The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.

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Aga Khan Trust for Culture

The Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) is an agency of the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN), a family of institutions created by Aga Khan IV with distinct but complementary mandates to improve the welfare and prospects of people in the developing world, particularly in Asia and Africa.

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AH1

Asian Highway 1 (AH1) is the longest route of the Asian Highway Network, running from Tokyo, Japan via Korea, China, Southeast Asia, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran to the border between Turkey and Bulgaria west of Istanbul where it joins end-on with European route E80.

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AH76

Asian Highway 76 (AH76) is a major road of northern Afghanistan.

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AH77

Asian Highway 77 (AH77) is a road in the Asian Highway Network running 1298 km (811 miles) from Jabal Saraj, Afghanistan to Mary, Turkmenistan.

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Ahmad Samani

Ahmad ibn Ismail (died January 12, 914) was amir of the Samanids (907–914).

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Ahmad Shah Durrani

Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.

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Ahmed Khan of Herat

Ahmed Khan was a ruler of the region of Herat in Afghanistan, that enjoyed independence from 1856 to 1863.

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Ahnaf ibn Qais

Al-Ahnaf Ibn Qays was a Muslim general who lived during the time of prophet Muhammad.

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Airborne forces

Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.

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Al-Tabari

Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Ali al-Qari

Nur ad-Din Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Sultan Muhammad al-Hirawi al-Qari (نور الدين أبو الحسن علي بن سلطان محمد الهروي القاري; d. 1605/1606), known as Mulla Ali al-Qari (ملا علي القاري) was an Islamic scholar.

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Ali-Shir Nava'i

Mīr 'Alisher Navaiy (9 February 1441 – 3 January 1501), also known as Nizām-al-Din ʿAlisher Herawī (Chagatai-Turkic/نظام‌الدین علی‌شیر نوایی) was a Chagatai Turkic poet, writer, politician, linguist, mystic, and painter.

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Alka Sadat

Alka Sadat (born 1988) is an Afghan documentary and feature film producer, director and cameraman.

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Alp-Tegin

Alp-Tegin, (الپتگین Alptegīn or Alptigīn) was a Turkic slave commander of the Samanid Empire, who would later become the semi-independent governor of Ghazna from 962 until his death in 963.

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Anglo-Persian War

The Anglo–Persian War lasted between November 1, 1856 and April 4, 1857, and was fought between Great Britain and Persia (which was at the time ruled by the Qajar dynasty).

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Arachosia

Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires.

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Aria (region)

Aria (Ἀρ(ε)ία Ar(e)ía, آريا; Latin Aria, representing Old Persian. Haraiva, Avestan Haraeuua) is the name of an Achaemenid region centered on the Herat city of present-day western Afghanistan.

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Artacoana

Artacoana (Ἀρτακόανα) or Artacana or Articaudna (Ἀρτίκαυδνα) or Chortacana or Artacaena, name of the capital of Aria, an eastern satrapy of the Persian empire.

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Asian Development Bank

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.

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Avesta

The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.

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Avestan geography

Avestan geography, is the geographical references in the Avesta, which are limited to the regions on the eastern Iranian plateau up to Indo-Iranian border.

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Awan (tribe)

Awan (اعوان) is a tribe living predominantly in northern, central, and western parts of Pakistani Punjab, with significant numbers also residing in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Kashmir and to a lesser extent in Sindh and Balochistan.

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Bactria

Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.

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Badghis Province

Bādghīs (Pashto/بادغیس) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northwest of the country next to Turkmenistan.

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Balkh

Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.

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Balkh Province

Balkh (Pashto and بلخ, Balx) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country.

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Bamyan

No description.

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Barakzai dynasty

The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak) ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammad Zahir Shah.

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Bashlyk

A bashlyk, also spelled Bashlik (Shkharkhon, Başlıq, Başlıq, Turkish: Başlık; "baş" - head, "-lıq" (Tatar) / "-lık" (Turkish) - derivative suffix), is a traditional Circassian, Turkic and Cossack cone-shaped headdress hood, usually of leather, felt or wool, an ancient round topped felt bonnet with lappets for wrapping around the neck.

