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Herbert Spencer

Index Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era. [1]

193 relations: Abraham Cahan, Adrian Desmond, American Sociological Association, Anarchism, Anarcho-capitalism, Anthropologist, Anti-imperialism, Antimilitarism, Antipositivism, Anton Chekhov, Aristotle, Arnold Bennett, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Associationism, Athenaeum Club, London, Auberon Herbert, Auguste Comte, Émile Durkheim, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bath, Somerset, Beatrice Webb, Benjamin Disraeli, Bertrand Russell, Biologist, Bolesław Prus, Brian Doherty (journalist), Brighton, Cato Institute, Charles Darwin, Charles Sanders Peirce, Classical liberalism, Composition (language), Crane Brinton, D. H. Lawrence, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution, Deism, Democritus, Derby, Derby Philosophical Society, Dhondo Keshav Karve, Due Process Clause, Erasmus Darwin, Evolution, Evolution of biological complexity, Evolutionism, Fin de siècle, First law of thermodynamics, Flash fiction, Formalism (literature), Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ..., Friction, Friedrich Hayek, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, G. E. Moore, Geisteswissenschaft, Geolibertarianism, George Bernard Shaw, George Combe, George Eliot, George Henry Lewes, Georgi Plekhanov, Georgism, Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, H. G. Wells, Harriet Martineau, Henri Bergson, Henry George, Henry Sidgwick, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hermeneutics, Highgate Cemetery, Hinton Charterhouse, Inertia, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Isaac Newton, Jack London, January Uprising, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, John Chapman (publisher), John Fiske (philosopher), John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, John Stuart Mill, John Tyndall, Jorge Luis Borges, Josiah Royce, Kaneko Kentarō, Karl Ernst von Baer, Karl Marx, Kim (novel), Laissez-faire, Lamarckism, Latin, Law of three stages, Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought, Leo Tolstoy, Lester Frank Ward, Libertarianism, Liberty, Liberty and Property Defence League, Liberty Fund, List of liberal theorists, List of political theorists, Lochner v. New York, Machado de Assis, Maharashtra, Marathi language, Margaret Thatcher, Martin Eden, Marxism, Max Weber, Metaphor, Methodism, Mises Institute, Mold of the Earth, Murray Rothbard, Natural law, Natural selection, Naturphilosophie, Nebular hypothesis, Nobel Prize in Literature, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., On the Origin of Species, Organicism, Pangenesis, Paper clip, Paul Lafargue, Pharaoh (novel), Philosophy of science, Phrenology, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Poland, Polymath, Positivism, Positivism in Poland, Prose, Qing dynasty, Quakers, R. Austin Freeman, Radical feminism, Radicals for Capitalism, Rhetoric, Richard Hofstadter, Robert Chambers (publisher, born 1802), Royal Society, Rudyard Kipling, SAGE Publications, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Second Anglo-Afghan War, Second Boer War, Second law of thermodynamics, Shyamji Krishna Varma, Social Darwinism, Social influence, Social organism, Social research, Social Statics, Sociocultural evolution, Sociology, Sovereign state, Species, Split pin, Structural functionalism, Supreme Court of the United States, Survival of the fittest, Talcott Parsons, The Economist, The Man Versus the State, The Time Machine, The Westminster Review, The Zoist, There is no alternative, Thomas Hardy, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomas Hill Green, Three Sisters (play), Tokutomi Sohō, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University of Oxford, Utilitarianism, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, Victorian era, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Western philosophy, Wilhelm Dilthey, William Ewart Gladstone, William George Spencer, William Graham Sumner, William James, William Vernon Harcourt (politician), X Club, Yan Fu, 19th-century philosophy. Expand index (143 more) »

Abraham Cahan

Abraham "Abe" Cahan (July 7, 1860 – August 31, 1951) was a Belarusian-born Jewish American socialist newspaper editor, novelist, and politician.

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Adrian Desmond

Adrian John Desmond (born 1947) is an English writer on the history of science and author of books about Charles Darwin.

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American Sociological Association

The American Sociological Association (ASA), founded in 1905 as the American Sociological Society, is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology.

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Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.

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Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of centralized state dictum in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets.

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An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.

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Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.

