415 relations: Abbas al-Musawi, ABC News, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Afghanistan, Agence France-Presse, AIJAC, Airstrike, Al Jazeera, Al-Ahbash, Al-Assad family, Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya, Al-Manar, Al-Nour, Al-Nusra Front, Al-Qaeda, Al-Qusayr District, Al-Qusayr, Syria, Alas Chiricanas Flight 901, Alcee Hastings, Ali Khamenei, Ali Larijani, Allah, Amal Movement, Amal Saad-Ghorayeb, American Enterprise Institute, AMIA bombing, Amnesty International, An-Nahar, Anthony Cordesman, Anthony Julius, Anti-Defamation League, Anti-imperialism, Anti-Judaism, Anti-ship missile, Anti-tank missile, Anti-Western sentiment, Anti-Zionism, Antisemitism, Antoine Zahra (legislator), Apostasy, Arab League, Arab Spring, Arab world, Armed Islamic Group of Algeria, Arrest warrant, Artillery, Asad, Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Associated Press, Asymmetric warfare, ..., Augustus Richard Norton, Australia, Avraham Sela, Ayatollah, Émile Lahoud, Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction), Baalbek District, Bahraini uprising of 2011, Barbara Newman, Bashar al-Assad, BBC News, Beirut, Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport, Benjamin Netanyahu, Beqaa Governorate, BGM-71 TOW, Biological warfare, Blockade, Blue Game Matrix, Blue Line (Lebanon), Bosniaks, Bosnian War, Brookings Institution, Bulgaria, C-802, Canada, Center for American Progress, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Central Intelligence Agency, Charles Boustany, Chief of General Staff (Israel), China, Chris Shays, Christianity in Lebanon, Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, CNN, Columbia University Press, Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America, Congressional Research Service, Council of Ministers (Syria), Council on Foreign Relations, Damascus, Daniel Benjamin, Daniel Byman, Darrell Issa, Dennis Hastert, Der Spiegel, Director of National Intelligence, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Doha Agreement, Druze, Egypt, Egyptian revolution of 2011, Ehud Barak, Eilat, Eric Jackson (journalist), European Foundation for Democracy, European Union, Fajr-3, Fajr-5, Faqīh, Fars News Agency, Fatah al-Islam, Federal Security Service, Flag of Hezbollah, Foreign relations of Lebanon, Fouad Siniora, France, France 24, Free Lebanon State, Free Syrian Army, Future Movement, Gadi Eizenkot, Gallup (company), Gaza Strip, Gebran Bassil, Gebran Tueni, Geneive Abdo, George Galloway, Germany, God in Islam, Government of Bulgaria, Government of Venezuela, Gresham Barrett, Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf Cooperation Council, Haaretz, Hafez al-Assad, Haifa, Hala Jaber, Hamas, Hassan al-Laqqis, Hassan Nasrallah, Helena Cobban, Hermel District, Hezbollah, Hezbollah Al-Hejaz, Hezbollah social services, History of Lebanon, History of terrorism, Holocaust denial, Home Office, Hosni Mubarak, House of Saud, Houthis, Hugo Chávez, Human Rights Watch, Humvee, Ibrahim al-Jaafari, Illegal drug trade, Imad Mughniyah, Iran, Iran–Israel proxy conflict, Iranian intervention in Iraq (2014–present), Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Iraq War, Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist, Islamic Jihad Organization, Islamic republic, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamism, Israel, Israel Defense Forces, Israeli Air Force, Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon, Israeli-occupied territories, Israeli–Lebanese conflict, Istishhad, January 2013 Rif Dimashq airstrike, January 2015 Mazraat Amal incident, Jean Ziegler, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Jihad, Jihad al-Bina, Jim Saxton, John O. 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Abbas al Moussawi عباس الموسوي; 26 October 1952 – 16 February 1992) was an influential Lebanese Shia cleric, co-founder and Secretary General of Hezbollah. He was killed by the Israel Defense Forces in 1992.
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa;; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايلة), was a Jordanian jihadist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
The Australia/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council (AIJAC), is an organisation headquartered in Melbourne, Australia.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Ahbash (الأحباش / / "The Ethiopians"), also known as the Association of Islamic Charitable Projects (AICP) (جمعية المشاريع الخيرية الإسلامية /) is a Sufi religious movement which was founded in the mid-1980s.
The al-Assad family (عائِلَة الأَسَد) has ruled Syria since Hafez al-Assad became President of Syria in 1971 and established an authoritarian government under the control of the Ba'ath Party.
(الجماعة الإسلامية, "the Islamic Group"; also transliterated El Gama'a El Islamiyya; also called "Islamic Groups" and transliterated Gamaat Islamiya, al Jamaat al Islamiya) is an Egyptian Sunni Islamist movement, and is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union.
Al-Manar (Arabic:المنار al-Manār;English: the beacon) is a Lebanese satellite television station affiliated with Hezbollah, 21 November 2008, Ya Libnan broadcasting from Beirut, Lebanon.
Al-Nour (النور; The Light) is a pro-Hezbollah radio station based in Beirut, Lebanon.
Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Al-Qusayr District (manṭiqat al-Qusair) is a district of the Homs Governorate in central Syria.
Al-Qusayr (القصير) is a city in western Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate.
