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Hilary Putnam

Index Hilary Putnam

Hilary Whitehall Putnam (July 31, 1926 – March 13, 2016) was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist, and a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century. [1]

221 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Adam Smith, Alan Turing, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Association, American philosophy, Analytic philosophy, Analytical hierarchy, Andrew Wiles, Andrzej Mostowski, Animal cognition, Antisemitism, Arlington Street Church, Arlington, Massachusetts, Artificial intelligence, Bachelor of Arts, Bar and Bat Mitzvah, Berlin, Bertram Wolfe, Boolean expression, Boolean satisfiability problem, Boston, Boston Review, Brain in a vat, British Academy, Carl Gustav Hempel, Category (Kant), Causal theory of reference, Central High School (Philadelphia), Charles Sanders Peirce, Chicago, Chinese room, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Jacobs, Civil rights movement, Cognitive science, Communism, Communist Party USA, Computability theory, Computational theory of mind, Computer science, Computer scientist, Confirmation holism, Constructible universe, Continental philosophy, Crispin Wright, Daily Worker, Daniel Dennett, David Halberstam, David Lewis (philosopher), David Marr (neuroscientist), ..., David Papineau, Davis–Putnam algorithm, Democracy, Doctor of Philosophy, Donald Davidson (philosopher), Donald W. Loveland, DPLL algorithm, Edmund Husserl, Epistemology, Ernest Lepore, Ethics, Evil demon, Externalism, Fermat's Last Theorem, Functionalism (philosophy of mind), George Boolos, George Logemann, Gianni Vattimo, Gotha, Group C nerve fiber, Hans Reichenbach, Hartry Field, Harvard University, Hilbert's tenth problem, Homology (biology), Hyperarithmetical theory, Hypothetical types of biochemistry, Idealism, Illinois, Immanuel Kant, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Innateness hypothesis, Integer, Intentionality, Intermediate logic, Internalism and externalism, Is Logic Empirical?, Jaegwon Kim, James F. Conant, Jürgen Habermas, Jerry Fodor, Jewish philosophy, Jews, John Dewey, John Searle, John Worrall (philosopher), Journal of the ACM, Julia Robinson, Karl Marx, Keith Donnellan, Large countable ordinal, List of American philosophers, Lists of protests against the Vietnam War, Logical positivism, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lung cancer, Mad scientist, Martha Nussbaum, Martin Davis, Marxism, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematician, Mathematics, Mesothelioma, Metaphilosophy, Metaphysics, Michael Dummett, Mind–body problem, MIT Press, Multiple realizability, Naïve realism, Natural kind, Naturalism (philosophy), Nazi Party, Ned Block, Nelson Goodman, Neopragmatism, Neurochemistry, Nicholas Rescher Prize for Systematic Philosophy, Noam Chomsky, Nominalism, Non-Euclidean geometry, Northwestern University, Ontology, Open Court Publishing Company, Pain, Passover Seder, Patricia Churchland, Paul Benacerraf, Paul Guyer, Philadelphia, Philomathean Society, Philosopher, Philosophical realism, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of logic, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of perception, Philosophy of science, Postanalytic philosophy, Pragmatism, Princeton University, Progressive Labor Party (United States), Progressivism, Qualia, Quantum logic, Quark, Quasi-empiricism in mathematics, Randall Auxier, Reference, Relativism, Religion, René Descartes, Richard Boyd, Rietdijk–Putnam argument, Rigid designator, Robert Barsky, Robert Maximilian de Gaynesford, Rolf Schock Prizes, Ruth Anna Putnam, S. Barry Cooper, Samuel Putnam, Saul Kripke, Søren Kierkegaard, Scientific realism, Scientism, Second-order arithmetic, Semantic externalism, Semantic holism, Semantics, Sense data, Set (mathematics), Sigmund Freud, Simon Blackburn, Skepticism, Skype, Social constructivism, Social justice, Solipsism, Stephen Cole Kleene, Stephen J. Blackwood, Stephen Yablo, Structuralism (philosophy of science), Students for a Democratic Society, Supercomputer, Tel Aviv University, The Boston Globe, The Harvard Review of Philosophy, Thought experiment, Transactionalism, Turing degree, Turing machine, Twin Earth thought experiment, Tyler Burge, Type physicalism, UCLA Department of Philosophy, Universal Turing machine, University College Dublin, University of Amsterdam, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Pennsylvania, Viet Cong, Vietnam War, Western philosophy, Willard Van Orman Quine, William Bechtel, William James, Wolfgang Stegmüller, Yuri Matiyasevich, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (171 more) »