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Antimilitarism (also spelt anti-militarism) is a doctrine that opposes war, relying heavily on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International.

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In social science, antipositivism (also interpretivism and negativism) proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to the natural world; investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology.

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Anton Chekhov

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arnold Bennett

Enoch Arnold Bennett (27 May 1867 – 27 March 1931) was an English writer.

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Arthur Penrhyn Stanley

Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, (13 December 1815 – 18 July 1881), known as Dean Stanley, was an English churchman and academic.

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Associationism is the idea that mental processes operate by the association of one mental state with its successor states.

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Athenaeum Club, London

The Athenaeum is a private members' club in London, founded in 1824.

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Auberon Herbert

Auberon Edward William Molyneux Herbert (18 June 1838 in Highclere – 5 November 1906) was a writer, theorist, philosopher, and 19th century individualist.

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Auguste Comte

Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.

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Émile Durkheim

David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.

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Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak,; 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist.

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Bath, Somerset

Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.

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Beatrice Webb

Martha Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield, (née Potter; 22 January 1858 – 30 April 1943), was an English sociologist, economist, socialist, labour historian and social reformer.

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Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.

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Bolesław Prus

Bolesław Prus (pronounced: bɔ'lεswaf 'prus; 20 August 1847 – 19 May 1912), born Aleksander Głowacki, is a leading figure in the history of Polish literature and philosophy and a distinctive voice in world literature.

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Brian Doherty (journalist)

Brian Doherty (born June 1, 1968) is an American journalist.

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Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Composition (language)

The term composition (from Latin com- "with" and ponere "to place"), in written language, refers to the body of important features established by the author in their creation of literature.

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Crane Brinton

Clarence Crane Brinton (Winsted, Connecticut, 1898 - Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 7, 1968) was an American historian of France, as well as an historian of ideas.

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D. H. Lawrence

Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Lev Shestov, Walt Whitman | influenced.

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Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution

Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution is a 1959 biography of Charles Darwin by historian Gertrude Himmelfarb.

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Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.

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Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England.

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Derby Philosophical Society

The Derby Philosophical Society was a club for gentlemen in Derby founded in 1783 by Erasmus Darwin.

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Dhondo Keshav Karve

Dhondo Keshav Karve was born at ‘Sheravali’; his ancestral home.

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Due Process Clause

The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution each contain a due process clause.

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Erasmus Darwin

Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolution of biological complexity

The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.

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Evolutionism describes the belief in the evolution of organisms.

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Fin de siècle

Fin de siècle is a French term meaning end of the century, a term which typically encompasses both the meaning of the similar English idiom turn of the century and also makes reference to the closing of one era and onset of another.

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First law of thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.

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Flash fiction

Flash fiction is fictional work of extreme brevity that still offers character and plot development.

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Formalism (literature)

Formalism is a school of literary criticism and literary theory having mainly to do with structural purposes of a particular text.

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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.

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G. E. Moore

George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.

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Geisteswissenschaften ("sciences of spirit") is a set of human sciences such as philosophy, history, philology, musicology, linguistics, theater studies, literary studies, media studies, and sometimes even theology and jurisprudence, that are traditional in German universities.

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Geolibertarianism is a political and economic ideology that integrates libertarianism with Georgism (alternatively geoism or geonomics).

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George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.

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George Combe

George Combe (21 October 1788 – 14 August 1858) was a Scottish lawyer and the leader and spokesman of the phrenological movement for more than twenty years.

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George Eliot

Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.

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George Henry Lewes

George Henry Lewes (18 April 1817 – 30 November 1878) was an English philosopher and critic of literature and theatre.

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Georgi Plekhanov

Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (a; 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician.

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Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.

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Gopal Ganesh Agarkar

Gopal Ganesh Agarkar (14 July 1856 – 17 June 1895) was a Indian social reformer, educationist, and thinker from Maharashtra, British India.

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H. G. Wells

Herbert George Wells.

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Harriet Martineau

Harriet Martineau (12 June 1802 – 27 June 1876) was a British social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.

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Henri Bergson

Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.

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Henry George

Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and journalist.

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Henry Sidgwick

Henry Sidgwick (31 May 1838 – 28 August 1900) was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist; he held the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy from the year 1883 until his death.