Alas Chiricanas Flight 00901, registered HP-1202AC, was an Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante aircraft flying en route from Colón city to Panama City which exploded shortly after departing Enrique Adolfo Jiménez Airport, on the night of July 19, 1994.
Alcee Lamar Hastings (born September 5, 1936) is the U.S. Representative for.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Larijani (علی لاریجانی,; born 3 June 1957) is an Iranian conservative politician, philosopher and former military officer who has been Speaker of the Parliament of Iran since 2008.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
The Amal Movement (or Hope Movement in English, حركة أمل) is a Lebanese political party associated with Lebanon's Shia community.
Amal Abdo Saad-Ghorayeb (أمل سعد غريب) is a Lebanese writer and political analyst known for her writings on the Israeli-Lebanese conflict and Hezbollah.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.
The AMIA bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA; Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) building.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
An-Nahar (النهار) (English translation: The Morning or The Day) is a leading Arabic-language daily newspaper published in Lebanon.
Anthony H. Cordesman (born August 1, 1939) holds the Arleigh A. Burke Chair in Strategy at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and is a national security analyst on a number of global conflicts.
Anthony Robert Julius (born 16 July 1956) is a British solicitor advocate and academic, known among other things for his actions on behalf of Diana, Princess of Wales and Deborah Lipstadt.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Anti-Judaism is the "total or partial opposition to Judaism—and to Jews as adherents of it—by persons who accept a competing system of beliefs and practices and consider certain genuine Judaic beliefs and practices as inferior." Anti-Judaism, as a rejection of a particular way of thinking about God, is distinct from antisemitism, which is more akin to a form of racism.
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats.
An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.
Anti-Western sentiment, also known as Anti-Atlanticism refers to broad opposition or hostility to the people, culture, values, or policies of the Western World.
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antoine Zahra (أنطوان زهرا, also أنطوان زهرة, born 1956) is a Lebanese Maronite politician and a member of the Lebanese Forces party.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from Groupe Islamique Armé; الجماعة الإسلامية المسلّحة) was one of the two main Islamist insurgents groups that fought the Algerian government and army in the Algerian Civil War.
An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a judge or magistrate on behalf of the state, which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual, or the search and seizure of an individual's property.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs is the head of the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs within the United States Department of State, the foreign affairs department of the United States federal government.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
Augustus Richard Norton (born September 2, 1946) is an American professor and retired army officer.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Avraham Sela is an Israeli historian and scholar on the Middle East and international relations.
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
Émile Jamil Lahoud (اميل جميل لحود) (born 12 January 1936) is a Lebanese politician who was President of Lebanon from 1998 to 2007.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (meaning "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabī Al-Ishtirākī), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world.
Baalbek District (قضاء بعلبك) is an administrative district in the Baalbek-Hermel Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon, having the city Baalbek as its capital.
The Bahraini uprising of 2011 was a series of anti-government protests in Bahrain led by the Shia-dominant Bahraini Opposition from 2011 until 2014.
Barbara Jane Newman is an American medievalist, literary critic, religious historian, and author.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport (مطار بيروت رفيق الحريري الدولي, Maṭār Bayrūt Rafīq al-Ḥarīrī ad-Dwaliyy) (Aéroport international de Beyrouth.), formerly Beirut International Airport, is located from the city center in the southern suburbs of Beirut, Lebanon, and is the only operational commercial airport in the country.
Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu (born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009, previously holding the position from 1996 to 1999.
Beqaa is a governorate in Lebanon.
The BGM-71 TOW ("Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided") is an American anti-tank missile.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
The Blue Game Matrix was a list of White House approved operations to be carried out against Hezbollah in Lebanon during the George W. Bush administration.
The Blue Line is a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel published by the United Nations on 7 June 2000 for the purposes of determining whether Israel had fully withdrawn from Lebanon.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The C-802 is the export upgraded version of the Chinese anti-ship missile YJ-8 (NATO reporting name: CSS-N-8 Saccade), first unveiled in 1989 by the China Haiying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy (CHETA), also known as the Third Academy.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Center for American Progress (CAP) is a progressive public policy research and advocacy organization.
The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Charles William Boustany Jr. (born February 21, 1956) is an American politician, physician, and former Congressman from Lafayette, Louisiana, who served as the U.S. Representative for from 2005 to 2017.
The Chief of the General Staff, also known as the Commander-in-Chief of the Israel Defense Forces (Rosh HaMateh HaKlali, abbr. Ramatkal—), is the supreme commander and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christopher Hunter "Chris" Shayshttp://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~battle/reps/shays.htm (born October 18, 1945) is an American politician.
The civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, or as it was sometimes called by the media the Syrian Revolution of Dignity was an early stage of protests – with subsequent violent reaction by the Syrian Arab Republic authorities – lasting from March to 28 July 2011.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA) is an American non-profit pro-Israel media-monitoring, research and membership organization.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
The Cabinet of Syria is the chief executive body of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Daniel Benjamin (born October 16, 1961) is an American diplomat and journalist, and was the Coordinator for Counterterrorism at the United States Department of State from 2009 to 2012, appointed by Secretary Clinton.
Daniel L. Byman is a professor and Senior Associate Dean at Georgetown University's Walsh School of Foreign Service.
Darrell Edward Issa (born November 1, 1953) is the Republican U.S. Representative for California's 49th congressional district, serving in Congress since 2001.
