170 relations: Acetolactate synthase, Acetyl-CoA, Acifluorfen, Acute toxicity, Adsorption, Agent Orange, Agent White, Agricultural and Food Research Council, Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture, Ailanthus altissima, Allelopathy, Amaranthus tuberculatus, Amino acid, Aminopyralid, Annual plant, Atrazine, Attorney general, Australia, Australian Railway History, Auxin, BASF, Bioherbicide, Bird, Breast cancer, British Armed Forces, Cancer, Carboxylation, Carcinogen, Carotenoid, Causality, Cereal, Chlorophyll, Chronic toxicity, Citrus, Clearcutting, Clopyralid, Crop, Cultural control, Death, Defoliant, Dennis Vacco, Dicamba, Dicotyledon, Diesel fuel, Dinitroaniline, Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, Diphenyl ether, Diquat, Dow AgroSciences, ..., Dow Chemical Company, Environmental hazard, EPSP synthase, Erigeron canadensis, Ester, Evolutionary pressure, Excipient, Family (biology), Fatty acid, Fertigation, Field research, Flame, Flazasulfuron, Fluroxypyr, Frog, Gardening, Glufosinate, Glyphosate, Groundwater, Growing season, Habitat, Heavy crude oil, Herbicidal warfare, Imazapic, Imazapyr, Imperial Chemical Industries, Index of pesticide articles, Integrated pest management, Irrigation, Isoleucine, Johnson grass, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Juda Hirsch Quastel, Juglans, Leaf, Leucine, Limonene, Linuron, Lolium, Maize, Malayan Emergency, MCPA, Mechanical weed control, Mechanism of action, Meristem, Mesotrione, Metolachlor, Metsulfuron-methyl, Minimum tillage, Monocerin, Monocotyledon, Monsanto, Neotropical realm, New York (state), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nitisinone, Nitrofen, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Organic farming, Paraquat, Pendimethalin, Pentachlorophenol, Perennial plant, Perfusion, Pesticide resistance, PH, Phenoxy herbicide, Phenylalanine, Photosystem II, Picloram, Plant, Plant hormone, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Population, Rainbow Herbicides, Redox, Rice, Root, Rothamsted Research, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Seed, Seed bank, Sex reversal, Silviculture, Sodium chlorate, Soft-tissue sarcoma, Soil contamination, Sprayer, Steam, Surface runoff, Sward, Temperature-dependent sex determination, Teratology, Toxicity, Triazine, Triclopyr, Trimethylamine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, United Kingdom, United States Armed Forces, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Valine, Vietnam War, Vinegar, Volatilisation, Wales, Walnut, Weed, Weed control, Weed Science Society of America, Wheat, World War II, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor. Expand index (120 more) » « Shrink index
The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and micro-organisms.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Acifluorfen is an herbicide.
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short period of time (usually less than 24 hours).
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the tactical use Rainbow Herbicides.
Agent White is the code name for a herbicide used by the U.S. military in its herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War.
The Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) was a British Research Council responsible for funding and managing scientific and technological developments in farming and horticulture.
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ailanthus altissima, commonly known as tree of heaven, ailanthus, or in Standard Chinese as chouchun, is a deciduous tree in the Simaroubaceae family.
Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces one or more biochemicals that influence the germination, growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms.
Amaranthus tuberculatus, commonly known as roughfruit amaranth, rough-fruited water-hemp, or tall waterhemp, is a species of flowering plant.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Aminopyralid is a selective herbicide used for control of broadleaf weeds, especially thistles and clovers.
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.
Atrazine is a herbicide of the triazine class.
In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General (sometimes abbreviated as AG) or Attorney-General (plural: Attorneys General (traditional) or Attorney Generals) is the main legal advisor to the government, and in some jurisdictions, they may also have executive responsibility for law enforcement, prosecutions or even responsibility for legal affairs generally.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Australian Railway History is a monthly magazine covering railway history in Australia published by the New South Wales Division of the Australian Railway Historical Society on behalf of its seven state and territory Divisions.
Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth regulators) with some morphogen-like characteristics.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Bioherbicides consist of phytotoxins, pathogens, and other microbes used as biological weed control.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chronic toxicity, the development of adverse effects as a result of long term exposure to a contaminant or other stressor, is an important aspect of aquatic toxicology.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Clearcutting, clearfelling or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down.
Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) is a selective herbicide used for control of broadleaf weeds, especially thistles and clovers.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
In agriculture cultural control is the practice of modifying the growing environment to reduce the prevalence of unwanted pests.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off.
Dennis C. Vacco (born August 16, 1952) is an American lawyer and politician.
Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is a broad-spectrum herbicide first registered in 1967.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Dinitroanilines are a class of chemical compounds with the chemical formula C6H5N3O4.
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
Diphenyl ether is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2O.
Diquat is a contact herbicide that produces desiccation and defoliation most often available as the dibromide, diquat dibromide.
Dow AgroSciences LLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Dow Chemical Company specializing in not only agricultural chemicals such as pesticides, but also seeds and biotechnology solutions.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
An environmental hazard is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect people's health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes Any single or combination of toxic chemical, biological, or physical agents in the environment, resulting from human activities or natural processes, that may impact the health of exposed subjects, including pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, biological contaminants, toxic waste, industrial and home chemicals.
5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is an enzyme produced by plants and microorganisms.
Erigeron canadensis (synonym Conyza canadensis) is an annual plant native throughout most of North America and Central America.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Any cause that reduces reproductive success in a portion of a population potentially exerts evolutionary pressure, selective pressure or selection pressure.