A priori and a posteriori

The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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American Philosophical Association

The American Philosophical Association (APA) is the main professional organization for philosophers in the United States.

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American philosophy

American philosophy is the activity, corpus, and tradition of philosophers affiliated with the United States.

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Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.

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Analytical hierarchy

In mathematical logic and descriptive set theory, the analytical hierarchy is an extension of the arithmetical hierarchy.

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Andrew Wiles

Sir Andrew John Wiles (born 11 April 1953) is a British mathematician and a Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Oxford, specialising in number theory.

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Andrzej Mostowski

Andrzej Mostowski (1 November 1913 – 22 August 1975) was a Polish mathematician.

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Animal cognition

Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities.

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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Arlington Street Church

The Arlington Street Church is a Unitarian Universalist church across from the Public Garden in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Arlington, Massachusetts

Arlington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, six miles (10 km) northwest of Boston.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Bachelor of Arts

A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.

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Bar and Bat Mitzvah

Bar Mitzvah (בַּר מִצְוָה) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Bertram Wolfe

Bertram David "Bert" Wolfe (January 19, 1896 – February 21, 1977) was an American scholar and former communist best known for biographical studies of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky, and Diego Rivera.

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Boolean expression

In computer science, a Boolean expression is an expression in a programming language that produces a Boolean value when evaluated, i.e. one of true or false.

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Boolean satisfiability problem

In computer science, the Boolean satisfiability problem (sometimes called propositional satisfiability problem and abbreviated as SATISFIABILITY or SAT) is the problem of determining if there exists an interpretation that satisfies a given Boolean formula.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Boston Review

Boston Review is a quarterly American political and literary magazine.

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Brain in a vat

In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is a scenario used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of human conceptions of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, consciousness and meaning.

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British Academy

The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and the social sciences.

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Carl Gustav Hempel

Carl Gustav "Peter" Hempel (January 8, 1905 – November 9, 1997) was a German writer and philosopher.

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Category (Kant)

In Kant's philosophy, a category (Categorie in the original or Kategorie in modern German) is a pure concept of the understanding (Verstand).

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Causal theory of reference

A causal theory of reference is a theory of how terms acquire specific referents based on evidence.

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Central High School (Philadelphia)

Central High School is a public high school in the Logan"." It is the best school eva.

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Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chinese room

The Chinese room argument holds that a program cannot give a computer a "mind", "understanding" or "consciousness", regardless of how intelligently or human-like the program may make the computer behave.

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Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Jacobs

Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Jacobs (October 6, 1764 – March 30, 1847) a German classical scholar, was born at Gotha.

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Civil rights movement

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Communist Party USA

The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.

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Computability theory

Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.

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Computational theory of mind

In philosophy, the computational theory of mind (CTM) refers to a family of views that hold that the human mind is an information processing system and that cognition and consciousness together are a form of computation.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Computer scientist

A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application.

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Confirmation holism

In the epistemology of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory).

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Constructible universe

In mathematics, in set theory, the constructible universe (or Gödel's constructible universe), denoted L, is a particular class of sets that can be described entirely in terms of simpler sets.

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Continental philosophy

Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.

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Crispin Wright

Crispin James Garth Wright (born 1942) is a British philosopher, who has written on neo-Fregean (neo-logicist) philosophy of mathematics, Wittgenstein's later philosophy, and on issues related to truth, realism, cognitivism, skepticism, knowledge, and objectivity.

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Daily Worker

The Daily Worker was a newspaper published in New York City by the Communist Party USA, a formerly Comintern-affiliated organization.