John Dennis Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is a former American congressman who served as the 51st Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1999 to 2007, representing from 1987 to 2007.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to.
The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) is a statutory office that functions as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which in turn is a part of the United States Intelligence Community.
The Doha Agreement was an agreement reached by rival Lebanese factions on 21 May 2008 in Doha, Qatar.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
Ehud Barak (Ehud_barak.ogg, born Ehud Brog; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001.
Eilat (help; 'aylaat or 'aylat, also 'Um 'al-Rashrash) is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba.
Eric Jackson (born 1952 in Colón, Panama) is a politician, journalist, and radio talk show host.
The European Foundation for Democracy (EFD) is a policy centre based in Brussels, Belgium.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Fajr-3 Artillery Rocket (فجر-۳) is an Iranian multiple-launch artillery rocket, a third-generation Katyusha rocket.
The Fajr-5 (فجر-۵, meaning "dawn-5") is an artillery rocket developed by Iran in the 1990s.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
The Fars News Agency is a news agency in Iran.
Fatah al-Islam (فتح الإسلام', meaning Conquest of Islam) is a radical Sunni Islamist group that formed in November 2006 in a Palestinian refugee camp, located in Lebanon.
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).
The flag of Hezbollah, while sometimes found in different colours, is usually composed of the green logo of the Shi'a political/military organization Hezbollah, upon a yellow background with text above and below the logo in red (or sometimes green).
The foreign policy of Lebanon reflects its geographic location, the composition of its population, and its reliance on commerce and trade.
Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Sinyora, Fouad Sanioura, Fouad Seniora, Fuad Siniora) (فؤاد السنيورة, Fu'ād as-Sanyūrah) (born 22 November 1943) is a Lebanese politician, a former Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he held from 19 July 2005 to 25 May 2008.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
The Free Lebanon State (دولة لبنان الحر) was a de facto unrecognized state, announced by Saad Haddad, Lebanese politician and commander of the Maronite-Christian dominated South Lebanon Army on the course of the Lebanese Civil War.
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
Future Movement (Arabic: تيار المستقبل, Tayyar Al-Mustaqbal) (FM) is Lebanese political movement, led by MP and Prime Minister Saad Hariri, the younger son of the assassinated former Prime Minister of Lebanon, Rafic Hariri.
Gadi Eizenkot (גדי איזנקוט; born May 19, 1960) is the Chief of General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, having taken the oath of office on February 16, 2015.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Gebran Gerge Bassil (جبران جرجي باسيل; born 21 June 1970) is a Lebanese politician, and as of 20 September 2015, the leader of the Free Patriotic Movement.
Gebran Ghassan Tueni (جبران تويني; 15 September 1957 – 12 December 2005) was a Lebanese politician and the former editor and publisher of daily paper An Nahar, established by his grandfather, also named Gebran Tueni, in 1933.
Geneive Abdo is a journalist, scholar and author of several books on the Middle East and the Muslim World.
George Galloway (born 16 August 1954) is a British politician, broadcaster and writer.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
The Council of Ministers (Министерски съвет, Ministerski savet) is the main authority of the executive power in the Republic of Bulgaria.
Venezuela is a federal presidential republic.
James Gresham Barrett (born February 14, 1961) is an American politician who was the United States Representative for from 2003 to 2011.
The Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, also called the Governance of the Jurist (ولایت فقیه, Vilayat-e Faqih; ولاية الفقيه, Wilayat al-Faqih), is a post-Age-of-Occultation theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh (Islamic jurist) custodianship over people.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Hala Jaber is a Lebanese-British journalist.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
Hassan Hawlo al-Laqqis (حسان اللقيس; ?? – December 4, 2013) was a Hezbollah military commander in Lebanon.
Hassan Nasrallah (حسن نصرالله; born 31 August 1960) is the third and current Secretary General of the Lebanese political and paramilitary party Hezbollah since his predecessor, Abbas al-Musawi, was assassinated by the Israel Defense Forces in February 1992.
Helena Cobban (born 1952) is a British writer and researcher on international relations, with special interests in the Middle East, the international system, and transitional justice.
The Hermel District (قضاء الهرمل) is a district in the Baalbek-Hermel Governorate of Lebanon.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
Hezbollah Al-Hejaz (حزب الله الحجاز; literally Party of God in the Hejaz), Hizbollah in the Hijaz or the Saudi Hizbollah, is a militant organization operating in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Bahrain. It is a Shia organization founded in May 1987 in Saudi Arabia’s Eastern Province. It is pro-Khomeini as opposed to the pro-Shirazi Organization for the Islamic Revolution in the Arabian Peninsula (OIR; Munazzamat al-Thawra al-Islamiyya). It is outlawed in Saudi Arabia, being designated as a terrorist organization by the kingdom's government on 7 March 2014.
Hezbollah social services are social development programs organized by the Lebanese paramilitary group, Hezbollah.
The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.
The history of terrorism is a history of well-known and historically significant individuals, entities, and incidents associated, whether rightly or wrongly, with terrorism.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
The House of Saud (Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV; colloquial: Humvee) is a family of light, four-wheel drive, military trucks and utility vehicles produced by AM General.
