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Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

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Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War. [1]

309 relations: A. N. Wilson, Abbas Helmi II of Egypt, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, Agadir Crisis, Alexandre Millerand, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, Amiens, Anatolia, Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Ansar (Sudan), Appendicitis, Arabic, Archibald Murray, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Aristide Briand, Arkhangelsk, Armée de la Loire, Armored cruiser, Army Council (1904), Army Reserve (United Kingdom), Arthur Power Palmer, Aspall, Suffolk, Australia, Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, İskenderun, B. H. Liddell Hart, Ballylongford, Barham, Kent, Battle of Adwa, Battle of Atbara, Battle of Ferkeh, Battle of Jutland, Battle of Le Cateau, Battle of Loos, Battle of Omdurman, Battle of Paardeberg, Battle of Toski, Beaufort scale, Binbashi, Bindon Blood, Blue plaque, Boer, Breaker Morant, British Army, British Army during World War I, British concentration camps, British History Online, British Indian Army, Broome Park, ..., Buggery, Bushveldt Carbineers, C. P. 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A. N. Wilson

Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer and newspaper columnist known for his critical biographies, novels and works of popular history.

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Abbas Helmi II of Egypt

Abbas II Helmy Bey (also known as ‘Abbās Ḥilmī Pasha, عباس حلمي باشا) (14 July 1874 – 19 December 1944) was the last Khedive (Ottoman viceroy) of Egypt and Sudan, ruling from 8 January 1892 to 19 December 1914.

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Abdallahi ibn Muhammad

Abdullah Ibn-Mohammed Al-Khalifa or Abdullah al-Khalifa or Abdullahi al-Khalifa, also known as "The Khalifa" (c.; 1846 – November 25, 1899) was a Sudanese Ansar ruler who was one of the principal followers of Muhammad Ahmad.

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Agadir Crisis

The Agadir Crisis or Second Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Panthersprung in German) was a brief international crisis sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of Morocco in April 1911.

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Alexandre Millerand

Alexandre Millerand (10 February 1859 – 7 April 1943) was a French politician and freemason.

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Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner

Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, (23 March 185413 May 1925) was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy between the mid-1890s and early 1920s.

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Amiens

Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan

The Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan in 1896–1899 was a reconquest of territory lost by the Khedives of Egypt in 1884 and 1885 during the Mahdist War.

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Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.

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Ansar (Sudan)

The Ansar (أنصار), or followers of the Mahdi, is a Sufi religious movement in the Sudan whose followers are disciples of Muhammad Ahmad (12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885), the self-proclaimed Mahdi.

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Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Archibald Murray

General Sir Archibald James Murray, (23 April 1860 – 21 January 1945) was a British Army officer who served in the Second Boer War and the First World War.

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Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell

Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.

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Aristide Briand

Aristide Briand (28 March 18627 March 1932) was a French statesman who served eleven terms as Prime Minister of France during the French Third Republic and was a co-laureate of the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize.

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Arkhangelsk

Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Armée de la Loire

The Armée de la Loire was a French army of the Franco-Prussian War.

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Armored cruiser

The armored cruiser was a type of warship of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Army Council (1904)

The Army Council was the supreme administering body of the British Army from its creation in 1904 until it was reconstituted as the Army Board in 1964.

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Army Reserve (United Kingdom)

The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army.

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Arthur Power Palmer

General Sir Arthur Power Palmer (25 June 1840 – 28 February 1904) was Commander-in-Chief, India between March 1900 and December 1902.

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Aspall, Suffolk

Aspall is a village and civil parish in the Mid Suffolk district of Suffolk, England.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force.

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İskenderun

İskenderun (الإسكندرونة, Αλεξανδρέττα "Little Alexandria"), historically known as Alexandretta and Scanderoon, is a city and the largest district in Hatay Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

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B. H. Liddell Hart

Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart (31 October 1895 – 29 January 1970), commonly known throughout most of his career as Captain B. H. Liddell Hart, was a British soldier, military historian and military theorist.