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Daniel Dennett

Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

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David Halberstam

David Halberstam (April 10, 1934April 23, 2007) was an American journalist and historian, known for his work on the Vietnam War, politics, history, the Civil Rights Movement, business, media, American culture, and later, sports journalism.

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David Lewis (philosopher)

David Kellogg Lewis (September 28, 1941 – October 14, 2001) was an American philosopher.

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David Marr (neuroscientist)

David Courtnay Marr (19 January 1945 – 17 November 1980) was a British neuroscientist and physiologist.

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David Papineau

David Papineau (born 1947) is a British academic philosopher, born in Como, Italy.

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Davis–Putnam algorithm

The Davis–Putnam algorithm was developed by Martin Davis and Hilary Putnam for checking the validity of a first-order logic formula using a resolution-based decision procedure for propositional logic.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Donald Davidson (philosopher)

Donald Herbert Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher.

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Donald W. Loveland

Donald W. Loveland (born December 26, 1934 in Rochester, New York)Loveland, D.W.; Stickel, M.E.;. In Proceedings of IEEE Trans.

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DPLL algorithm

In computer science, the Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) algorithm is a complete, backtracking-based search algorithm for deciding the satisfiability of propositional logic formulae in conjunctive normal form, i.e. for solving the CNF-SAT problem.

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Edmund Husserl

Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Ernest Lepore

Ernest or Ernie Lepore is an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Evil demon

The evil demon, also known as malicious demon and evil genius, is a concept in Cartesian philosophy.

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Externalism is a group of positions in the philosophy of mind which argues that the conscious mind is not only the result of what is going on inside the nervous system (or the brain), but also what occurs or exists outside the subject.

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Fermat's Last Theorem

In number theory, Fermat's Last Theorem (sometimes called Fermat's conjecture, especially in older texts) states that no three positive integers,, and satisfy the equation for any integer value of greater than 2.

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Functionalism (philosophy of mind)

Functionalism is a view in the theory of the mind.

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George Boolos

George Stephen Boolos (September 4, 1940 – May 27, 1996) was an American philosopher and a mathematical logician who taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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George Logemann

George Wahl Logemann (31 January 1938, Milwaukee, – 5 June 2012, Hartford) at www.legacy.com was an American mathematician and computer scientist.

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Gianni Vattimo

Gianteresio Vattimo (born 4 January 1936) is an Italian philosopher and politician.

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Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, Germany, located west of Erfurt and east of Eisenach with a population of 44,000.

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Group C nerve fiber

Group C nerve fibers are one of three classes of nerve fiber in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

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Hans Reichenbach

Hans Reichenbach (September 26, 1891 – April 9, 1953) was a leading philosopher of science, educator, and proponent of logical empiricism.

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Hartry Field

Hartry H. Field (born November 30, 1946) is an American philosopher.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Hilbert's tenth problem

Hilbert's tenth problem is the tenth on the list of mathematical problems that the German mathematician David Hilbert posed in 1900.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Hyperarithmetical theory

In recursion theory, hyperarithmetic theory is a generalization of Turing computability.

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Hypothetical types of biochemistry

Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time.

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In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.

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Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

The Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (abbreviated IITB or IIT Bombay) is a public engineering institution located at Powai, Mumbai, India.

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Innateness hypothesis

The innateness hypothesis is an expression coined by Hilary Putnam to refer to a linguistic theory of language acquisition which holds that at least some knowledge about language exists in humans at birth.

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An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

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Intentionality is a philosophical concept and is defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy as "the power of minds to be about, to represent, or to stand for, things, properties and states of affairs".

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Intermediate logic

In mathematical logic, a superintuitionistic logic is a propositional logic extending intuitionistic logic.

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Internalism and externalism

Internalism and externalism are two opposing ways of explaining various subjects in several areas of philosophy.

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Is Logic Empirical?

"Is Logic Empirical?" is the title of two articles (one by Hilary Putnam and another by Michael Dummett) that discuss the idea that the algebraic properties of logic may, or should, be empirically determined; in particular, they deal with the question of whether empirical facts about quantum phenomena may provide grounds for revising classical logic as a consistent logical rendering of reality.