Ibrahim al-Eshaiker al-Jaafari (إبراهيم الأشيقر الجعفري; born 25 March 1947) is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq in the Iraqi Transitional Government from 2005 to 2006, following the January 2005 election.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Imad Fayez Mughniyeh (عماد فايز مغنية; 7 December 1962 – 12 February 2008), alias al-Hajj Radwan (الحاج رضوان), was a senior member of Lebanon's Islamic Jihad Organization and number two in Hezbollah's leadership.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Israel proxy conflict, or Iran–Israel proxy war, and Iran–Israel Cold War is the ongoing proxy war between Iran and Israel.
Following the advance of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) into northern Iraq in mid-2014, Iran began to provide military aid to counter the militant advance.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Velayat-e faqih (ولایت فقیه, velāyat-e faqīh), also known as Islamic Government (حکومت اسلامی, Hokumat-i Eslami), is a book by the Iranian Muslim cleric, faqīh, and revolutionary Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, first published in 1970, and probably the most influential document written in modern times in support of theocratic rule.
The Islamic Jihad Organization – IJO (حركة الجهاد الإسلامي., Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami) or Organisation du Jihad Islamique (OJI) in French, but best known as "Islamic Jihad" (Arabic: Jihad al-Islami) for short, was a Shia militia known for its activities in the 1980s during the Lebanese Civil War.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
The Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon took place after Israel invaded Lebanon during the 1982 Lebanon War and subsequently retained its forces to support the Christian South Lebanon Army in Southern Lebanon.
The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.
The Israeli–Lebanese conflict, widely referred as the South Lebanon conflict, was a series of military clashes involving Israel, Lebanon and Syria, the Palestine Liberation Organization, as well as various non-state militias acting from within Lebanon.
Istishhad (استشهاد) is the Arabic word for "martyrdom", "death of a martyr", or "heroic death".
The January 2013 Rif Dimashq airstrike was an aerial attack in the Rif Dimashq Governorate of Syria, which targeted a convoy alleged to be carrying weapons from Syria to the Lebanese Shi'a militia Hezbollah.
The January 2015 Mazraat Amal incident was an airstrike against a two-car convoy that killed six Hezbollah fighters, including two prominent members, and a general of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards, Mohammad Ali Allahdadi, at al-Amal Farms (Mazraat Amal) in the Quneitra District of Syria, in the Eastern Golan Heights, on 18 January 2015, during the Syrian Civil War.
Jean Ziegler (born April 19, 1934 as Hans Ziegler) is a former professor of sociology at the University of Geneva and the Sorbonne, Paris.
The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency and wire service serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world, with about 70 syndication clients listed on its web site.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Jihād al-Binā' (جهاد البناء, meaning "Effort for Reconstruction") is a real estate foundation run by Hezbollah in Lebanon.
Hugh James Saxton (born January 22, 1943) is an American Republican Party politician.
John Owen Brennan (born September 22, 1955) was the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from March 2013 to January 2017.
Jund al-Sham (Division) is or was the name of multiple Sunni Islamic jihadist militant groups.
The Lebanese Phalanges Party (حزب الكتائب اللبنانية), better known in English as the Phalange (الكتائب), is a Christian Democratic political party in Lebanon.
The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher (a) is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II.
Khalid bin Ahmed Al Khalifa (born 24 April 1960) is a Bahraini diplomat who has served as Bahrain's Minister of Foreign Affairs since 2005.
The Khobar Towers bombing was a terrorist attack on part of a housing complex in the city of Khobar, Saudi Arabia, located near the national oil company (Saudi Aramco) headquarters of Dhahran and nearby King Abdulaziz Air Base on June 25, 1996.
The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) (Arabic: القوات المسلحة اللبنانية | Al-Quwwāt al-Musallaḥa al-Lubnāniyya) or Forces Armées Libanaises (FAL) in French, also known as the Lebanese Army (Arabic: الجيش اللبناني or "Armée libanaise" in French), is the military of the Lebanese Republic.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
On 18 December 2016, a new Cabinet was formed under Prime Minister Saad Hariri.
This is the list of the Lebanese government that was formed by Fouad Siniora on 11 July 2008.
On 9 November 2009, after five months of negotiations following the 2009 parliamentary elections, Lebanese prime minister Saad Hariri formed a national unity government.
Lebanese people refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Shia branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest Muslim denomination in the country tied with Sunni Muslims.
Lebanese Sunni Muslims refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest denomination in Lebanon tied with Shia Muslims.
Lebanese prisoners in Israel have been a source of contention between Lebanon and Israel and were an issue in the 2006 Lebanon War.
The Lebanese Resistance Brigades (known in Arabic as Saraya al-Muqawama al-Lubnaniya, also known as the Saraya) is a non-denominational Lebanese paramilitary group affiliated with Hezbollah.
Lebanese society is very modern and similar to certain cultures of Southern Europe as the country is "linked ideologically and culturally to Europe through France, and its uniquely diverse religious composition a rare environment that at once Arab and European".
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Lebanon hostage crisis was the kidnapping in Lebanon of 104 foreign hostages between 1982 and 1992, when the Lebanese Civil War was at its height.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lionel Jospin (born 12 July 1937) is a French politician, who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997 to 2002.
A number of armed groups have involved themselves in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
Many unproven conspiracy theories exist with varying degrees of popularity, frequently related to clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
During the Algerian Civil War of the 1990s, many massacres occurred.