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Behistun Inscription

The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.

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Bengal

Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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Bessus

Bessus, also known as Artaxerxes V (died summer 329 BC), was a prominent Persian Satrap of Bactria in Persia, and later self-proclaimed King of Kings of Persia.

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Bogra Khan

Bogra Khan Ilak was an ethnic Turkish sovereign who reigned in the latter part of the 10th century over Kashgar, Khotan and other countries intervening between Transoxiana and the Chinese frontier.

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Boot

A boot is a type of footwear and a specific type of shoe.

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Border town

A border town is a town or city close to the boundary between two countries, states, or regions.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Chagatai Khanate

The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors.

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Chaghcharan

Chaghcharān (Dari-Persian), also called Firuzkuh, Dari-Persian) is a town and district in central Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Ghor Province. It is located on the southern side of the Hari River, at an altitude of 2,230 m above sea level. In 2014, the Government of Afghanistan formally changed the name of this town to Firuzkoh. Chaghcharan is linked by a 380-kilometre-long highway with Herat to the west and is about the same distance from Kabul to the east and is also served by Chaghcharan Airport. It has a population of about 15,000 who are mostly Dari speakers. However the recent data showed a population of 31,266 (in 2015). it has 1 district and a total land area of 2,614 Hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city are 3,474.

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Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.

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Church of the East

The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.

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Conquest of the Western Turks

The conquest of the Western Turks, known as the Western Tujue in Chinese sources, was a military campaign in 657 led by the Tang Dynasty general Su Dingfang against the Western Turkic Khaganate ruled by Ashina Helu.

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Consul (representative)

A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.

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Convent

A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.

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Council Bluffs, Iowa

Council Bluffs is a city in and the county seat of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, United States.

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Darius I

Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

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Darwish

Darwish and Darvish (and in French more prominently Darwich and Darwiche) are alternate transliterations of the Persian word "dervish", used in درويش, referring to a Sufi aspirant.

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Delaram

Delārām (Pashto/Persian: دلارام) is a city in the northern part of Nimruz Province, in southern Afghanistan.

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Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.

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Dubai International Airport

Dubai International Airport (مطار دبي الدولي) is the primary international airport serving Dubai, United Arab Emirates and is the world's busiest airport by international passenger traffic.

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Durrani

Durrani (دراني) or Abdali (ابدالي) is the name of a prominent Sarbani Pashtun tribal confederation in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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Durrani Empire

The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.

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Encyclopaedia of Islam

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.

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Fakhr al-Din al-Razi

Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī or Fakhruddin Razi (فخر الدين رازي) was an Iranian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher He was born in 1149 in Rey (in modern-day Iran), and died in 1209 in Herat (in modern-day Afghanistan).

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Fiqh

Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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Fire temple

A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians, often called dar-e mehr (Persian) or agiyari (Gujarati).

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Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

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Geography of Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a landlocked mountainous country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Ghaznavids

The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.

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Ghazni Province

Ghazni (غزنی; غزني) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southeastern part of the country.

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Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad

Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad (غیاث‌ الدین محمد بن سام), was sultan of the Ghurid dynasty from 1163 to 1202.

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Ghor Province

Ghōr (Pashto/غور), also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.

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Ghurid dynasty

The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun.

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Global Heritage Network

Global Heritage Network (GHN), established by Global Heritage Fund (GHF), was created in response to the damage and destruction facing culutral heritage sites throughout the developing world.

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Goharshad Begum

Goharshād Begum (گوهرشاد Gowharšād; meaning "joyful jewel" or "shining jewel"; alternative spelling: Gawharshād; died 19 July 1457) was a wife of Shāhrukh, the Emperor of the Timurid Empire of Herāt.

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Gorgan

Gorgan (گرگان; formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (استرآباد)) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran.