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Ballylongford

Ballylongford (historically Bealalongford, from) is a village near Listowel in north County Kerry, Ireland.

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Barham, Kent

Barham is a village and civil parish in the City of Canterbury district of Kent, England.

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Battle of Adwa

The Battle of Adwa (Amharic: አድዋ; Amharic translated: Adowa, or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was fought on 1 March 1896 between the Ethiopian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, Ethiopia, in Tigray.

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Battle of Atbara

The Battle of Atbara took place during the Second Sudan War.

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Battle of Ferkeh

The Battle of Ferkeh (or Firket) occurred during the Mahdist War when an army of the Mahdist Sudanese was surprised and wiped out by the British and Egyptian forces under Sir Herbert Kitchener on 7 June 1896.

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Battle of Jutland

The Battle of Jutland (Skagerrakschlacht, the Battle of Skagerrak) was a naval battle fought by the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, against the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer during the First World War.

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Battle of Le Cateau

The Battle of Le Cateau was fought on 26 August 1914, after the British and French retreated from the Battle of Mons and had set up defensive positions in a fighting withdrawal against the German advance at Le Cateau-Cambrésis.

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Battle of Loos

The Battle of Loos was a battle that took place from 1915 in France on the Western Front, during the First World War.

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Battle of Omdurman

At the Battle of Omdurman (2 September 1898), an army commanded by the British General Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah al-Taashi, the successor to the self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad.

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Battle of Paardeberg

The Battle of Paardeberg or Perdeberg ("Horse Mountain") was a major battle during the Second Anglo-Boer War.

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Battle of Toski

The battle of Toski (Tushkah) took place on August 3, 1889 in Egypt between the Anglo-Egyptian forces and the Mahdist Sudanese.

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Beaufort scale

The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure that relates wind speed to observed conditions at sea or on land.

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Binbashi

A binbashi, alternatively bimbashi, (from Binbaşı, "chief of a thousand", "chiliarch") is a major in the Turkish army, of which term originated in the Ottoman army.

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Bindon Blood

General Sir Bindon Blood, GCB, GCVO (7 November 1842 – 16 May 1940) was a British Army commander who served in Egypt, Afghanistan, India and Southern Africa.

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Blue plaque

A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker.

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Boer

Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".

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Breaker Morant

Harry "Breaker" Harbord Morant (9 December 1864 – 27 February 1902) was an Anglo-Australian drover, horseman, bush poet, military officer and convicted war criminal.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Army during World War I

The British Army during World War I fought the largest and most costly war in its long history.

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British concentration camps

British concentration camps refers to internment camps operated by the British in South Africa during the Second Boer War in years 1900–1902.

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British History Online

British History Online is a digital library of primary and secondary sources on medieval and modern history of Great Britain and Ireland.

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British Indian Army

The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.

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Broome Park

Broome Park is a Grade I listed building in Barham, within the City of Canterbury, Kent, England.

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Buggery

The British English term buggery is very close in meaning to the term sodomy, often used interchangeably in law and popular speech.

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Bushveldt Carbineers

The Bushveldt Carbineers (BVC) were a short-lived, irregular mounted infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in South Africa during the Second Boer War.

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C. P. Scott

Charles Prestwich Scott (26 October 1846 – 1 January 1932), usually cited as C. P. Scott, was a British journalist, publisher and politician.

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Canterbury

Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.

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Cape Colony

The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.

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Captain (British Army and Royal Marines)

Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2.

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Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.

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Charles à Court Repington

Lieutenant Colonel Charles à Court Repington,, (29 January 1858 – 25 May 1925) known until 1903 as Charles à Court, was a British Army officer and later a war correspondent.

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Charles George Gordon

Major-General Charles George Gordon CB (28 January 1833 – 26 January 1885), also known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha, and Gordon of Khartoum, was a British Army officer and administrator.

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Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst

Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, (20 June 1858 – 2 August 1944) was a British diplomat and statesman who served as Viceroy and Governor-General of India from 1910–16.