Liz Sly (born in the United Kingdom) is a British journalist based in Beirut.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
The Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc (كتلة الوفاء للمقاومة) is Hezbollah's political wing in the Lebanese parliament.
The M47 Dragon, known as the FGM-77 during development, is an American shoulder-fired, man-portable anti-tank missile system.
Per Magnus Ranstorp (born 13 March 1965 in Hästveda) is a Swedish scholar who has written about Hizballah, Hamas, al-Qaeda and other militant Islamic movements.
The March 14 Alliance (taḥāluf 14 adhār), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution, is a coalition of political parties and independents in Lebanon formed in 2005 that are united by their anti-Syrian regime stance and their opposition to the March 8 Alliance.
The March 8 Alliance (taḥāluf 8 adhār) is a coalition of various political parties in Lebanon.
Mark LeVine is an American professor of history at the University of California, Irvine, United States.
Massimo D'Alema (born 20 April 1949) is an Italian politician who was the 53rd Prime Minister from 1998 to 2000.
The May 2013 Rif Dimashq airstrikes were a series of aerial attacks made on targets in Syria on 3 and 5 May 2013.
Michel Fuad Samaha (born 9 September 1948) is a former minister of information and minister of tourism in Lebanon, and a longtime politician and intelligence operative.
Michel Suleiman (ميشال سليمان; born 21 November 1948) served as President of Lebanon from 2008 to 2014.
The Middle East Forum (MEF) is an American conservative think tank founded in 1990 by Daniel Pipes, who serves as its president.
MILAN (Missile d´infanterie léger antichar; Light anti-tank infantry missile, milan is French for kite) is a European anti-tank guided missile.
The English word militant is both an adjective and a noun, and is generally used to mean vigorously active, combative and aggressive, especially in support of a cause, as in "militant reformers".
This is a list of some of the military equipment used by the paramilitary wing of Hezbollah.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Establishment of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs In 1971, an Amiri Decree was issued to announce the establishment of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and define its duties and responsibilities and was followed in the same year by Amiri Decree No.
The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs (מִשְׂרַד הַחוּץ, translit. Misrad HaHutz; وزارة الخارجية الإسرائيلية) is one of the most important ministries in the Israeli government.
Mohamed MorsiThe spellings of his first and last names vary.
Mohammad-Ali Allahdadi (محمدعلی اللهدادی; 1963 – January 18, 2015) was a Second Brigadier General in the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and a military officer in the Quds Force.
Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Hussain Fadlallah (also Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadl-Allāh; محمد حسين فضل الله; 16 November 1935 – 4 July 2010) was a prominent but controversial Shia cleric from a Lebanese family, but born in Najaf, Iraq, Fadlallah studied Islam in Najaf before moving to Lebanon in 1952.
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in August 1982 following the 1981 U.S.-brokered ceasefire between the PLO and Israel to end their involvement in the conflict between Lebanon's pro-government and pro-Syrian factions.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Mustafa Badreddine (مصطفى بدر الدين‎; 6 April 1961 – c. 13 May 2016), also known as Mustafa Badr Al Din, Mustafa Amine Badreddine, Mustafa Youssef Badreddine, Sami Issa, and Elias Fouad Saab, was a military leader of Hezbollah and both the cousin and brother-in-law of Imad Mughniyah.
Naftali Bennett (נַפְתָּלִי בֶּנֶט; born 25 March 1972) is an Israeli politician who has led the right-wing religious The Jewish Home party since 2012.
Naim Qassem (نعيم قاسم; born 1953) is a Shia Lebanese cleric and politician, who is the second in command of Hezbollah with the title of deputy secretary-general.
National Review (NR) is an American semi-monthly conservative editorial magazine focusing on news and commentary pieces on political, social, and cultural affairs.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
News World Communications Inc. is an international news media corporation.
Nicholas Evan Berg (April 2, 1978 – May 7, 2004) was an American freelance radio-tower repairman who went to Iraq after the United States' invasion of Iraq.
Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
Nikah mut'ah (nikāḥ al-mutʿah, literally "pleasure marriage";or Sigheh (صیغه) is a private and verbal temporary marriage contract that is practiced in Twelver Shia Islam in which the duration of the marriage and the mahr must be specified and agreed upon in advance.Berg H. Brill 2003, 9789004126022. Accessed at Google Books 15 March 2014.Hughes T. Asian Educational Services 1 December 1995. Accessed 15 April 2014.Pohl F. Marshall Cavendish, 2010., 1780761479277 Accessed at Google Books 15 March 2014. It is a private contract made in a verbal or written format. A declaration of the intent to marry and an acceptance of the terms are required as in other forms of marriage in Islam. According to Twelver Shia jurisprudence, preconditions for mutah are: The bride must not be married, she must be Muslim or belong to ''Ahl al-Kitab'' (People of the Book), she should be chaste, not addicted to fornication and she should not be a young virgin (if her father is absent and cannot give consent). At the end of the contract, the marriage ends and the wife must undergo iddah, a period of abstinence from marriage (and thus, sexual intercourse). The iddah is intended to give paternal certainty to any child/ren should the wife become pregnant during the temporary marriage contract. Generally, the Nikah mut'ah has no proscribed minimum or maximum duration. However, one source, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, indicates the minimum duration of the marriage is debatable and durations of at least three days, three months or one year have been suggested.Esposito J. Oxford University Press 2003 p221 Accessed 15 March 2014. Sunni Muslims, and within Shia Islam, Zaidi Shias, Ismaili Shias, and Dawoodi Bohras do not practice Nikah mut'ah. However, Sunni Muslims practice Nikah misyar, which has been regularly considered a somewhat similar marriage arrangement. Some Muslims and Western scholars have claimed that both Nikah mut'ah and Nikah misyar are Islamically void attempts to religiously sanction prostitution which is otherwise forbidden.