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Great Mosque of Herat

The Jama Masjid of Herat (Masjid al-Jumu‘ah Herāṫ), also known as the Masjid-i Jāmi‘ (مَسجدِ جَامع) of Herat, and the Great Mosque of Herat is a mosque in the city of Herat, in the Herat Province of north-western Afghanistan.

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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Hadith

Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hamdallah Mustawfi

Ḥamdallāh Mustawfī Qazvīnī (1281–1349; fa) was a Persian historian, geographer and epic poet who was descended from a family of Arab origin.

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Hamid Karzai International Airport

Hamid Karzai International Airport (د حامد کرزي نړيوال هوايي ډګر; میدان هوائی بین المللی حامدکرزی) is located from the city center of Kabul in Afghanistan.

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Hari (Afghanistan)

The Heray Rud River (Dari: هری رود Hari Rūd, Heray Rūd, i.e. "Herat River") is a river flowing from the mountains of central Afghanistan to Turkmenistan, where it disappears in the Kara-Kum desert forming the Tejend oasis.

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Hatefi

Hatefi, 'Abd-Allah (هاتفی) was a Persian poet (1454–1521) and nephew of Abdul Rahman Jami.

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Hazaras

The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

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Hephthalite Empire

The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.

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Herat Citadel

The Citadel of Herat (ارگ هرات, Pashto سکندرۍ کلا), also known as the Citadel of Alexander, and locally known as Qala Iktyaruddin (قلعه اختیارالدین), is located in the center of Herat in Afghanistan.

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Herat International Airport

Herat International Airport is located 10.5 km (6.5 mi) southeast of the city of Herat in western Afghanistan, east of the Herat-Farah road, close to Guzara in the Guzara District of the Herat Province.

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Herat Province

Herat (persian/Dari: هرات) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country.

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Herat University

Herāt University (Persian: دانشگاه هرات / Dānešgāhe Herāt; officially پوهنتون هرات / Pohantūne Herāt) is located in Herat, the capital of Herat Province, in western Afghanistan covering Herat, Badghis, Ghor and Farah Provinces.

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Highway 1 (Afghanistan)

Highway 1 or A01, formally called the Ring Road (د افغانستان حلقوي سړک; شاهراه حلقوی افغانستان), is an ancient 2,200 kilometre two-lane road network circulating inside Afghanistan, connecting the following major cities (clockwise): Kabul, Maidan Shar, Ghazni, Kandahar, Delaram, Herat, Sheberghan, Mazari Sharif, and Puli Khumri.

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Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".

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History of Afghanistan

The history of Afghanistan, (تاریخ افغانستان, د افغانستان تاريخ) began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani.

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History of the Jews in Afghanistan

Jews are said to have resided in Afghanistan for nearly 1,500 years, but the community has been reduced greatly because of emigration.

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Hotak dynasty

The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.

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Hulagu Khan

Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.

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Ibn Hawqal

Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal (محمد أبو القاسم بن حوقل, born in Nisibis, Upper Mesopotamia; travelled 943-969 CE) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim writer, geographer, and chronicler.

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Ilkhanate

The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.

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Indira Gandhi International Airport

Indira Gandhi International Airport serves as the primary civilian aviation hub for the National Capital Region of Delhi, India.

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International Security Assistance Force

The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Islam in Afghanistan

Islam in Afghanistan began to be practiced after the Arab Islamic conquest of Afghanistan from the 7th to the 10th centuries, with the last holdouts to conversion submitting in the late 19th century.

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Islam Qala

Islām Qala (Persian/Pashto: اسلام قلعه, also Eslām Qalʿeh), also known as Kafir Qala, is a border town in the western Herat province of Afghanistan, near the border with Iran.

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Islamic State of Afghanistan

The Islamic State of Afghanistan (دولت اسلامی افغانستان, Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan) was the official name of the country of Afghanistan after the fall of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

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IslamOnline

Islamonline is a global Islamic website on the Internet providing services to Muslims and non-Muslims in several languages.