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Chatham, Kent

Chatham is one of the Medway towns located within the Medway unitary authority, in North Kent, in South East England.

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Chevalliers of Aspall Hall

The Chevalliers of Aspall Hall are a family in Britain.

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Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom)

Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964.

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Claude Reignier Conder

Claude Reignier Conder (29 December 1848, Cheltenham – 16 February 1910, Cheltenham) was an English soldier, explorer and antiquarian.

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Colonel

Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.

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Colony of Natal

The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa.

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Command and Staff College

The Command and Staff College is a Pakistani military training institution where officers receive staff training and education.

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Commander-in-Chief of British Forces in South Africa

The Commander-in-Chief of British Forces in South Africa was the title of the British Army general who held command of British forces during the Second Boer War.

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Commander-in-Chief, India

During the period of the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India (often "Commander-in-Chief in or of India") was the supreme commander of the British Indian Army.

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Commando

A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.

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Committee of Imperial Defence

The Committee of Imperial Defence was an important ad hoc part of the government of the United Kingdom and the British Empire from just after the Second Boer War until the start of the Second World War.

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Commonwealth War Graves Commission

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars.

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Conspiracy theory

A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes an unwarranted conspiracy, generally one involving an illegal or harmful act carried out by government or other powerful actors.

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County Kerry

County Kerry (Contae Chiarraí) is a county in Ireland.

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Court-martial

A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.

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Criminal libel

Criminal libel is a legal term, of English origin, which may be used with one of two distinct meanings, in those common law jurisdictions where it is still used.

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Crown Colony of Malta

The Crown Colony of the Island of Malta and its Dependencies (commonly known as the Crown Colony of Malta) was a British colony in the present-day Republic of Malta.

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Curragh incident

The Curragh incident of 20 March 1914, also known as the Curragh mutiny, occurred in the Curragh, County Kildare, Ireland.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Daily Mail

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.

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Dakar

Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.

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David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty

Admiral of the Fleet David Richard Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty (17 January 1871 – 11 March 1936) was a Royal Navy officer.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.

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Detmar Blow

Detmar Jellings Blow (24 November 1867 – 7 February 1939) was a British architect of the early 20th century, who designed principally in the arts and crafts style.

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Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig

Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928), was a senior officer of the British Army.

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Dudley

Dudley is a large town in the county of West Midlands, England, south-east of Wolverhampton and north-west of Birmingham.

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Duquesne Spy Ring

The Duquesne Spy Ring is the largest espionage case in United States history that ended in convictions.

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Earl

An earl is a member of the nobility.

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Earl Kitchener

Earl Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Broome in the County of Kent, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

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Edward VII

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Emily Hobhouse

Emily Hobhouse (9 April 1860 – 8 June 1926) was a British welfare campaigner, who is primarily remembered for bringing to the attention of the British public, and working to change, the deprived conditions inside the British concentration camps in South Africa built to incarcerate Boer women and children during the Second Boer War.

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Emperor of India

Emperor (or Empress) of India The Indian form of the title was Kaisar-i-Hind.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Ennoblement

Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble class.

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Erich Ludendorff

Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.

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Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer

Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer (26 February 1841 – 29 January 1917), was a British statesman, diplomat and colonial administrator.

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Execution by firing squad

Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading (from the French fusil, rifle), is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war.

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Fashoda Incident

The Fashoda Incident or Crisis was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa, occurring in 1898.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Field marshal (United Kingdom)

Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.

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First Army (United Kingdom)

The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.

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First Battle of the Marne

The Battle of the Marne (Première bataille de la Marne, also known as the Miracle of the Marne, Le Miracle de la Marne) was a World War I battle fought from It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west.

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Fort Amherst

Fort Amherst, in Medway, South East England, was constructed in 1756 at the southern end of the Brompton lines of defence to protect the southeastern approaches to Chatham Dockyard and the River Medway against a French invasion.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francis Bertie, 1st Viscount Bertie of Thame

Francis Leveson Bertie, 1st Viscount Bertie of Thame, ("barty of tame"; 17 August 1844 – 26 September 1919) was a British diplomat.