Noble Energy, Inc., formerly Noble Affiliates, Inc., is an American petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in Houston, Texas.
The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.
NOW News (sometimes abbreviated NOW) is a Beirut-based Lebanese news website focused on the Middle East founded in late 2012 and published in both English and Arabic by M Publishing SAL.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
On July 25, 1993, Israeli forces launched a week-long attack against Lebanon named Operation Accountability (מבצע דין וחשבון, Mivtza Din VeHeshbon) in Israel and the Seven-Day War in Lebanon.
Operation "Defensive Shield" (מבצע חומת מגן Mivtza Homat Magen, literally "Operation Defensive Wall") was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israel Defense Forces in 2002 during the course of the Second Intifada.
Operation Grapes of Wrath (מבצע ענבי זעם) is the Israeli Defense Forces code-name (referred to as April War by Hezbollah) for a sixteen-day campaign against Lebanon in 1996 in an attempt to end shelling of Northern Israel by Hezbollah.
Operation Smokescreen was an American interagency counterterrorist operation to disrupt fundraising by Hezbollah, that took place in early 1995, ending in 2002.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
The Parliament of Lebanon (مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab; Chambre des députés) is the national parliament of Lebanon.
The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) is a division of Johns Hopkins University based in Washington, D.C., United States, with campuses in Bologna, Italy; and Nanjing, China.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pluto Press is a British independent book publisher based in London.
The term political radicalism (in political science known as radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary or other means and changing value systems in fundamental ways.
Khomeinism is the founding ideology of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Lebanon is a semi-presidential parliamentary democratic republic within the overall framework of confessionalism, a form of consociationalism in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities.
The Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), also known as the People's Mobilization Committee (PMC) and the Popular Mobilization Units (PMU) (الحشد الشعبي Al-Hashd Al-Sha'abi), is an Iraqi state-sponsored umbrella organization composed of some 40 militias that are mainly Shia Muslim groups, but also including Sunni Muslim, Christian, and Yazidi individuals as well. The popular mobilization units have fought in nearly every major battle against ISIL. It has been called the new Iraqi Republican Guard after it was fully reorganized in early 2018 by its Commander in Chief Haider al-Abadi. Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi issued “regulations to adapt the situation of the Popular Mobilization fighters,” giving them ranks and salaries equivalent to other branches of the Iraqi military.
The Popular Resistance Committees (PRC) (Arabic: لجان المقاومة الشعبية, Lijān al-Muqāwama al-Shaʿbiyya) is a coalition of a number of armed Palestinian groups opposed to what they regard as the conciliatory approach of the Palestinian Authority and Fatah towards Israel.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.
The Progressive Socialist Party or PSP (الحزب التقدمي الاشتراكي, al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki, Parti socialiste progressiste) is a political party in Lebanon.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).
Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.
Qana, also spelled Cana or Kana, (قانا) is a village in southern Lebanon located southeast of the city of Tyre and north of the border with Israel.
The Qana massacre took place on April 18, 1996, near Qana, a village in Southern Lebanon, when the Israel Defense Forces fired artillery shells at a United Nations compound.
The Quds Force (سپاه قدس sepāh-e qods) is a special forces unit of Iran's Revolutionary Guards responsible for their extraterritorial operations.
Quneitra (also Al Qunaytirah, Qunaitira, or Kuneitra; القنيطرة al-Qunayṭrah) is the largely destroyed and abandoned capital of the Quneitra Governorate in south-western Syria.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Raad (رعد., "thunder") or RAAD is an Iranian wire-guided anti-tank guided missile based on the Soviet 9M14M Malyutka (AT-3b Sagger) missile.
Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a Lebanese business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on.
Ragheb Harb (راغب حرب) was a Lebanese resistance leader and Muslim cleric.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman, scholar, intelligence analyst, and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011.
Robert Solomon Wistrich (April 7, 1945 – May 19, 2015) was the Erich Neuberger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism.
Robert Ira Wexler (born January 2, 1961) is the president of the Washington-based S. Daniel Abraham Center for Middle East Peace.
Roger Francisco Noriega (born 1959, Wichita, Kansas) is a U.S. diplomat and policy maker specializing in Western Hemisphere Affairs.
Rohan Gunaratna (born 1961) is a Singaporean analyst on security affairs.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
This is a partial list of Secretaries-General of Hezbollah.
The Syrian Civil War is an intensely sectarian conflict.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sergei Borisovich Ivanov (p; born 31 January 1953) is a Russian senior official and politician who is the Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation on the Issues of Environmental Activities, Environment and Transport since 12 August 2016.
Lieutenant General Shaul Mofaz (שאול מופז; born Shahrām Mofazzazkār شهرام مفضضکار; 4 November 1948) is an Iranian-born Israeli former soldier and politician.