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.

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Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.

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Highgate Cemetery

Highgate Cemetery is a place of burial in north London, England.

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Hinton Charterhouse

Hinton Charterhouse is a small village and civil parish in the Bath and North East Somerset unitary authority, Somerset, England.

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Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Jack London

John Griffith "Jack" London (born John Griffith Chaney; January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916) was an American novelist, journalist, and social activist.

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January Uprising

The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.

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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.

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Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.

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John Chapman (publisher)

John Chapman (16 June 1821 – 25 November 1894) was an English publisher who acquired the influential radical journal, the Westminster Review.

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John Fiske (philosopher)

John Fiske (March 30, 1842 – July 4, 1901) was an American philosopher and historian.

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John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury

John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, (30 April 183428 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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John Tyndall

John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist.

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Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.

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Josiah Royce

Josiah Royce (November 20, 1855 – September 14, 1916) was an American objective idealist philosopher.

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Kaneko Kentarō

was a statesman and diplomat in Meiji period Japan.

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Karl Ernst von Baer

Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer, Edler von Huthorn (Карл Эрнст фон Бэр; –) was an Estonian scientist and explorer.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kim (novel)

Kim is a novel by Nobel Prize-winning English author Rudyard Kipling.

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Law of three stages

The law of three stages is an idea developed by Auguste Comte in his work The Course in Positive Philosophy.

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Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought

Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought was a libertarian journal published between 1965 and 1968.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Lester Frank Ward

Lester F. Ward (June 18, 1841 – April 18, 1913) was an American botanist, paleontologist, and sociologist.

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Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.

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Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.

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Liberty and Property Defence League

The Liberty and Property Defence League (LPDL) was a historic organisation, founded in 1882 by Lord Elcho, for the support of laissez-faire trade.

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Liberty Fund

Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.

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List of liberal theorists

Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.

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List of political theorists

A political theorist is someone who engages in constructing or evaluating political theory, including political philosophy.

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Lochner v. New York

Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905), was a landmark U.S. labor law case in the US Supreme Court, holding that limits to working time violated the Fourteenth Amendment.

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Machado de Assis

Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme VelhoVainfas, p. 505.

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Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.

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Marathi language

Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

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Martin Eden

Martin Eden is a 1909 novel by American author Jack London about a young proletarian autodidact struggling to become a writer.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

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A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.

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Mises Institute

The Mises Institute, short name for Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, is a tax-exempt educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama, United States.

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Mold of the Earth

"Mold of the Earth" (Polish: "Pleśń świata") is one of the shortest micro-stories by the Polish writer Bolesław Prus.

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Murray Rothbard

Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.

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Natural law

Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Naturphilosophie ("philosophy of nature" or "nature-philosophy" in German) is a term used in English-language philosophy to identify a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism, as applied to the study of nature in the earlier 19th century.

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Nebular hypothesis

The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System (as well as other planetary systems).

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States from January–February 1930.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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Organicism is the philosophical perspective which views the universe and its parts as organic wholes and - either by analogy or literally - as living organisms.

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Pangenesis was Charles Darwin's hypothetical mechanism for heredity, in which he proposed that each part of the body continually emitted its own type of small organic particles called gemmules that aggregated in the gonads, contributing heritable information to the gametes.

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Paper clip

A paper clip (or sometimes paperclip) is a device used to hold sheets of paper together, usually made of steel wire bent to a looped shape.

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Paul Lafargue

Paul Lafargue (15 January 1842 – 25 November 1911) was a French revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist, literary critic, political writer and activist; he was Karl Marx's son-in-law having married his second daughter, Laura.

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Pharaoh (novel)

Pharaoh (Faraon) is the fourth and last major novel by the Polish writer Bolesław Prus (1847–1912).

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Phrenology is a pseudomedicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules.

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Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Positivism in Poland

Positivism in Poland was a socio-cultural movement that defined progressive thought in literature and social sciences of partitioned Poland, following the suppression of the 1863 January Uprising against the occupying army of Imperial Russia.

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Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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R. Austin Freeman

Richard Austin Freeman (11 April 1862 – 28 September 1943) was a British writer of detective stories, mostly featuring the medico-legal forensic investigator Dr. Thorndyke.