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Francis Grenfell, 1st Baron Grenfell

Field Marshal Francis Wallace Grenfell, 1st Baron Grenfell, GCB, GCMG, PC (29 April 1841 – 27 January 1925) was a British Army officer.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Francophile

A Francophile (Gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people.

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Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts

Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, (30 September 1832 – 14 November 1914) was a British soldier who was one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century.

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Freedom of the City

The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary.

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Freemasonry

Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.

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French Navy

The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.

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Fritz Joubert Duquesne

Frederick "Fritz" Joubert Duquesne (21 September 187724 May 1956; sometimes Du Quesne) was a South African Boer and German soldier, big-game hunter, journalist, and a spy.

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G. K. Chesterton

Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.

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G. W. Steevens

George Warrington "G.

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Gale

A gale is a strong wind, typically used as a descriptor in nautical contexts.

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Galilee

Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.

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Gallipoli Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.

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Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley

Field Marshal Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley (4 June 1833 – 25 March 1913), was an Anglo-Irish officer in the British Army.

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General (United Kingdom)

General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston

George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), known as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911 and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman.

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George Luck

General Sir George Luck, (1840 – 10 December 1916) was a British Army officer.

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George V

George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.

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George Witton

George Ramsdale Witton (1874–1942) was a lieutenant in the Bushveldt Carbineers in the Boer War in South Africa.

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Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto

Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto (9 July 18451 March 1914) was a British aristocrat and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the eighth since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the country's 17th.

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Gordon Memorial College

Gordon Memorial College was an educational institution in Sudan.

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Governor of Bermuda

The Governor of Bermuda is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Bermuda.

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Governor-General of India

The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.

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Grafting (knitting)

In knitting, grafting is the joining of two knitted fabrics using yarn and a needle in one of three types of seams.

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Grand Quartier Général (1914–1919)

The Grand Quartier Général (abbreviated to GQG or Grand QG in spoken French) was the general headquarters of the French Army during the First World War.

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Great Retreat (Russian)

The Great Retreat was a strategic withdrawal from the Galicia-Poland salient conducted by the Imperial Russian Army during September 1915 in World War I. The Russians' critically under-equipped and (at the points of engagement) outnumbered forces suffered great losses in the Central Powers' July–September summer offensive operations, this leading to the Stavka ordering a withdrawal to shorten the front lines and avoid the potential encirclement of large Russian forces in the salient.

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H. A. Gwynne

Howell Arthur Keir Gwynne, CH (1865–1950) was a British author, newspaper editor of the London Morning Post from 1911 to 1937.

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H. H. Asquith

Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916.

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H. Montgomery Hyde

Harford Montgomery Hyde (14 August 1907 – 10 August 1989), born in Belfast, was a barrister, politician (Ulster Unionist MP for Belfast North), prolific author and biographer.

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Hôtel de Crillon

The Hôtel de Crillon in Paris is a historic luxury hotel that opened in 1909 — in a building dating to 1758.

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Henry Kitchener, 2nd Earl Kitchener

Colonel Henry Elliott Chevallier Kitchener, 2nd Earl Kitchener (5 October 1846 – 27 March 1937), was a British soldier and peer.

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Hinson's Island, Bermuda

Hinson's Island is a small island within the Great Sound, Bermuda of Bermuda.

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HMS Hampshire (1903)

HMS Hampshire was one of six armoured cruisers built for the Royal Navy in the first decade of the 20th century.

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HMS Oak (1912)

HMS Oak was a modified ''Acheron''-class destroyer of the Royal Navy.

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Hodder & Stoughton

Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hachette.

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Holy Land

The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.

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Homosexuality

Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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House of Lords

The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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I Was Lord Kitchener's Valet

I Was Lord Kitchener's Valet was a clothing boutique which achieved fame in 1960s "Swinging London" by promoting antique military uniforms as fashion items.