An excipient is a substance formulated alongside the active ingredient of a medication, included for the purpose of long-term stabilization, bulking up solid formulations that contain potent active ingredients in small amounts (thus often referred to as "bulking agents", "fillers", or "diluents"), or to confer a therapeutic enhancement on the active ingredient in the final dosage form, such as facilitating drug absorption, reducing viscosity, or enhancing solubility.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fertigation is the injection of fertilizers, soil amendments, and other water-soluble products into an irrigation system.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
A flame (from Latin flamma) is the visible, gaseous part of a fire.
Flazasulfuron is an organic compound that is used as a herbicide.
Fluroxypyr is an herbicide in the class of synthetic auxins.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture.
Glufosinate (also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces soil bacteria.
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Heavy crude oil (or extra heavy crude oil) is highly-viscous oil that cannot easily flow to production wells under normal reservoir conditions.
Herbicidal warfare is the use of substances primarily designed to destroy the plant-based ecosystem of an area.
Imazapic is a chemical used as an herbicide.
Imazapyr is a non-selective herbicide used for the control of a broad range of weeds including terrestrial annual and perennial grasses and broadleaved herbs, woody species, and riparian and emergent aquatic species.
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
This is an index of articles relating to pesticides.
Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Johnson grass or Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense, is a plant in the grass family, Poaceae, native to the Mediterranean region, but grows throughout Europe and the Middle East.
The Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI) is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in oncology that was established in August 1940.
Juda Hirsch Quastel, (October 2, 1899 – October 15, 1987) was a British-Canadian biochemist who pioneered diverse research in neurochemistry, soil metabolism, cellular metabolism, and cancer.
Walnut trees are any species of tree in the plant genus Juglans, the type genus of the family Juglandaceae, the seeds of which are referred to as walnuts.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Limonene is a clear, colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in the oil of citrus fruit peels.
Linuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea) is a phenylurea herbicide that is used to control the growth of grass and weeds for the purpose of supporting the growth of crops like soybeans.
Lolium is a genus of tufted grasses in the bluegrass subfamily of the grass family.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.
MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a powerful, selective, widely used phenoxy herbicide.
Mechanical weed control is any physical activity that inhibits unwanted plant growth.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Mesotrione is an herbicide sold under the brand names Callisto and Tenacity that was brought to market by Syngenta in 2001.
Metolachlor is an organic compound that is widely used as an herbicide.
Metsulfuron-methyl is an organic compound classified as a sulfonylurea herbicide, which kills broadleaf weeds and some annual grasses.
Minimum tillage is a soil conservation system like Strip-till with the goal of minimum soil manipulation necessary for a successful crop production.
Monocerin is a dihydroisocoumarin and a polyketide metabolite that originates from various fungal species.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Nitisinone (INN), also known as NTBC (an abbreviation of its full chemical name) is a medication used to slow the effects of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.
Nitrofen is an herbicide of the diphenyl ether class.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
Paraquat (trivial name) or N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride (systematic name) is an organic compound with the chemical formula Cl2.
Pendimethalin is an herbicide of the dinitroaniline class used in premergence and postemergence applications to control annual grasses and certain broadleaf weeds.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound used as a pesticide and a disinfectant.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenoxy herbicides (or "phenoxies") are a family of chemicals related to the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA).
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Photosystem II (or water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase) is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis.
Picloram is a systemic herbicide used for general woody plant control.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins, are a group of polyhalogenated organic compounds that are significant environmental pollutants.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
The Rainbow Herbicides are a group of "tactical use" chemicals used by the United States military in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Rothamsted Research, previously known as the Rothamsted Experimental Station and then the Institute of Arable Crops Research, is one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world, having been founded in 1843.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Seeds are living creatures and keeping them viable over the long term requires adjusting storage moisture and temperature appropriately.
Sex reversal is the phenomenon whereby organisms developing at sex-specific conditions such as temperatures or karyotypes hatch the opposite sex.
Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.
Sodium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO3.
A soft-tissue sarcoma is a form of sarcoma that develops in connective tissue, though the term is sometimes applied to elements of the soft tissue that are not currently considered connective tissue.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
A sprayer is a device used to spray a liquid.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Sward or Swärd may refer to.
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is a type of environmental sex determination in which the temperatures experienced during embryonic/larval development determine the sex of the offspring.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
A triazine is class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles.
Triclopyr (3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) is an organic compound in the pyridine group that is used as a systemic foliar herbicide and fungicide.
Trimethylamine (TMA) is an organic compound with the formula N(CH3)3.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Volatilization is the process whereby a dissolved sample is vaporised.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with desired flora and fauna, this includes domesticated plants and livestock, and in natural settings, it includes stopping non local species competing with native, local, species, especially so in reserves and heritage areas.
The Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) is a learned society focused on weed science.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a polychlorinated dibenzo''-p-''dioxin (sometimes shortened, though inaccurately, to simply "dioxin") with the chemical formula.
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3.
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), also known as α-ketoisocaproate dioxygenase (KIC dioxygenase), is an Fe(II)-containing non-heme oxygenase that catalyzes the second reaction in the catabolism of tyrosine - the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate into homogentisate.
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors (HPPD inhbitors) are a class of herbicides that prevent plants by blocking 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, an enzyme in plants that breaks down the amino acid, tyrosine into components that are used by plants to create other molecules that plants need.