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Jaegwon Kim

Jaegwon Kim (born September 12, 1934) is a Korean-American philosopher who is now an emeritus professor at Brown University, but who also taught at several other leading American universities.

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James F. Conant

James Ferguson Conant (born June 10, 1958) is an American philosopher who has written extensively on topics in philosophy of language, ethics, and metaphilosophy.

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Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.

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Jerry Fodor

Jerry Alan Fodor (April 22, 1935 – November 29, 2017) was an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.

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Jewish philosophy

Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Searle

John Rogers Searle (born 31 July 1932) is an American philosopher.

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John Worrall (philosopher)

John Worrall (born 27 November 1946) is a professor of philosophy of science at the London School of Economics.

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Journal of the ACM

The Journal of the ACM is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering computer science in general, especially theoretical aspects.

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Julia Robinson

Julia Hall Bowman Robinson (December 8, 1919 – July 30, 1985) was an American mathematician renowned for her contributions to the fields of computability theory and computational complexity theory–most notably in decision problems.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Keith Donnellan

Keith Sedgwick Donnellan (25 June 1931 – 20 February 2015) was an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus of the UCLA department of Philosophy.

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Large countable ordinal

In the mathematical discipline of set theory, there are many ways of describing specific countable ordinals.

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List of American philosophers

This is a list of American philosophers; of philosophers who are either from, or spent many productive years of their lives in the United States.

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Lists of protests against the Vietnam War

Protests against the Vietnam War took place in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Logical positivism

Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Mad scientist

Mad scientist (also mad doctor or mad professor) is a caricature of a scientist who is described as "mad" or "insane" owing to a combination of unusual or unsettling personality traits and the unabashedly ambitious, taboo or hubristic nature of their experiments.

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Martha Nussbaum

Martha Craven Nussbaum (born May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the Law School and the Philosophy department.

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Martin Davis

Martin David Davis (born March 8, 1928) is an American mathematician, known for his work on Hilbert's tenth problem.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium).

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Metaphilosophy (sometimes called philosophy of philosophy) is "the investigation of the nature of philosophy".

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Michael Dummett

Sir Michael Anthony Eardley Dummett, FBA (27 June 192527 December 2011) was an English philosopher, described as "among the most significant British philosophers of the last century and a leading campaigner for racial tolerance and equality." He was, until 1992, Wykeham Professor of Logic at the University of Oxford.

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Mind–body problem

The mind–body problem is a philosophical problem concerning the relationship between the human mind and body, although it can also concern animal minds, if any, and animal bodies.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Multiple realizability

Multiple realizability, in the philosophy of mind, is the thesis that the same mental property, state, or event can be implemented by different physical properties, states, or events.

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Naïve realism

In philosophy of mind, naïve realism, also known as direct realism or common sense realism, is the idea that the senses provide us with direct awareness of objects as they really are.

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Natural kind

In analytic philosophy, the term natural kind identifies a grouping of singular objects that always share particular qualities, whether or not humans know either the objects or qualities.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.

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Ned Block

Ned Joel Block (born 1942) is an American philosopher working in philosophy of mind who has made important contributions to the understanding of consciousness and the philosophy of cognitive science.

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Nelson Goodman

Henry Nelson Goodman (7 August 1906 – 25 November 1998) was an American philosopher, known for his work on counterfactuals, mereology, the problem of induction, irrealism, and aesthetics.

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Neopragmatism, sometimes called linguistic pragmatism, is the philosophical tradition that infers that the meaning of words is a function of how they are used, rather than the meaning of what people intend for them to describe.

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Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.

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Nicholas Rescher Prize for Systematic Philosophy

Established by the University of Pittsburgh in 2009, the Nicholas Rescher Prize for Systematic Philosophy is intended to counter present-day tendencies to narrow specialization by rewarding and showcasing the work of philosophers who have addressed the historical “big questions” of the field in ways that nevertheless command the respect of specialists.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.

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Non-Euclidean geometry

In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.

