103 relations: Activated carbon, Advanced glycation end-product, Agave nectar, Agricultural subsidy, Alpha-amylase, American Heart Association, American Medical Association, Archer Daniels Midland, Assay, Beekeeping, Body mass index, Bun, Bushel, Calorie, Carbohydrate, Carbonyl group, Castner–Kellner process, Cato Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chloralkali process, Chromatography, Clinton, Iowa, Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Freestyle, Colony collapse disorder, Concentrate, Corn Refiners Association, Corn starch, Corn syrup, CRC Press, Differential scanning calorimetry, Ecological validity, Economic Research Service, Enzyme, Epidemiology, European Union, Fat, Food and Drug Administration, Fructose, Fructose malabsorption, Gastrointestinal tract, Gatorade, Gene, Generally recognized as safe, Glucan 1,4-a-glucosidase, Glucose, Gout, High-maltose corn syrup, Honey bee, Hydrolysis, ..., Hydroxymethylfurfural, Industrial fermentation, Ion-exchange resin, Isomerase, Jews, Kashrut, List of hepato-biliary diseases, Liver, Liver function tests, Lobbying, Low-density lipoprotein, Maize, Maple syrup, Mayo Clinic, McDonald's, Mercury (element), Mercury(II) chloride, Mexican Coke, Molar concentration, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Nutrient, Obesity, Oligosaccharide, Organofluorine chemistry, Passover, Pepsi, PepsiCo, Production quota, Protein, Protein metabolism, Pulp (juice), Raw material, Review article, Soft drink, Streptomyces, Sucrose, Sugar substitute, Sweetness, Systematic review, Tablespoon, The Hershey Company, The New York Times, Ton, Traditional dried fruit, Triglyceride, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Health and Human Services, University of Maryland, College Park, Uric acid, Xylose isomerase, Yoplait, 21st century. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proteins or lipids that become glycated as a result of exposure to sugars.
Agave nectar (more accurately, agave syrup) is a sweetener commercially produced from several species of agave, including Agave tequilana (blue agave) and Agave salmiana.
An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.
α-Amylase is a protein enzyme that hydrolyses alpha bonds of large, alpha-linked polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, yielding glucose and maltose.
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
The Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) is an American global food processing and commodities trading corporation, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
A bun is a small, sometimes sweet, bread, or bread roll.
A bushel (abbreviation: bsh. or bu.) is an imperial and US customary unit of weight or mass based upon an earlier measure of dry capacity.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Definition: The Castner–Kellner process is a method of electrolysis on an aqueous alkali chloride solution (usually sodium chloride solution) to produce the corresponding alkali hydroxide,Pauling, Linus; General Chemistry 1970 ed.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Clinton is a city in and the county seat of Clinton County, Iowa, United States.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Coca-Cola Freestyle is a touch screen soda fountain introduced by The Coca-Cola Company in 2009.
Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is the phenomenon that occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees.
A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component (in the case of a liquid: the solvent) removed.
The Corn Refiners Association (CRA) is a trade association based in Washington, D.C. and representing the corn refining industry in the United States.
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of corn (called maize in some countries) and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Differential scanning calorimetry, or DSC, is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature.
In research, the ecological validity of a study means that the methods, materials and setting of the study must approximate the real-world that is being examined.
The Economic Research Service (ERS) is a component of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and a principal agency of the Federal Statistical System of the United States.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fructose malabsorption, formerly named "dietary fructose intolerance" (DFI), is a digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose is impaired by deficient fructose carriers in the small intestine's enterocytes.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The Gatorade Company, Inc. is an American manufacturer of sports-themed beverage and food products, built around its signature line of sports drinks.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase (glucoamylase, amyloglucosidase (AMG), gamma-amylase, lysosomal alpha-glucosidase, acid maltase, exo-1,4-alpha-glucosidase, glucose amylase, gamma-1,4-glucan glucohydrolase, acid maltase, 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase) is an enzyme located on the brush border of the small intestine with systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
High-maltose corn syrup is a food additive used as a sweetener and preservative.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), also 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, is an organic compound formed by the dehydration of certain sugars.
Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.
An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange.
Isomerases are a general class of enzymes that convert a molecule from one isomer to another.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Hepato-biliary diseases include liver diseases and biliary diseases.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mercury(II) chloride or mercuric chloride (archaically, corrosive sublimate) is the chemical compound of mercury and chlorine with the formula HgCl2.
In the United States of America, Mexican Coke (Coca Cola de México) or, informally, "MexiCoke", refers to Coca-Cola produced in and imported from Mexico.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
The, or AIST, is a Japanese research facility headquartered in Tokyo, and most of the workforce is located in Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki, and in several cities throughout Japan.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
Organofluorine chemistry describes the chemistry of the organofluorines, organic compounds that contain the carbon–fluorine bond.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo.
PepsiCo, Inc. is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York.
A production quota is a goal for the production of a good.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and amino acids, and the breakdown of proteins (and other large molecules) by catabolism.
Pulp is a brand of nectar introduced to the Peruvian market by the Ajegroup in 2004.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
A review article is an article that summarizes the current state of understanding on a topic.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria and the type genus of the family Streptomycetaceae.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
A tablespoon is a large spoon used for serving or eating.
The Hershey Company, known until April 2005 as the Hershey Foods Corporation and commonly called Hershey's, is an American company and one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The ton is a unit of measure.
Traditional or conventional dried fruits are types of dried fruits that are either sun-dried such as raisins and dried figs or dehydrated in wind tunnels and other dryers such as dried plums (prunes), apricots (kuraga), peaches, and persimmons (gotgam).
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
In enzymology, a xylose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of D-xylose and D-xylulose.
Yoplait is the largest franchise brand of yogurt, jointly owned by United States–based food conglomerate General Mills and French dairy cooperative Sodiaal.
The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
Glucose fructose, Glucose-fructose, Glucose-fructose syrup, Glucose/fructose, Glucose–fructose syrup, HFCS, HFCS and health, Health effects of High Fructose Corn Syrup, Health effects of high fructose corn syrup, Health effects of high-fructose corn syrup, Hfcs, High Fructose Corn Syrup, High fructose Corn Syrup, High fructose corn syrup, High fructose corn syrup and health, High fructose maize syrup, High frutose corn syrup, High-fructose corn syrup and health, High-fructose maize syrup, Isoglucose.