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Ian Hamilton (British Army officer)

General Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton, (16 January 1853 – 12 October 1947) was a senior officer in the British Army, who is most notable for commanding the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force during the Gallipoli Campaign.

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Internment

Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.

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Ipswich

Ipswich is the county town of Suffolk, England, located on the estuary of the River Orwell, about north east of London.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irish Guards

The Irish Guards (IG), part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army and, together with the Royal Irish Regiment, it is one of the two Irish infantry regiments in the British Army.

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Irish republicanism

Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.

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Iron Cross

The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Ivor Herbert, 1st Baron Treowen

Major-General Ivor John Caradoc Herbert, 1st Baron Treowen, CB, CMG, KStJ (15 July 1851 – 18 October 1933), known as Sir Ivor Herbert, Bt, between 1907 and 1917, was a British Liberal politician and British Army officer in the Grenadier Guards,His name is given as "Colonel Ivor Herbert, of the Grenadier Guards" in 1896 in an article about his grandmother's death.

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J. E. B. Seely, 1st Baron Mottistone

Major-General John Edward Bernard Seely, 1st Baron Mottistone (31 May 1868 – 7 November 1947) was a British Army general and politician.

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James Wolfe Murray

Lieutenant-General Sir James Wolfe Murray (13 March 1853 – 17 October 1919) was a British Army officer who served in the Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War, Second Boer War and First World War.

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Jean-Baptiste Marchand

General Jean-Baptiste Marchand (2 November 1863 – 13 January 1934) was a French military officer and explorer in Africa.

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John Eldon Gorst

Sir John Eldon Gorst (24 May 1835 – 4 April 1916) was a British lawyer and politician.

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John French, 1st Earl of Ypres

Field Marshal John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, (28 September 1852 – 22 May 1925), known as Sir John French from 1901 to 1916, and as The Viscount French between 1916 and 1922, was a senior British Army officer.

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John Morley

John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn, (24 December 1838 – 23 September 1923) was a British Liberal statesman, writer and newspaper editor.

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Jordan River

The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.

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Joseph Joffre

Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 – 3 January 1931), was a French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916.

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Kates Hill

Kates Hill is a residential area in Dudley, West Midlands, England.

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Khartoum

Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.

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Khedive

The term Khedive (خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.

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Kitchener bun

A Kitchener bun is a type of sweet pastry made and sold in South Australia.

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Kitchener's Army

The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army or, disparagingly, as Kitchener's Mob, was an (initially) all-volunteer army of the British Army formed in the United Kingdom from 1914 onwards following the outbreak of hostilities in the First World War in late July 1914.

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Kitchener, Ontario

The City of Kitchener is a city in Southern Ontario, Canada.

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Lancashire Fusiliers

The Lancashire Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that saw distinguished service through many centuries and wars, including the Second Boer War both World War I and World War II, and had many different titles throughout its 280 years of existence.

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Landships Committee

The Landships Committee was a small British committee formed during the First World War to develop armoured fighting vehicles for use on the Western Front.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Lieutenant colonel

Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.

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Lieutenant general

Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.

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List of diplomats of the United Kingdom to Egypt

The Ambassador of the United Kingdom to Egypt is the United Kingdom's foremost diplomatic representative in Egypt, and in charge of the UK's diplomatic mission in Egypt.

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List of governors of pre-independence Sudan

This is a list of Egyptian and European colonial administrators (as well as leaders of the Mahdist Sudan) responsible for the territory of the Egyptian Sudan and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, an area equivalent to modern-day Sudan and South Sudan.

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Listowel

Listowel is a Heritage town and a market town in County Kerry, Ireland, and is situated on the River Feale, from the county town, Tralee.

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Liverpool Street station

Liverpool Street station, also known as London Liverpool Street, is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in the north-eastern corner of the City of London, in the ward of Bishopsgate.

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Lord Alfred Douglas

Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (22 October 187020 March 1945), nicknamed Bosie, was a British author, poet, translator, and political commentator, better known as the friend and lover of Oscar Wilde.