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Northwestern University

Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Open Court Publishing Company

The Open Court Publishing Company is a publisher with offices in Chicago and La Salle, Illinois.

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Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

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Passover Seder

The Passover Seder (סֵדֶר 'order, arrangement'; סדר seyder) is a Jewish ritual feast that marks the beginning of the Jewish holiday of Passover.

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Patricia Churchland

Patricia Smith Churchland (born July 16, 1943) is a Canadian-American analytical philosopher noted for her contributions to neurophilosophy and the philosophy of mind.

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Paul Benacerraf

Paul Joseph Salomon Paul Benacerraf (born 1931) is a French-born American philosopher working in the field of the philosophy of mathematics who has been teaching at Princeton University since he joined the faculty in 1960.

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Paul Guyer

Paul Guyer (born January 13, 1948) is an American philosopher.

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Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philomathean Society

The Philomathean Society of the University of Pennsylvania is a collegiate literary society, the oldest student group at the university, and a claimant to the title of the oldest continuously-existing literary society in the United States.

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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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Philosophical realism

Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.

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Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.

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Philosophy of logic

Following the developments in formal logic with symbolic logic in the late nineteenth century and mathematical logic in the twentieth, topics traditionally treated by logic not being part of formal logic have tended to be termed either philosophy of logic or philosophical logic if no longer simply logic.

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Philosophy of mathematics

The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.

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Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.

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Philosophy of perception

The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Postanalytic philosophy

Postanalytic philosophy describes a detachment from the mainstream philosophical movement of analytic philosophy, which is the predominant school of thought in English-speaking countries.

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Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Progressive Labor Party (United States)

The Progressive Labor Party (PLP) is a Marxist–Leninist political party based primarily in the United States established in January 1962 as the Progressive Labor Movement following a split in the Communist Party USA, adopting its new name at a convention held in the spring of 1965.

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Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.

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In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.

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Quantum logic

In quantum mechanics, quantum logic is a set of rules for reasoning about propositions that takes the principles of quantum theory into account.

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A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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Quasi-empiricism in mathematics

Quasi-empiricism in mathematics is the attempt in the philosophy of mathematics to direct philosophers' attention to mathematical practice, in particular, relations with physics, social sciences, and computational mathematics, rather than solely to issues in the foundations of mathematics.

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Randall Auxier

Randall E. Auxier (born August 7, 1961) is a professor of philosophy and communication studies at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, a musician, environmental activist, union advocate, and candidate (2018) for the United States House of Representatives, nominated by the Green Party in the 12th Congressional District of Illinois.

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Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object.

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Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Richard Boyd

Richard Newell Boyd (born 19 May 1942, Washington, D.C.) is an American philosopher.

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Rietdijk–Putnam argument

In philosophy, the Rietdijk–Putnam argument, named after C. W. Rietdijk and Hilary Putnam, uses 20th-century findings in physics—specifically in special relativity—to support the philosophical position known as four-dimensionalism.

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Rigid designator

In modal logic and the philosophy of language, a term is said to be a rigid designator or absolute substantial term when it designates (picks out, denotes, refers to) the same thing in all possible worlds in which that thing exists and does not designate anything else in those possible worlds in which that thing does not exist.

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Robert Barsky

Robert Franklin Barsky is a professor in the College of Arts and Sciences, and the Law School, at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.

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Robert Maximilian de Gaynesford

Maximilian de Gaynesford (born 1968) is an English philosopher and the author of (Oxford, 2017).

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Rolf Schock Prizes

The Rolf Schock Prizes were established and endowed by bequest of philosopher and artist Rolf Schock (1933–1986).

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Ruth Anna Putnam

Ruth Anna Putnam (previously Ruth Anna Hall and Ruth Anna Hall Mathers; born 20 September 1927) is an American philosopher and Professor Emerita of Philosophy at Wellesley College.

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S. Barry Cooper


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Samuel Putnam

Samuel Putnam (October 10, 1892 – January 15, 1950) was an American translator and scholar of Romance languages.

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Saul Kripke

Saul Aaron Kripke (born November 13, 1940) is an American philosopher and logician.

