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Index Hijab

A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest. [1]

124 relations: Abaya, Aceh, Afghanistan, Al-Ahzab, Al-Ghamdi, Al-Mawrid, Ali al-Sistani, An-Nur, Anas ibn Malik, Arabian Peninsula, Austria, Ayah, Ayatollah, BBC, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Burkini, Burqa, Chador, Christian headcovering, Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (Saudi Arabia), Common Era, Cowl, Early Muslim conquests, Egypt, European Court of Justice, Fadwa El Guindi, Fergana Valley, Fiqh, First Intifada, French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gaza Strip, Ghoonghat, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Hadith, Hamas, Hanafi, Hanbali, Hassan Rouhani, Headscarf, Heba Kotb, Hippie, Intimate parts in Islam, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Islam and clothing, Islamic revival, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ..., IslamOnline, Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, Jilbāb, Karen Armstrong, Kashf-e hijab, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Leila Ahmed, Maaseik, Madhhab, Mahram, Maliki, Marja', Medina, Merve Kavakçı, Mizan, Modesty, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Muhammad, Muslim, Muslim Brotherhood, Muslim world, Muslin, Niqāb, No God but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam, Oxford University Press, Pakistani clothing, Paranja, Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta, Polygamy, Privacy, Public sphere, Purdah, Quran, Religious habit, Reza Aslan, Reza Shah, Safiyyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib, Salafi movement, Sari, Saudi Arabia, Seclusion, Shafi‘i, Sharia, Shia Islam, Social status, Soviet–Afghan War, Srinagar, Sumptuary law, Tagelmust, Taliban, Tashkent, Tertullian, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Tichel, Translation, Tudong, Types of hijab, Tzniut, Ubay ibn Ka'b, Umm Salama, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Uzbekistan, Veil, Vesta (mythology), Vestal Virgin, Wimple, Women in Islam, Women's rights in Iran, Yale University Press, Yashmak, Zaynab bint Jahsh, 2016 Nice attack. Expand index (74 more) »


The abaya "cloak" (colloquially and more commonly, عباية, especially in Literary Arabic: عباءة; plural عبايات, عباءات), sometimes also called an aba, is a simple, loose over-garment, essentially a robe-like dress, worn by some women in parts of the Muslim world including in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Aceh; (Acehnese: Acèh; Jawoë:; Dutch: Atjeh or Aceh) is a province of Indonesia.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Sūrat al-Aḥzāb (سورة الأحزاب, "The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces") is the 33rd sūrah of the Qur'an with 73 ayat.

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Al-Ghamdi (الغامدي.,, also transliterated as Alghamdi, Ghamdi, or Ghamidi) is an Arabic family name denoting a member of the Ghamd tribe of Saudi Arabia.

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Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991.

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Ali al-Sistani

Al-Sayyid Ali al-Husseini al-Sistani (السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني), or Sayyed Ali Hosseini Sistani (سید علی حسینی سیستانی), commonly known as Ayatollah Sistani in the Western world (born August 4, 1930 in Mashhad), is an Iranian Shia marja in Iraq and the head of many of the seminaries (Hawzahs) in Najaf.

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Sūrat an-Nūr (سورة النور, "The Light") is the 24th sura of the Qur'an with 64 ayat.

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Anas ibn Malik

Anas ibn Malik ibn Nadar al-Khazraji Al-Ansari (أنس بن مالك الخزرجي الأنصاري, died 709Finding the Truth in Judging the Companinons, 1. 84-5; EI2, 1. 482 A. J. WensinckJ. Robson) was a well-known sahabi (companion) of the Prophet of Islam Muhammad.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah (آية; plural: āyāt آيات) is a "verse".

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Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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A burkini (or burqini; portmanteau of burqa and bikini, though qualifying as neither of these garments) is a type of modesty swimsuit for women.

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A burqa (برقع), also known as chadri or paranja in Central Asia, is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover themselves in public, which covers the body and the face.

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A chādor (چادر), also variously spelled in English as chadah, chad(d)ar, chader, chud(d)ah, chadur and naturalized as is an outer garment or open cloak worn by some women in Iran, Iraq and some other countries under the Persianate cultural sphere as well as predominantly Shia areas i.e. Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Pakistan, India, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Tajikistan and Turkey, in public spaces or outdoors.

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Christian headcovering

Christian head covering and hair covering is the veiling of the head by women in a variety of Christian traditions.

