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Heterodoxy

Index Heterodoxy

Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position". [1]

103 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Ahmadiyya, Al-Mutawakkil, Alawites, Alevism, Ali, Alids, Allah, Anglican Communion, Apostolic succession, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Assassins, Austrian School, Āstika and nāstika, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh, Bábism, Black Stone, Caliphate, Catholic Church, Charles Spurgeon, Christian apologetics, Christian countercult movement, Christian denomination, Church of the East, Dissident, Doctrine, Druze, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecological economics, Economic methodology, Falun Gong, Fatimah, Feminist economics, Fiqh, First Crusade, Gautama Buddha, Georgism, Ghulat, Gnosticism, Hajj, Heresy, Heresy in Christianity, Heterodox economics, Ibadi, Institutional economics, Isma'ilism, Jargon, Kali, ..., Khatam an-Nabiyyin, Khawarij, Krishna, Limbo, List of Sufi orders, Lutheranism, Mahdi, Mainstream economics, Marxian economics, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Muawiya, Muʿtazila, Muhammad, Mysticism, Nation of Islam, Neoclassical economics, Non-Chalcedonianism, Oriental Orthodoxy, Orthodoxy, Philip Khuri Hitti, Post-Keynesian economics, Prophet, Protestantism, Qarmatians, Quran, Religious denomination, Ritual, Rule of Faith, Sacred tradition, Sahabah, Salman the Persian, Schism, Schools of economic thought, Second Coming, Sect, Sevener, Shia Islam, Shirk (Islam), Sikhism, Socialist economics, Socioeconomics, Sufism, Sunni Islam, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Thuggee, Turkic peoples, Twelver, Umayyad Caliphate, Vegetarianism, Wahhabism, Wallace Fard Muhammad, William Henry Sleeman, Zamzam Well. Expand index (53 more) »

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Ahmadiyya

Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.

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Al-Mutawakkil

Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Mutawakkil ʿAlā ’llāh (المتوكل على الله, "He who relies on God") was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861.

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Alawites

The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.

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Alevism

Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.

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Ali

Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.

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Alids

The Alids are the dynasties descended from Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (see Family tree of Muhammad and Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali).

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Allah

Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.

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Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.

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Apostolic succession

Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Assassins

Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.

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Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

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Āstika and nāstika

Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Bahá'u'lláh

Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسین‌علی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Bábism

Bábism (بابیه, Babiyye), also known as the Bayání Faith (Persian:, Bayání), is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible GodBrowne, E.G., p. 15 who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God (Arabic). It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in Iran.

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Black Stone

The Black Stone (ٱلْحَجَرُ ٱلْأَسْوَد,, "Black Stone") is a rock set into the eastern corner of the Kaaba, the ancient building located in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Charles Spurgeon

Charles Haddon Spurgeon (19 June 1834 – 31 January 1892) was an English Particular Baptist preacher.

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Christian apologetics

Christian apologetics (ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a branch of Christian theology that attempts to defend Christianity against objections.

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Christian countercult movement

The Christian countercult movement or Christian anti-cult movement is a social movement of certain Protestant evangelical and fundamentalist and other Christian ministries ("discernment ministries") and individual activists who oppose religious sects they consider "cults".

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Christian denomination

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.

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Church of the East

The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.

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Dissident

A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution.

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Doctrine

Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.

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Druze

The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Ecological economics

Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.

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Economic methodology

Economic methodology is the study of methods, especially the scientific method, in relation to economics, including principles underlying economic reasoning.

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Falun Gong

Falun Gong or Falun Dafa (Standard Mandarin Chinese:; literally, "Dharma Wheel Practice" or "Law Wheel Practice") is a modern Chinese spiritual practice that combines meditation and qigong exercises with a moral philosophy centered on the tenets of truthfulness, compassion, and forbearance.

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Fatimah

Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.

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Feminist economics

Feminist economics is the critical study of economics including its methodology, epistemology, history and empirical research, attempting to overcome alleged androcentric (male and patriarchal) biases.

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Fiqh

Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Georgism

Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.

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Ghulat

Ghulāt (lit, singular ghālī) is a term used in the theology of Shia Islam to describe some minority Muslim groups who either ascribe divine characteristics to figures of Islamic history (usually a member of the Ahl al-Bayt) or hold beliefs deemed deviant by mainstream Shi'i theology.

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Gnosticism

Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.

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Hajj

The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Heresy

Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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Heresy in Christianity

When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).

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Heterodox economics

Heterodoxy is a term that may be used in contrast with orthodoxy in schools of economic thought or methodologies, that may be beyond neoclassical economics.