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Lord Kitchener Wants You

Lord Kitchener Wants You is a 1914 advertisement by Alfred Leete which was developed into a recruitment poster.

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Louis Botha

Louis Botha (27 September 1862 – 27 August 1919) was a South African politician who was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa—the forerunner of the modern South African state.

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Macedonian Front

The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.

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Mahdist War

The Mahdist War (الثورة المهدية ath-Thawra al-Mahdī; 1881–99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the "Guided One"), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain.

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Mainland, Orkney

The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland.

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Major

Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.

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Major general

Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.

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Mark Urban

Mark Urban (born 1961) is a British journalist, historian, author, broadcaster and orientalist, and is currently the Diplomatic Editor for BBC Two's Newsnight.

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Maurice Hankey, 1st Baron Hankey

Maurice Pascal Alers Hankey, 1st Baron Hankey, (1 April 1877 – 26 January 1963) was a British civil servant who gained prominence as the first Cabinet Secretary and who later made the rare transition from the civil service to ministerial office.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Mentioned in dispatches

A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches (or despatches, MiD) is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described.

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MI5

The Security Service, also MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence (DI).

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middlesex Yeomanry

The Middlesex Yeomanry was a volunteer cavalry regiment originally raised in 1797.

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Military Service Act 1916

The Military Service Act 1916 was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom during the First World War.

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Militia (United Kingdom)

The Militia of the United Kingdom were the military reserve forces of the United Kingdom after the Union in 1801 of the former Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland.

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Milne Cheetham

Sir Joshua Milne Crompton Cheetham, KCMG (9 July 1869 – 6 January 1938) was a British diplomat.

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Missionary

A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.

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Montreux

Montreux is a municipality in the district of Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Mosque

A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Muhammad Ahmad

Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on 29 June 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.

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O'Moore Creagh

General Sir Garrett O'Moore Creagh (2 April 1848 – 9 August 1923), known as Sir O'Moore Creagh, was a senior British Army officer and an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

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Orange Free State

The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa.

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Order of Merit

The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.

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Order of Osmanieh

The Order of Osmanieh or Osmaniye (Osmanlı Devlet Nişanı) was a military decoration of the Ottoman Empire.

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Order of St Michael and St George

The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.

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Order of St Patrick

The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is a dormant British order of chivalry associated with Ireland.

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Order of the Bath

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.

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Order of the Garter

The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.

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Order of the Indian Empire

The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878.

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Order of the Medjidie

Medjidie or Mejidie (Mecidiye Nişanı, August 29, 1852 – 1922) is the name of a military and knightly order of the Ottoman Empire.

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Order of the Star of India

The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861.

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Orkney

Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.

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Palestine Exploration Fund

The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.

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Palestine grid

The Palestine grid (Arabic: التربيع الفلسطيني) was the geographic coordinate system used in Mandatory Palestine.

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Percy Girouard

Sir Édouard Percy Cranwill Girouard, (26 January 1867 – 26 September 1932) was a Canadian railway builder and Governor of Northern Nigeria and the East Africa Protectorate.

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Peter Handcock

Peter Joseph Handcock (17 February 1868 – 27 February 1902) was an Australian-born Veterinary Lieutenant in the Bushveldt Carbineers during the Boer War in South Africa.

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Polokwane

Polokwane (meaning "Place of Safety" in Northern Sotho City of Polokwane official website. Retrieved on October 15, 2009.), also known by its former name, Pietersburg, is the capital of the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

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Prince George, Duke of Cambridge

Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, (George William Frederick Charles; 26 March 1819 – 17 March 1904) was a member of the British Royal Family, a male-line grandson of King George III, cousin of Queen Victoria, and maternal uncle of Queen Mary, consort of King George V. The Duke was an army officer by profession and served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces (military head of the British Army) from 1856 to 1895.

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Proconsul

A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.