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Ismail I

Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).

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Ismail Khan

Mohammad Ismail Khan (Persian: محمد اسماعیل خان) (born 1946) is a politician in Afghanistan, who served as Minister of Water and Energy from 2005 to 2013.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Istakhri

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al-Istakhri (آبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن محمد الفارسي الإصطخري) (also Estakhri, استخری, i.e. from the Iranian city of Istakhr, b. - d. 957 AD) was a Persian medieval geographer in medieval Islam and traveler of the 10th century.

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Jami

Nur ad-Dīn Abd ar-Rahmān Jāmī (نورالدین عبدالرحمن جامی), also known as Mawlanā Nūr al-Dīn 'Abd al-Rahmān or Abd-Al-Rahmān Nur-Al-Din Muhammad Dashti, or simply as Jami or Djāmī and in Turkey as Molla Cami (7 November 1414 – 9 November 1492), was a Persian poet who is known for his achievements as a prolific scholar and writer of mystical Sufi literature.

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Jumu'ah

Jumu'ah (صلاة الجمعة, ṣalāt al-jumu‘ah, "Friday prayer"), is a congregational prayer (ṣalāt) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon instead of the Zuhr prayer.

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Ka'ba-ye Zartosht

Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is the name of a stone quadrangular and stepped structure in the Naqsh-e Rustam compound beside Zangiabad village in Marvdasht county in Fars, Iran.

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Kabulistan

Kabulistan (Pashto/کابلستان) is a historical regional name referring to the territory that is centered on present-day Kabul Province of Afghanistan.

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Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād

Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād (c. 1450 – c. 1535), also known as Kamal al-din Bihzad or Kamaleddin Behzad (کمال‌الدین بهزاد), was a Persian painter and head of the royal ateliers in Herat and Tabriz during the late Timurid and early Safavid Persian periods.

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Kandahar

Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.

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Kandahar Province

Kandahar (کندھار; قندهار) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country next to Pakistan.

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Kandahar–Herat Highway

The Kandahar–Herat Highway is road that links the cities of Kandahar and Herat in Afghanistan.

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Kara Koyunlu

The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.

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Kara-Khanid Khanate

The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Khaf, Iran

Khaf (خواف; also Romanized as Khvāf and Khāf; also known as Qaşabeh-ye Rūd, Rūd, Rūi Khāf, and Rūy) is a city and capital of Khaf County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran.

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Khaled Hosseini

Khaled Hosseini (خالد حسیني.;; born March 4, 1965) is an Afghan-born American novelist and physician.

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Khalq

Khalq (خلق, meaning "Masses" or "People") was a faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).

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Khorasan Province

Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.

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Khwaja 'Abd Allah Ansari shrine

The Khwaja 'Abd Allah Ansari shrine, also known as Gazar Gah, is a funerary compound (hazira) in Herat, Afghanistan, that houses the tomb of the Sufi mystic and saint Khwajah Abdullah Ansari, also known as the guardian pir (wise man) of Herat.

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Khwaja Abdullah Ansari

Hazrat Shaikh Abu Ismaïl Abdullah al-Herawi al-Ansari or Khajah Abdullah Ansari of Herat (1006–1088) (خواجه عبدالله انصاری) also known as Pir-i Herat (پیر هرات) (sage of Herat) was a Persian Sufi saint of Arab origin who lived in the 11th century in Herat (then Khorasan, now Herat province, Afghanistan).

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Khwarazmian dynasty

The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.

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Kurt dynasty

The Kurt dynasty, also known as the Kartids was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Tajik origin, that ruled over a large part of Khorasan during the 13th and 14th centuries.

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Lashkargah

Lashkargāh (لښکرګاه; لشکرگاه), historically called Bost or Boost (بست، بوست), is a city in southwestern Afghanistan and the capital of Helmand Province.