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Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (Saudi Arabia)

The Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (abbreviated CPVPV; هيئة الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر), also informally referred to as Hai’a, is the Saudi Arabian government agency employing “religious police” or Mutaween (مطوعين), to enforce Sharia Law within that Islamic nation.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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The cowl (from the Latin cuculla, meaning "a hood") is an item of clothing consisting of a long, hooded garment with wide sleeves.

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Early Muslim conquests

The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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European Court of Justice

The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.

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Fadwa El Guindi

Fadwa El Guindi, born in Egypt in 1941, is a professor of anthropology with a PhD in anthropology from the University of Texas at Austin (1972).

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Fergana Valley

The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.

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Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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First Intifada

The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.

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French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools

The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (e.g., government-operated) primary and secondary schools.

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Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.

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Gaza Strip

The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.

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A ghoonghat (ghunghat, ghunghta, ghumta, odhni, laaj, chunari, jhund) is a veil or headscarf worn by some married Hindu, Jain and Sikh women to cover their head, and often their face.

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Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Neẓām-e jomhūrī-e eslāmi-e Irān, known simply as Neẓām (lit) among its supporters, and "the regime" among its dissidents) is the ruling state and current political system in Iran, in power since the revolution and fall of Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.

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Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.

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The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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Hassan Rouhani

Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.

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Headscarves or head scarves are scarves covering most or all of the top of a person's, usually women, hair and her head, leaving the face uncovered.

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Heba Kotb

Heba Kotb (هبة قطب; born September 19, 1967) is an Egyptian certified sex therapist and host of The Big Talk, a sexual advice show airing in Egypt.

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A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.

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Intimate parts in Islam

The intimate parts of the human body must, according to Islam, be covered by clothing.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Islam and clothing

Islam says that the believing women should lower their gaze, guard their modesty, not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, Foster brother, and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.

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Islamic revival

Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Islamonline is a global Islamic website on the Internet providing services to Muslims and non-Muslims in several languages.

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Javed Ahmad Ghamidi

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (جاوید احمد غامدی) (born 1952) is a Pakistani Islamic modernist theologist Quran scholar and exegete, and educationist.

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The term jilbāb or jilbaab (جِلْبَاب) refers to any long and loose-fit coat or outer garment worn by some Muslim women.

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Karen Armstrong

Karen Armstrong, (born 14 November 1944) is a British author and commentator of Irish Catholic descent known for her books on comparative religion.

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Kashf-e hijab

On 8 January 1936, pro-western ruler Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran (Persia) issued a decree known as Kashf-e hijab (کشف حجاب Unveiling) banning all Islamic veils (including headscarf and chador), an edict that was swiftly and forcefully implemented.

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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Leila Ahmed

Leila Ahmed (لیلى أحمد; born 1940) is an Egyptian American writer on Islam and Islamic feminism.

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Maaseik (Limburgs: Mezeik) is a town and municipality in the Belgian province of Limburg.

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A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).

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A mahram is an unmarriageable kin with whom marriage or sexual intercourse would be considered haram, illegal in Islam, or people from whom purdah is not obligatory or legal escorts of a woman during journey longer than a day and night, 24 hours.

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The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.

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In Shia Islam, marjaʿ (مرجع; plural: marājiʿ), also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī (مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics.

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Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

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Merve Kavakçı

Merve Safa Kavakçı (born 19 August 1968, Ankara) is a Turkish politician, who was elected as a Virtue Party deputy for Istanbul on April 18, 1999.

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Mizan (balance; scale, ميزان) is a comprehensive treatise on the contents of Islam, written by Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, a Pakistani Islamic scholar.

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Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others.

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Muslim Brotherhood

The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Muslin, also mousseline, is a cotton fabric of plain weave.

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A niqab or niqāb (نِقاب, " veil"; also called a ruband) is a garment of clothing that covers the face which is worn by a small minority of Muslim women as a part of a particular interpretation of hijab ("modesty").

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No God but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam

No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam is a 2005 non-fiction book written by Iranian-American Muslim scholar Reza Aslan.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pakistani clothing

The term Pakistani clothing refers to the ethnic clothing that is typically worn by people in the country of Pakistan and by the people of Pakistani origin.

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Paranja (or Paranji) from فرنجية (Паранджа) is a traditional Central Asian robe for women and girls that covers the head and body.

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Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta (also the General Presidency of Scholarly Research and Ifta in Arabic, al-Lajnah ad-Daa'imah lil-Buhooth al-'Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa اللجنة الدائمة للبحوث العلمية والإفتاء) is an Islamic organization in Saudi Arabia established by the King that issues rulings in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) and prepares research papers for the Council of Senior Scholars, which advises the king on religious matters.