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Public housing in the United Kingdom

Public housing in the United Kingdom provided the majority of rented accommodation in the country until 2011.

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Quartermaster general

A quartermaster general is the staff officer in charge of supplies for a whole army.

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Quetta

Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Rashtriya Indian Military College

The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC) is a public school for boys situated in Doon Valley, Dehradun in India.

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Rawalpindi Parade 1905

The Rawalpindi Parade 1905 was a parade by the British Indian Army held in Rawalpindi, India on 8 December 1905 to honour the Prince and Princess of Wales.

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Raymond Poincaré

Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France from 1913 to 1920.

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Recruitment to the British Army during the First World War

At the beginning of 1914 the British Army had a reported strength of 710,000 men including reserves, of which around 80,000 were regular troops ready for war.

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Rector of the University of Edinburgh

The Lord Rector of the University of Edinburgh is elected every three years by the students and staff at the University of Edinburgh.

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Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher

Reginald Baliol Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher, (30 June 1852 – 22 January 1930) was a historian and Liberal politician in the United Kingdom, although his greatest influence over military and foreign affairs was as a courtier, member of public committees and behind-the-scenes "fixer", or rather éminence grise.

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Reginald McKenna

Reginald McKenna (6 July 1863 – 6 September 1943) was a British banker and Liberal politician.

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Reginald Wingate

General Sir Francis Reginald Wingate, 1st Baronet, (25 June 1861 – 29 January 1953) was a British general and administrator in Egypt and the Sudan.

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René Viviani

Jean Raphaël Adrien René Viviani (8 November 18637 September 1925) was a French politician of the Third Republic, who served as Prime Minister for the first year of World War I. He was born in Sidi Bel Abbès, in French Algeria.

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RMS Dunottar Castle

RMS Dunottar Castle was a Royal Mail Ship that went into service with the Castle Line (and its successor, the Union-Castle Line) in 1890 on the passenger and mail service between Britain and South Africa.

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Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury

Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 183022 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.

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Robin Neillands

Robin Hunter Neillands (3 December 1935 – 30 January 2006) was a British writer, born in Glasgow, who specialized in travel and military history.

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Royal Engineers

The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.

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Royal Military Academy, Woolwich

The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers.

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Royal Mint

The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.

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Royal Scots

The Royal Scots (The Royal Regiment), once known as the Royal Regiment of Foot, was the oldest and most senior infantry regiment of the line of the British Army, having been raised in 1633 during the reign of Charles I of Scotland.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Safed

Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.

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Scapa Flow

Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.

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Scorched earth

A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scout (Scouting)

A Scout (in some countries a Boy Scout, Girl Scout or Pathfinder) is a child, usually 10–18 years of age, participating in the worldwide Scouting movement.

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Scouting

Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills.

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Scrabster

Scrabster (Scraibster, Sgrabastair/Sgrabstal) is a small settlement on Thurso Bay in Caithness on the north coast of Scotland.

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Second Boer War

The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.

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Secretary of State for India

The Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Raj (India), Aden, and Burma.

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Secretary of State for War

The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a British cabinet-level position, first held by Henry Dundas (appointed in 1794).

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Shell Crisis of 1915

The Shell Crisis of 1915 was a shortage of artillery shells on the front lines of World War I that led to a political crisis in Britain.

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Siege of Kimberley

The Siege of Kimberley took place during the Second Boer War at Kimberley, Cape Colony (present-day South Africa), when Boer forces from the Orange Free State and the Transvaal besieged the diamond mining town.

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Siege of Kut

The Siege of Kut Al Amara (7 December 1915 – 29 April 1916), also known as the First Battle of Kut, was the besieging of an 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army.

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Sir Henry Wilson, 1st Baronet

Field Marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet, (5 May 1864 – 22 June 1922) was one of the most senior British Army staff officers of the First World War and was briefly an Irish unionist politician.

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Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet

Field Marshal Sir William Robert Robertson, 1st Baronet, (29 January 1860 – 12 February 1933) was a British Army officer who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) – the professional head of the British Army – from 1916 to 1918 during the First World War.