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Latif Nazemi

Latif Nazemi (born 1947) is a Persian poet and literary critic from Afghanistan.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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List of cities in Afghanistan

The only city in Afghanistan with over 1 million population is its capital, Kabul.

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List of diplomatic missions of the United States

This is a list of diplomatic missions of the United States of America.

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List of governors of Herat

This is a list of the governors of the province of Herat, Afghanistan.

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List of highways numbered 1

The following highways are numbered 1.

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Mahmud of Ghazni

Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.

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Mary, Turkmenistan

Mary, formerly named Merv, Meru and Margiana, is a city on an oasis in the Karakum Desert, located on the Murghab river.

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Mashhad

Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.

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Mashhad International Airport

Mashhad International Airport (فرودگاه شهید هاشمی نژاد مشهد) is an international airport located in Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.

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Maymana

Maymana, Meymaneh or Maimana (Uzbek, Pashto, Persian: میمنه) is the capital of Faryab province, northern Afghanistan, near the Turkmenistan border.

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Mazar-i-Sharif

Mazar-i-Sharif (Dari/مزار شریف), often called just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN–Habitat population estimate between 577,500 and 693,000.

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Merv

Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Ministry of Energy and Water (Afghanistan)

The Afghan Ministry of Energy and Water is a ministry of the government of Afghanistan.

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Mirwais Sadiq

Mirwais Sadiq (1973 – March 21, 2004) was the Civil Aviation Minister of Afghanistan and the son of the Ismail Khan, who was then the governor of Herat Province.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mosque

A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Mujahideen

Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Muslim conquests of Afghanistan

The Muslim conquests of Afghanistan began during the Muslim conquest of Persia as the Arab Muslims were drawn eastwards to Khorasan, Sistan and Transoxiana.

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Nader Shah

Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

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Nancy Dupree

Nancy Hatch Dupree (October 3, 1927 – September 10, 2017) was an American historian whose work primarily focused on the history of modern Afghanistan.

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Naqsh-e Rustam

Naqsh-e Rustam (نقش رستم) is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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Nishapur

Nishapur or Nishabur (نیشابور, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nišâpur, Nişapur, Nīshābūr, Neyshābūr, and Neeshapoor, from Middle Persian: New-Shabuhr, meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur", or "Perfect built of Shapur") is a city in Razavi Khorasan Province, capital of the Nishapur County and former capital of Province Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains.

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Northern Alliance

The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i Afghānistān), was a united military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul.

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Nuh I

Nuh ibn Nasr, or Nuh I (died 954), was the amir of the Samanids in 943–954.

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Nuh II

Nuh II (نوح, died 23 July 997) was amir of the Samanids (976–997).

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Nur Muhammad Taraki

Nur Muhammad Taraki (15 July 1917 – 8 October 1979) was an Afghan statesman during the Cold War who served as President of Afghanistan from 1978 to 1979.

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Old Persian

Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).

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Operation Enduring Freedom

Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the official name used by the U.S. government for the Global War on Terrorism.

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Packard Humanities Institute

The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) is a non-profit foundation, established in 1987, and located in Los Altos, California, which funds projects in a wide range of conservation concerns in the fields of archaeology, music, film preservation, and historic conservation, plus Greek epigraphy, with an aim to create tools for basic research in the Humanities.

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Pahlavi dynasty

The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Pashto

Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.

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Pashtuns

The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection

The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection is an extensive map collection owned by the Perry-Castañeda Library at The University of Texas at Austin.

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Persepolis

Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian miniature

A Persian miniature (Persian:نگارگری ایرانی) is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa.

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Provinces of Afghanistan

Afghanistan is made up of 34 provinces (ولايت wilåyat).

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Qizilbash

Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.

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Quhistan

Quhistan (persian:.قهستان) or Kohistan (کهستان, "mountainous land") was a region of medieval Persia (Iran), essentially the southern part of Khurasan.

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Qutb Shah

Sayyed Abdullah Qutb Shah ibn Ya‘lā, al-Gilani, al Qadiri, was a medieval Persian Sufi, Muslim Preacher, religious scholar.