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Ibadi

The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.

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Institutional economics

Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behaviour.

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Isma'ilism

Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.

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Jargon

Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.

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Kali

(काली), also known as (कालिका), is a Hindu goddess.

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Khatam an-Nabiyyin

Khatam an-Nabiyyin (خاتم النبيين, khātam an-nabīyīn; or Khātim an-Nabīyīn), translated as Seal of the Prophets, is a title used in the Qur'an to designate the prophet Muhammad.

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Khawarij

The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.

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Krishna

Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.

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Limbo

In Catholic theology, Limbo (Latin limbus, edge or boundary, referring to the "edge" of Hell) is a speculative, non-scriptural idea about the afterlife condition of those who die in original sin without being assigned to the Hell of the Damned.

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List of Sufi orders

The following is a list of Sufi orders or schools (ṭarīqah).

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Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Mahdi

The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.

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Mainstream economics

Mainstream economics may be used to describe the body of knowledge, theories, and models of economics, as taught across universities, that are generally accepted by economists as a basis for discussion.

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Marxian economics

Marxian economics, or the Marxian school of economics, refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

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Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

Mirzā Ghulām Ahmad (13 February 1835 – 26 May 1908) was an Indian religious leader and the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.

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Muawiya

Mu‘āwīyya or Muawiyah or Muaawiya (معاوية) is a male Arabic given name of disputed meaning.

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Muʿtazila

Muʿtazila (المعتزلة) is a rationalist school of Islamic theology"", Encyclopaedia Britannica.

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Mysticism

Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930.

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Neoclassical economics

Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.

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Non-Chalcedonianism

Non-Chalcedonianism is a religious doctrine of those Christian churches that do not accept the Confession of Chalcedon as defined at the ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451.

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Oriental Orthodoxy

Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.

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Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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Philip Khuri Hitti

Philip Khuri Hitti (Arabic: فيليب خوري حتي), (Shimlan 22 June 1886 – Princeton 24 December 1978) was a Lebanese American professor and scholar at Princeton and Harvard University, and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, and Semitic languages.

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Post-Keynesian economics

Post-Keynesian economics is a school of economic thought with its origins in The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced to a large degree by Michał Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Sidney Weintraub, Paul Davidson, Piero Sraffa and Jan Kregel.

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Prophet

In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Qarmatians

The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Religious denomination

A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.

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Ritual

A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".

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Rule of Faith

The rule of faith (regula fidei) is the name given to the ultimate authority or standard in religious belief.

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Sacred tradition

Sacred Tradition, or Holy Tradition, is a theological term used in some Christian traditions, primarily those claiming apostolic succession such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Anglican traditions, to refer to the foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church and of the Bible.

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Sahabah

The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Salman the Persian

Salman the Persian or Salman al-Farsi (سلمان الفارسي Salmān al-Fārisī), born Rouzbeh (روزبه), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first Persian who converted to Islam.

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Schism

A schism (pronounced, or, less commonly) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination.

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Schools of economic thought

In the history of economic thought, a school of economic thought is a group of economic thinkers who share or shared a common perspective on the way economies work.

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Second Coming

The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.

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Sect

A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.

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Sevener

al-Ismāʿīliyya al-khāliṣa / al-Ismāʿīliyya al-wāqifa or Seveners (سبعية) was a branch of Ismā'īlī Shīʻa.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shirk (Islam)

In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.

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Sikhism

Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.

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Socialist economics

Socialist economics refers to the economic theories, practices, and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.

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Socioeconomics

Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.

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Thuggee

Thuggee or tuggee (ठग्गी ṭhaggī; ٹھگ; Nepali: ठग्गी ṭhaggī; italic; ठक; ଠକ thaka; ٺوڳي، ٺڳ; ಠಕ್ಕ thakka; ঠগি ṭhogī) refers to the acts of Thugs, an organised gang of professional robbers and murderers.

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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Twelver

Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازده‌امامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Vegetarianism

Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.

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Wahhabism

Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.

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Wallace Fard Muhammad

Wallace D. Fard, also known as Wallace Fard Muhammad (Arabic: ولي فرض محمد) (born February 26, 1877 - Unknown), was a co-founder of the Nation of Islam.

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William Henry Sleeman

Major-general Sir William Henry Sleeman KCB (8 August 1788 – 10 February 1856) was a British soldier and administrator in British India.

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Zamzam Well

The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, east of the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam.

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False teaching, Heterodox, Heterodoxies.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterodoxy

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