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Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.

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Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.

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Public sphere

The public sphere (German Öffentlichkeit) is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.

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Pardah or pardah is the term used primarily in South Asia, (from پرده, meaning "curtain") to describe in the South Asian context, the global religious and social practice of female seclusion that is associated with Muslim communities.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Religious habit

A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order.

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Reza Aslan

Reza Aslan (رضا اصلان,; born May 3, 1972) is an Iranian-American author, public intellectual, religious studies scholar, producer, and television host.

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Reza Shah

Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.

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Safiyyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib

Saffiyah binte ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (صفية بنت عبدالمطلب) (c.569–c.640) was a companion and aunt of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Salafi movement

The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.

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A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Seclusion is the act of secluding, i.e. shutting out or keeping apart from society, or the state of being secluded, or a place that facilitates it (a secluded place).

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The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Social status

Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Srinagar is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Sumptuary law

Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuāriae lēgēs) are laws that attempt to regulate consumption; Black's Law Dictionary defines them as "Laws made for the purpose of restraining luxury or extravagance, particularly against inordinate expenditures in the matter of apparel, food, furniture, etc." Historically, they were laws that were intended to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions, often depending upon a person's social rank, on their permitted clothing, food, and luxury expenditures.

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The tagelmust (also known as cheich, cheche and litham) is an indigo-dyed cotton garment, with the appearance of both a veil and a turban.

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The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.

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Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.

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Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.

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The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam is a dictionary of Islam, published by the Oxford University Press, with John Esposito as editor-in-chief.

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Tichel (Yiddish טיכל tikhl), also called a mitpachat (Hebrew מִטפַּחַת miṭpaḥat), is the Yiddish word for the headscarf worn by many married Orthodox Jewish women in compliance with the code of modesty known as tzniut, which requires married women to cover their hair.

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Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.

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Tudong (also spelled tudung) is a Malay word, literally meaning the noun "cover", which is commonly translated/referred to as veil or headscarf in English.

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Types of hijab

This table of types of hijab describes terminologically distinguished styles of Islamic clothing commonly associated with the word hijab.

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Tzniut (צניעות, tzniut, Sephardi pronunciation, tzeniut(h); Ashkenazi pronunciation, tznius, "modesty", or "privacy") describes both the character trait of modesty and humility, as well as a group of Jewish laws pertaining to conduct in general, and especially between the sexes.

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Ubay ibn Ka'b

Ubbay ibn Ka'ab (died 649), also known as Abu Mundhir (the father of Mundhir), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a person of high esteem in the early Muslim community.

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Umm Salama

Hind bint Abi Umayya (هند بنت أبي أمية), also known as Hind al-Makhzumiyah, Hind bint Suhayl or Umm Salama (أم سلمة هند بنت أبي أمية) Umme Salma went through trials and tribulations following her conversion to Islam (c. 596 AD – 64 AH) was one of Muhammad's wives.

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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, also known as UNC, UNC Chapel Hill, the University of North Carolina, or simply Carolina, is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States.

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Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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A veil is an article of clothing or hanging cloth that is intended to cover some part of the head or face, or an object of some significance.

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Vesta (mythology)

Vesta is the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.

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Vestal Virgin

In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Latin: Vestālēs, singular Vestālis) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.

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A wimple is an ancient form of female headdress, formed of a large piece of cloth worn around the neck and chin, and covering the top of the head.

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Women in Islam

The experiences of Muslim women (Muslimāt, singular مسلمة Muslima) vary widely between and within different societies.

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Women's rights in Iran

In the Annals of history dating back to the great Achaemenid Empire (2000 – 550 BCE), women in Iran have, for the most part, been subordinate to men.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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A yashmak, yashmac or yasmak (from Turkish yaşmak, "a veil") is a Turkish type of veil or niqab worn by some Muslim women to cover their faces in public.

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Zaynab bint Jahsh

Zaynab bint Jahsh (زينب بنت جحش; c. 590–641) was a cousin and wife of Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.

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2016 Nice attack

On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19 tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people and the injury of 458 others.

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Al amira, Al-amira, Compulsory Veiling, Haajib, Hair Veil, Hegab, Hejab, Hibijabi, Hidjab, Hijaab, Hijabi, Hijabs, Hijāb, Islamic face cover, Islamic face covering, Islamic headscarf, Islamic scarf, Islamic veil, Khimar, Khimār, Maghnaeh, Muhajabah, Shayla (clothing), The verses of Hijab, Tuerban, حجاب, 🧕.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hijab

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