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Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".

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Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.

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Railway Gazette International

Railway Gazette International is a monthly business journal covering the railway, metro, light rail and tram industries worldwide.

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Rapping

Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rumi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Sabuktigin

Abu Mansur Sabuktigin (ابو منصور سبکتگین) (ca 942 – August 997), also spelled as Sabuktagin, Sabuktakin, Sebüktegin and Sebük Tigin, was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 367 A.H/977 A.D to 387 A.H/997A.D.C.E. Bosworth, in Encyclopaedia Iranica.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Saffarid dynasty

The Saffarid dynasty (سلسله صفاریان) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).

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Salman Rushdie

Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.

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Samanid Empire

The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.

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Samarkand

Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Satibarzanes

Satibarzanes (in Σατιβαρζάνης; died 330 BC), a Persian, was satrap of Aria under Darius III, king of Persia.

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Satrap

Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.

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Scythians

or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Serena Hotels

Serena Hotels is an hospitality company which operates up-scale hotels and resorts in East Africa, Southern Africa and South Asia.

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Shah Rukh

Shāh Rukh (شاهرخ Šāhrokh) (August 20, 1377 – March 13, 1447) was the Timurid ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by his father, Central Asian conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) who founded the Timurid dynasty, governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447.

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Shaybanids

The Shaybanids (سلسله شیبانیان) were a PersianizedIntroduction: The Turko-Persian tradition, Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, ed.

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Sher Khan Bandar

Shērkhān Bandar (Pashto/Dari: شېرخان بندر) is a border town and a port in the Kunduz Province of Afghanistan, next to the Panj River near the border with Tajikistan.

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Shia Islam in Afghanistan

Shia Islam in Afghanistan is practiced by a minority of the population; estimates vary from 7% to 15% or 20%.

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Siege of Herat (1838)

The Siege of Herat (1837–1838) was an unsuccessful attack on the Afghan city of Herat, by the Qajar dynasty of Persia, during the time of the Great Game.

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Simcha Jacobovici

Simcha Jacobovici (born April 4, 1953) is an Israeli-Canadian film director, producer, freelance journalist, and writer.

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Sistan

Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).

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Sonita Alizadeh

Sonita Alizadeh is an Afghan rapper and activist who has been vocal against forced marriages.

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Southern Pashto

Kandahārī Pashtō (کندهارۍ پښتو), also known as Southern Pashto, Western Pashto, or Southwestern Pashto, is a Pashto dialect, spoken in southern and western Afghanistan, including the city of Kandahar.

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Soviet Armed Forces

The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Strabo

Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara

Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara (حسین بایقرا / Husayn Bāyqarā) was born in Herat in June–July 1438 C.E. to Ghiyas ud-din Mansur Mirza son of Bayqarah Mirza I son of Umar Shaikh Mirza I son of Amir Timur Beg Gurkani.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Synagogue

A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.

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Taftazani

Sa'ad al-Din Masud ibn Umar ibn Abd Allah al-Taftazani (سعدالدین مسعودبن عمربن عبداللّه هروی خراسانی تفتازانی) also known as Al-Taftazani and Taftazani (1322–1390"Al-Taftazanni Sa'd al-Din Masud b. Umar b. Abdullah", in Encyclopedia Islam by W. Madelung, Brill. 2007) was a Muslim Persian polymath.

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Tahir ibn Husayn

āhir ibn Ḥusayn (طاهر بن حسین, Tâhereben Hoseyn; طاهر بن الحسين, Tahir bin al-Husayn), also known as Dhul-Yamīnayn (ذو اليمينين, "the ambidextrous"), and al-Aʿwar (الأعور, "the one-eyed"), was an Iranian general and governor during the Abbasid caliphate.

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Tahirid dynasty

The Tahirid dynasty (طاهریان, Tâhiriyân) was a dynasty, of PersianThe Tahirids and Saffarids, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol.