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Sirdar

Sirdar, a variant of Sardar – was assigned to the British Commander-in-Chief of the British-controlled Egyptian Army in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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SM U-75

SM U-75 was one of the 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy in World War I. U-75 was engaged in naval warfare and took part in the First Battle of the Atlantic.

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South African Republic

The South African Republic (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), often referred to as the Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902.

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Southampton

Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.

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St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate

St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate is a Church of England church in the City of London, and also, by virtue of lying outside the City's (now demolished) eastern walls, part of London's East End.

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St George's Church, Eastergate

St George's Church is an Anglican church in the village of Eastergate in West Sussex, England.

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St James's Palace

St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.

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St Paul's Cathedral

St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.

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Stained glass

The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.

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Statue of the Earl Kitchener, London

The statue of the Earl Kitchener is an outdoor bronze statue by John Tweed depicting Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, installed in 1926 and located on the south side of Horse Guards Parade in London, United Kingdom.

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Stavka

The Stavka (Ставка) was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.

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Suakin

Suakin or Sawakin (سواكن Sawákin) is a port city in north-eastern Sudan, on the west coast of the Red Sea, which has been leased to the Republic of Turkey for 99 years by bilateral agreement.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sudan Military Railroad

The Sudan Military Railroad was a military railway constructed from Wadi Halfa to Abu Hamed during 1896–97 by Sirdar Horatio Kitchener in order to supply the Anglo-Egyptian army prosecuting the Mahdist War.

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Sunday Referee

The Sunday Referee was a Sunday newspaper in the United Kingdom.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Territorial designation

In the United Kingdom, a territorial designation follows modern peerage titles, linking them to a specific place or places.

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The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (AJC) is the only major daily newspaper in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Right Honourable

The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and to certain collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, India, some other Commonwealth realms, the Anglophone Caribbean, Mauritius, and occasionally elsewhere.

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Transvaal Colony

The Transvaal Colony was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Anglo-Boer War in 1902 when the South African Republic was dissolved, and the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910.

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Treaty of Vereeniging

The Treaty of Vereeniging (commonly referred to as Peace of Vereeniging) was the peace treaty, signed on 31 May 1902, that ended the Second Boer War between the South African Republic and the Republic of the Orange Free State, on the one side, and the United Kingdom on the other.

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Two pounds (British coin)

The British two pound (£2) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.

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United Grand Lodge of England

The United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) is the governing body for the majority of freemasons within England and Wales with lodges in other, predominantly ex-British Empire and Commonwealth countries outside the United Kingdom.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Vaal River

The Vaal River is the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa.

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Verdun

Verdun (official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France.

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Victor Bonham-Carter

Victor Bonham-Carter (13 December 1913 – 13 March 2007) was an English author, farmer and publisher.

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Victoria County History

The Victoria History of the Counties of England, commonly known as the Victoria County History or the VCH, is an English history project which began in 1899 and was dedicated to Queen Victoria with the aim of creating an encyclopaedic history of each of the historic counties of England.

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Walter Kitchener

Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Walter Kitchener, KCB (26 May 1858 – 6 March 1912), known as Walter Kitchener, was a British soldier and colonial administrator.

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War Office

The War Office was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence.

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West Midlands (county)

The West Midlands is a metropolitan county and city region in western-central England with a 2014 estimated population of 2,808,356, making it the second most populous county in England.

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West Sussex

West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove) to the east, Hampshire to the west and Surrey to the north, and to the south the English Channel.

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Western Front (World War I)

The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.

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Westminster

Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.

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William Birdwood

Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, (13 September 1865 – 17 May 1951) was a British Army officer.

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William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Worcestershire

Worcestershire (written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county in the West Midlands of England.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Worshipful Company of Grocers

The Worshipful Company of Grocers is one of the 110 Livery Companies of the City of London and ranks second in order of precedence.

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Zanzibar

Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Kitchener,_1st_Earl_Kitchener

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