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Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

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Scientific realism

Scientific realism is the view that the universe described by science is real regardless of how it may be interpreted.

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Scientism is the ideology of science.

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Second-order arithmetic

In mathematical logic, second-order arithmetic is a collection of axiomatic systems that formalize the natural numbers and their subsets.

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Semantic externalism

In the philosophy of language, semantic externalism (the opposite of semantic internalism) is the view that the meaning of a term is determined, in whole or in part, by factors external to the speaker.

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Semantic holism

Semantic holism is a theory in the philosophy of language to the effect that a certain part of language, be it a term or a complete sentence, can only be understood through its relations to a (previously understood) larger segment of language.

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Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

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Sense data

In the philosophy of perception, the theory of sense data was a popular view held in the early 20th century by philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, C. D. Broad, H. H. Price, A. J. Ayer, and G. E. Moore.

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Set (mathematics)

In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Simon Blackburn

Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy.

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Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

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Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.

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Social constructivism

Social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge according to which human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others.

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Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

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Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.

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Stephen Cole Kleene

Stephen Cole Kleene (January 5, 1909 – January 25, 1994) was an American mathematician.

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Stephen J. Blackwood

Stephen James Blackwood is a scholar, academic administrator, and social entrepreneur born in 1975.

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Stephen Yablo

Stephen Yablo is David W. Skinner Professor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and taught previously at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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Structuralism (philosophy of science)

Structuralism (also known as scientific structuralism or as the structuralistic theory-concept) is an active research program in the philosophy of science, which was first developed in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s by several analytic philosophers.

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Students for a Democratic Society

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main representations of the New Left.

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A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

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Tel Aviv University

Tel Aviv University (TAU) (אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל-אָבִיב Universitat Tel Aviv) is a public research university in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv in Tel Aviv, Israel.

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The Boston Globe

The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.

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The Harvard Review of Philosophy

The Harvard Review of Philosophy is an academic journal of philosophy edited entirely by a student collective at Harvard University.

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Thought experiment

A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

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Transactionalism is a philosophical approach that addresses the fundamental nature of social exchange or human transaction; that all human exchange is best understood as a set of transactions within a reciprocal and co-constitutive whole.

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Turing degree

In computer science and mathematical logic the Turing degree (named after Alan Turing) or degree of unsolvability of a set of natural numbers measures the level of algorithmic unsolvability of the set.

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Turing machine

A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules.

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Twin Earth thought experiment

Twin Earth is a thought experiment by philosopher Hilary Putnam, first in his paper "Meaning and Reference" (1973), and then in his paper "The Meaning of 'Meaning (1975), to illustrate his argument for semantic externalism, or the view that the meanings of words are ultimately not purely psychological.

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Tyler Burge

Tyler Burge (born 1946) is a Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at UCLA.

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Type physicalism

Type physicalism (also known as reductive materialism, type identity theory, mind–brain identity theory and identity theory of mind) is a physicalist theory, in the philosophy of mind.

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UCLA Department of Philosophy

The UCLA Department of Philosophy is a constituent department of the Division of Humanities in the UCLA College of Letters and Science.

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Universal Turing machine

In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input.

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University College Dublin

University College, Dublin (commonly referred to as UCD; An Coláiste Ollscoile, Baile Átha Cliath) is a research university in Dublin, Ireland.

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University of Amsterdam

The University of Amsterdam (abbreviated as UvA, Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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Viet Cong

The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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Willard Van Orman Quine

Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.

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William Bechtel

William Bechtel (born 1951) is a professor of philosophy in the Department of Philosophy and the Science Studies Program at the University of California, San Diego.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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Wolfgang Stegmüller

Wolfgang Stegmüller (June 3, 1923 – June 11, 1991), was a German-Austrian philosopher with important contributions in philosophy of science and in analytic philosophy.

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Yuri Matiyasevich

Yuri Vladimirovich Matiyasevich, (Ю́рий Влади́мирович Матиясе́вич; born March 2, 1947, in Leningrad) is a Russian mathematician and computer scientist.

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20th-century philosophy

20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilary_Putnam

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