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Tahmasp I

Tahmasp I (شاه تهماسب یکم) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty.

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Taliban

The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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The Enchantress of Florence

The Enchantress of Florence is the ninth novel by Salman Rushdie, published in 2008.

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The Great Game

"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Timur

Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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Timurid dynasty

The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.

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Torbat-e Heydarieh

Torbat-e Heydarieh (تربت حيدريه, also Romanized as Torbat-e Ḩeydarīyeh; also known as Torbat-e Heydari, Turbat-i-Haidari, Torbate Heydari, and Turbet-i-Haidari) is a city and capital of Torbat-e Heydarieh County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran.

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Torghundi

Torghundi (تورغونډۍ, Tōrghūnḍəi) is a border checkpoint and border crossing in northern Herat province of Afghanistan.

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Train Advise Assist Command – West

Train Advise Assist Command – West (TAAC – West) is a multinational military formation, part of NATO's Resolute Support Mission within Afghanistan.

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Transoxiana

Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.

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Treaty of Paris (1857)

The Treaty of Paris (1857) marked the end of the hostilities of the Anglo-Persian War.

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Trousers

Trousers (British English) or pants (American English) are an item of clothing originating in Asia, worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately (rather than with cloth extending across both legs as in robes, skirts, and dresses).

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Tunic

A tunic is any of several types of garment for the body, usually simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the ankles.

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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Turkmens

The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.

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Tus, Iran

Tus (fa or fa Tus or Tuws), also spelled as Tous, Toos or Tūs, is an ancient city in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran near Mashhad.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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University of Nebraska–Lincoln

The University of Nebraska–Lincoln, often referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.

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University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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Ustadh Sis

Ustadh Sis (also spelled: Ustad Sis, or Ostad Sis, استاذ سیس) was a Persian heresiarch and anti-Arab rebel leader.

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Uzbeks

The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.

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Vanderbilt University

Vanderbilt University (informally Vandy) is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee.

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Wilayah

A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".

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Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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Xionites

Xionites, Chionites, or Chionitae (Middle Persian: Xiyōn or Hiyōn; Avestan: Xiiaona; Sogdian xwn; Pahlavi Xyon) are Romanisations of the ethnonym of a nomadic people who were prominent in Transoxania, Bactria and Iran during the 4th and 7th centuries CE.

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Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar

Ya'qūb ibn al-Layth al-Saffār (يعقوب بن الليث الصفار), or Ya'qūb-i Layth-i Saffārī (یعقوب لیث صفاری), born Rādmān pūr-i Māhak (رادمان پور ماهک) (October 25, 840 – June 5, 879), a Persian coppersmith, was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty of Sistan, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in south-western Afghanistan).

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Yahya ibn Asad

Yahya (died 855) was a Samanid ruler of Shash (819–855) and Samarkand (851/852–855).

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Yazid ibn al-Muhallab

Yazid ibn al-Muhallab (يزيد بن المهلب) (672–720) was a provincial governor in the time of the Umayyad dynasty and the progenitor of the Muhallabid family that became important in early Abbasid times.

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Zaranj

Zaranj or Zarang (Persian/Pashto/زرنج) is a city in southwestern Afghanistan, near the border with Iran, which has a population of 160,902 people as of 2015.

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Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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1979 Herat uprising

The 1979 Herat uprising was an insurrection that took place in and around the town of Herat, Afghanistan in March 1979.

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2001 uprising in Herat

The 2001 uprising in Herat was a coordinated insurrection and uprising in the Afghan city of Herat as part of the United States war in Afghanistan.

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207th Corps (Afghanistan)

The 207th 'Zabar' (Victory) Corps is a corps of the Afghan National Army.

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Alexandria Areion, Haraiva, Harev, Heart, AF, Herat city, Herat, Afghanistan, Herati, Herāt, Herāt, Afghanistan, Hirat, Hirat District, History of Herat, Sultanate of Herat.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herat

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