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Radical feminism

Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reordering of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts.

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Radicals for Capitalism

Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement is a 2007 book about the history of libertarianism in the 20th century by American journalist and Reason senior editor Brian Doherty.

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Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Richard Hofstadter

Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 – October 24, 1970) was an American historian and public intellectual of the mid-20th century.

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Robert Chambers (publisher, born 1802)

Robert Chambers (10 July 1802 – 17 March 1871) was a Scottish publisher, geologist, evolutionary thinker, author and journal editor who, like his elder brother and business partner William Chambers, was highly influential in mid-19th century scientific and political circles.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Rudyard Kipling

Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.

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Second Anglo-Afghan War

The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.

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Second Boer War

The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.

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Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

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Shyamji Krishna Varma

Shyamji Krishna Varma (4 October, 1857 – 30 March, 1930) was an Indian revolutionary fighter, an Indian patriot, lawyer and journalist who founded the Indian Home Rule Society, India House and The Indian Sociologist in London.

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Social Darwinism

The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.

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Social influence

Social influence occurs when a person's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others.

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Social organism

In sociology, the social organism is an ideological concept in which a society or social structure is viewed as a "living organism".

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Social research

Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan.

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Social Statics

Social Statics, or The Conditions essential to Happiness specified, and the First of them Developed is an 1851 book by the British polymath Herbert Spencer.

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Sociocultural evolution

Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Split pin

A split pin, also known in the United States as a cotter pin or cotter key, is a metal fastener with two tines that are bent during installation, similar to a staple or rivet.

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Structural functionalism

Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Survival of the fittest

"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.

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Talcott Parsons

Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Man Versus the State

The Man Versus the State is a political theory book by Herbert Spencer It was first published in book form in 1884 by Williams and Norgate, London and Edinburgh, from articles previously published in The Contemporary Review.

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The Time Machine

The Time Machine is a science fiction novella by H. G. Wells, published in 1895 and written as a frame narrative.

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The Westminster Review

The Westminster Review was a quarterly British publication.

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The Zoist

The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their Applications to Human Welfare, was a British journal, devoted to the promotion of the theories and practices (and the collection and dissemination of reports of the applications) of mesmerism and phrenology, and the enterprise of "connecting and harmonizing practical science with little understood laws governing the mental structure of man".

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There is no alternative

There is no alternative (shortened as TINA) was a slogan often used by the Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.

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Thomas Hardy

Thomas Hardy (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet.

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Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.

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Thomas Hill Green

Thomas Hill Green (7 April 1836 – 15 March 1882) was an English philosopher, political radical and temperance reformer, and a member of the British idealism movement.

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Three Sisters (play)

Three Sisters (translit) is a play by the Russian author and playwright Anton Chekhov.

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Tokutomi Sohō

was the pen name of a journalist and historian active from late Meiji period through mid-Shōwa period Japan.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation

Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation is an 1844 work of speculative natural history and philosophy by Robert Chambers.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (28 May 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Indian pro-Hindutva activist, lawyer, politician, poet, writer and playwright.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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Wilhelm Dilthey

Wilhelm Dilthey (19 November 1833 – 1 October 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, and hermeneutic philosopher, who held G. W. F. Hegel's Chair in Philosophy at the University of Berlin.

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William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.

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William George Spencer

(William) George Spencer (1790–1866) was an English schoolmaster and tutor, known as a mathematical writer.

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William Graham Sumner

William Graham Sumner (October 30, 1840 – April 12, 1910) was a classical liberal American social scientist.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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William Vernon Harcourt (politician)

Sir William George Granville Venables Vernon Harcourt, KC (14 October 1827 – 1 October 1904) was a British lawyer, journalist and Liberal statesman.

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X Club

The X Club was a dining club of nine men who supported the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th-century England.

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Yan Fu

Yan Fu (IPA:; courtesy name: Ji Dao, 幾道; 8 January 1854 — 27 October 1921) was a Chinese scholar and translator, most famous for introducing western ideas, including Darwin's "natural selection", to China in the late 19th century.

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19th-century philosophy

In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.

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Redirects here:

Physiological unit, Synthetic philosophy.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Spencer

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