Shebaa Farms, also spelled Sheba'a Farms (مزارع شبعا,; חוות שבעא, Havot Sheba‘a or הר דוב, Har Dov) is a small strip of disputed land at the intersection of the Lebanese-Syrian border and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC), with headquarters in Los Angeles, California, United States, was established in 1977 and named for Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
Sky News is a 24-hour international multimedia news organisation based in the UK that started as a 24-hour television news channel.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
The South Lebanon Army or South Lebanese Army (SLA) (Jayš Lubnān al-Janūbiyy) was a Lebanese militia, dominated by Christians, during the Lebanese Civil War and its aftermath, until disbanded in the year 2000.
The South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) or the Security Zone conflict in Lebanon refers to 15 years of warfare between the Lebanese Christian proxy militias SLA with military and logistic support of Israel Defense Forces against Lebanese Muslim guerrillas led by the Iranian-backed Hezbollah, within what was defined as the "Security Zone" in South Lebanon.
Southern Lebanon (Lebanese Arabic: Jnoub, meaning "south") is the area of Lebanon comprising the South Governorate and the Nabatiye Governorate.
Special Force is a first-person shooter video game, developed and published by the Lebanese political group Hezbollah, created using the Genesis3D engine.
The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL), also referred to as the Lebanon Tribunal or the Hariri Tribunal, is a tribunal of international character applying Lebanese criminal law to carry out the investigation and prosecution of those responsible for the 14 February 2005 assassination of Rafic Hariri, the former Lebanese prime minister, and the deaths of 21 others, as well as those responsible for connected attacks.
Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) is a designation authorized under US Executive Order 13224, among other executive orders, and Title 31, Parts 595, 596, and 597 of the US Code of Federal Regulations, among other US laws and regulations.
Speculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
A state within a state or a deep state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("deep state"), such as the armed forces or public authorities (intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and branches of government bureaucracy), does not respond to the civilian political leadership.
Steven Emerson (born June 6, 1954) is an American journalist, author, and pundit on national security, terrorism, and Islamic extremism.
Subhi al-Tufayli (صبحي الطفيلي) (born 1948) was the first Secretary-General or leader of Hezbollah for a year.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Syrian occupation of Lebanon (الاحتلال السوري للبنان, Occupation syrienne du Liban) began in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War, and ended in 2005 following the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri.
The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.
The Taif Agreement (اتفاقية الطائف / ittifāqiyat al-Ṭā’if) (also the or) was an agreement reached to provide "the basis for the ending of the civil war and the return to political normalcy in Lebanon".
A takfiri (تكفيري) is a Muslim who accuses another Muslim (or an adherent of another Abrahamic faith) of apostasy.
The Tamar gas field is a natural gas field in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Israel.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
Thaddeus George McCotter (born August 22, 1965) is an American politician, radio host, and a member of the Republican Party who was the U.S. Representative from from 2003 to 2012.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Daily Star is a pan–Middle East newspaper in English that is edited in Beirut, Lebanon but deals with the whole Middle East.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Diary of a Young Girl, also known as The Diary of Anne Frank, is a book of the writings from the Dutch language diary kept by Anne Frank while she was in hiding for two years with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Sun was an American daily newspaper published in Manhattan from 2002 to 2008.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Times of Israel is an Israeli-based online newspaper launched in 2012.
The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries in the Near East.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Tom Diaz is an American writer, lawyer, and public speaker on the gun industry and gun control issues.
Thomas Peter Lantos (born Tamás Péter Lantos; February 1, 1928 – February 11, 2008) was an American politician who served as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from California, serving from 1981 until his death as the representative from a district that included the northern two-thirds of San Mateo County and a portion of southwestern San Francisco.
The Toophan (طوفان "Storm", rarely Toofan) is an Iranian SACLOS anti-tank guided missile reverse-engineered from the American BGM-71 TOW missile.
The Tourist Landmark of the Resistance, also known as Museum for Resistance Tourism, is a war museum operated by Hezbollah near the village of Mleeta in southern Lebanon.
The Triple Frontier (La Triple Frontera, Tríplice Fronteira) is a tri-border area along the junction of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil, where the Iguazú and Paraná rivers converge.
Tsvetan Genchev Tsvetanov (Цветан Генчев Цветанов; born 8 April 1965) is a Bulgarian politician and ministry of interior official.
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011.
Trans World Airlines Flight 847 was a flight from Cairo to San Diego with en route stops in Athens, Rome, Boston, and Los Angeles.
The Tyre truck bombings, also known as the Tyre disaster, were two suicide bombings against the Israel Defense Forces' headquarters building in Tyre, Lebanon, in 1982 and 1983.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1559, adopted on 2 September 2004, after recalling resolutions 425 (1978), 426 (1978), 520 (1982) and 1553 (2004) on the situation in Lebanon, the Council supported free and fair presidential elections in Lebanon and called upon remaining foreign forces to withdraw from the country.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution that was intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 425, adopted on March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, called on Israel to withdraw immediately its forces from Lebanon and established the United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) is an American non-partisan, independent, federal institution that provides analysis of and is involved in conflicts around the world.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vox Media is an American digital media company founded on July 14, 2005 as SportsBlogs Inc.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Walid Bey Jumblatt (وليد بيك جنبلاط; born 7 August 1949) is a veteran Lebanese politician, the leader of Lebanon's Druze and the current leader of the Progressive Socialist Party.
Walid Phares (وليد فارس) is a Lebanese-born American scholar and right-wing political pundit.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The War of the Camps (Arabic: حرب المخيمات) was a subconflict within the 1984–1990 phase of the Lebanese Civil War, in which the Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut were besieged by the Shi'ite Amal militia.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
Ya Libnan (يا لبنان) Oh Lebanon, is a Lebanese media outlet that delivers English-language news from Beirut to an international audience.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
The Yemeni Revolution, initially named the Yemeni uprising (intifada), and also known as the Yemeni Revolution of Dignity followed the initial stages of the Tunisian Revolution and occurred simultaneously with the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and other Arab Spring protests in the Middle East and North Africa.
Ynetnews is the online English-language Israeli news website of Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel’s most-read newspaper, and the Hebrew news portal, Ynet.
Zelzal-1 (زلزال-۱, meaning "Earthquake-1") is an Iranian-made heavy artillery rocket with an estimated range of 160 km.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The ZU-23-2, also known as ZU-23, is a Soviet towed 23 mm anti-aircraft twin-barreled autocannon.
The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.
The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a suicide attack that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War.
The 1983 Kuwait bombings were attacks on six key foreign and Kuwaiti installations on 12 December 1983, two months after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.
The April 18, 1983, United States embassy bombing was a suicide bombing in Beirut, Lebanon, that killed 63 people, including 17 Americans.
On September 20, 1984, the Shi'a Islamic militant group Hezbollah, with support and direction from the Islamic Republic of Iran, carried out a suicide car bombing targeting the U.S. embassy annex in East Beirut, Lebanon.
On 8 March 1985, a car bomb exploded between 9 and 45 metres from the house of Islamic cleric Sayyed Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah in Beirut, Lebanon, in a failed assassination attempt allegedly organized by the American CIA and British intelligence.
The attack on the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires was a suicide bombing attack on the building of the Israeli embassy of Argentina, located in Buenos Aires, which was carried out on 17 March 1992.
The 1994 London Israeli Embassy bombing was a car bomb attack on 26 July 1994 against the Israeli embassy building in London.
The Israeli–Lebanese Ceasefire Understanding (also known as The Grapes of Wrath Understandings and the April Understanding) was an informal written agreement between Israel and Hezbollah, reached through the diplomatic efforts of the US, which ended the 1996 military conflict between the two sides.
The 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid was a cross-border attack carried out by Lebanon-based Hezbollah militants on an Israeli military patrol on 12 July 2006 on Israeli territory.
The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights.
The 2006–2008 Lebanese protests were a series of political protests and sit-ins that began on December 1, 2006,MPLBelgique.org (December 1, 2011).
The 2008 conflict in Lebanon began on May 7, after Lebanon's 17-month-long political crisis spiraled out of control.
The 2009 Hezbollah plot in Egypt involved the arrest of 49 men by Egyptian authorities in the five months preceding April 2009.
The 2012 Burgas bus bombing was a terrorist attack carried out by a suicide bomber on a passenger bus transporting Israeli tourists at the Burgas Airport in Burgas, Bulgaria on 18 July 2012.
The June 2013 Sidon clash was part of the Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon, and involved the Lebanese Army and Sunni militants in the city of Sidon, Lebanon.
The 2K12 "Kub" (2К12 "Куб"; cube) (NATO reporting name: SA-6 "Gainful") mobile surface-to-air missile system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system designed to protect ground forces from air attack.
The 9K111 Fagot (Фагот; "bassoon") is a second-generation tube-launched SACLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile system of the Soviet Union for use from ground or vehicle mounts.
The 9K115-2 Metis-M is a Russian anti-tank missile system.
The 9K32 Strela-2 (Cтрела, "arrow"; NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile system (MANPADS) with a high explosive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance.
The 9K38 Igla (Игла́, "needle", NATO reporting name SA-18 Grouse) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM).
The 9M113 Konkurs (9М113 «Конкурс»; cognate of Concours; "Contest") is a SACLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union.
The 9M14 Malyutka (Малютка; "Little one", NATO reporting name: AT-3 Sagger) is a manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) wire-guided anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) system developed in the Soviet Union.
Herzbollah, Hesbola, Hesbolla, Hesbollah, Hez b'Allah, Hezb Allah, HezbAllah, Hezballa, Hezballah, Hezbola, Hezbolah, Hezbolla, Hezbollah (Lebanon), Hezbollah External Security Organisation, Hezbollah Resistance Movement, Hezbollahization, Hezbollahzation, Hezboolah, Hezbula, Hezbulla, Hezbullah, Hezzbollah, Hisbollah, Hizb Allah, Hizb'allah, Hizbalah, Hizballa, Hizballah, Hizballah's External Security Organisation, Hizbolla, Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah, Hizbu-llah, Hizbulla, Hizbullah, Huzbollah, Khizbollah, Organization of Right Against Wrong, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, Party of Allah, Party of God, Party of God (Lebanon), Political activities of Hezbollah, Revolutionary Justice Organization, The Hezbollah External Security Organization, Ḥizbu-llāh.