Logo
Unionpedia
Communication
Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Free
Faster access than browser!
 

Hilbert space

+ Save concept

The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. [1]

298 relations: Absolute convergence, Absolute value, Altitude (triangle), American Mathematical Monthly, American Mathematical Society, Antilinear map, Applied mathematics, Atiyah–Singer index theorem, August Ferdinand Möbius, Banach algebra, Banach space, Banach–Alaoglu theorem, Basis (linear algebra), Bergman kernel, Bergman space, Bessel potential, Bijection, Bilinear form, Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem, Borel functional calculus, Bosonic field, Bounded inverse theorem, Bounded operator, Bounded set, Bra–ket notation, C*-algebra, Calculus, Calculus of variations, Cardinal number, Cartesian coordinate system, Cartesian product, Cauchy sequence, Cauchy's convergence test, Cauchy's integral formula, Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Change of basis, Chaos theory, Closed graph theorem, Closed set, Closure (topology), Coercive function, Cokernel, Compact convergence, Compact group, Compact operator, Compact space, Complete metric space, Complex analysis, Complex conjugate, Complex number, ..., Complex plane, Complex projective space, Conserved quantity, Continuous function, Continuous functional calculus, Continuous spectrum, Convergence of random variables, Convergent series, Convex function, Countable set, David Hilbert, Definite quadratic form, Degrees of freedom (mechanics), Dense set, Densely defined operator, Density matrix, Derivative, Differential geometry, Differential operator, Dimension, Dimension (vector space), Direct method in the calculus of variations, Dirichlet boundary condition, Dirichlet eigenvalue, Dot product, Dual space, Dynamical system, Eberlein–Šmulian theorem, Eigenfunction, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Elliptic partial differential equation, Ergodic theory, Erhard Schmidt, Ernst Sigismund Fischer, Euclidean space, Euclidean vector, Eugene Wigner, Exponential function, Finite element method, Fock space, Fourier analysis, Fourier series, Fourier transform, Fredholm operator, Friedrich Bessel, Frigyes Riesz, Function space, Functional analysis, Galerkin method, Galois connection, Generalized function, Gibbs phenomenon, Giuseppe Peano, Green's function, Group (mathematics), Hadamard space, Hahn–Banach theorem, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Hardy space, Harmonic analysis, Harmonic function, Hölder condition, Hearing the shape of a drum, Henri Lebesgue, Hermann Grassmann, Hermann Weyl, Hermitian adjoint, Hilbert algebra, Hilbert C*-module, Hilbert curve, Hilbert manifold, Hilbert projection theorem, Hilbert–Schmidt operator, Hodge theory, Holomorphic function, Homotopy, Hyperbolic partial differential equation, Hyperplane, Idempotence, If and only if, Inclusion map, Infimum and supremum, Inner product space, Integral equation, Integral transform, Irving Segal, Isometry, Isometry group, Israel Gelfand, John von Neumann, Joseph Fourier, Kernel (algebra), Kernel (linear algebra), Koopman–von Neumann classical mechanics, Laplace operator, Laws of thermodynamics, Least squares, Lebesgue integration, Lebesgue measure, Limit (mathematics), Limit point, Linear algebra, Linear combination, Linear form, Linear function, Linear independence, Linear map, Linear span, Linear subspace, Liouville's theorem (Hamiltonian), Lp space, Marc-Antoine Parseval, Mark Naimark, Mathematical analysis, Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Mathematical structure, Mathematician, Mathematics, Matrix (mathematics), Matrix mechanics, Maurice René Fréchet, Measure (mathematics), Measurement in quantum mechanics, Metamerism (color), Metric space, Momentum, Monotonic function, Multivariable calculus, Natural transformation, Noncommutative harmonic analysis, Norbert Wiener, Norm (mathematics), Null set, Numerical analysis, Observable, Open and closed maps, Open mapping theorem (functional analysis), Open set, Operator algebra, Operator norm, Operator theory, Operator topologies, Ordered pair, Ordinary differential equation, Orthogonal polynomials, Orthogonality, Orthonormal basis, Overtone, Oxford University Press, Parabolic partial differential equation, Parallelogram law, Parseval's identity, Partial differential equation, Partially ordered set, Peter–Weyl theorem, Phase factor, Phase space, Physics, Plancherel theorem, Plancherel theorem for spherical functions, Plane (geometry), Poisson kernel, Poisson's equation, Polarization identity, Position operator, POVM, Princeton University Press, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Probability amplitude, Projection (linear algebra), Projective space, Providence, Rhode Island, Pseudo-differential operator, Pythagorean theorem, Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Real number, Reflexive space, Relatively compact subspace, Representation theory, Reproducing kernel Hilbert space, Resolvent formalism, Riemann integral, Riemann–Stieltjes integral, Riemannian manifold, Riesz potential, Riesz representation theorem, Riesz–Fischer theorem, Rigged Hilbert space, Ring (mathematics), Robin boundary condition, Self-adjoint operator, Separable space, Sequence, Sequence space, Series (mathematics), Sesquilinear form, Sigma-algebra, Signal processing, Sobolev space, Spectral color, Spectral theorem, Spectral theory, Spectrum (functional analysis), Spherical harmonics, Spinors in three dimensions, Springer Science+Business Media, Square root of a matrix, Square-integrable function, State space (physics), Sturm–Liouville theory, Surjective function, Symmetric matrix, Symmetry, Szegő kernel, Temperature, Tensor (intrinsic definition), Tensor product, Terence Tao, Thermodynamics, Time translation symmetry, Topological vector space, Topology, Trace (linear algebra), Triangle inequality, Trichromacy, Trigonometric series, Unbounded operator, Uniform boundedness principle, Uniformly convex space, Unit disk, Unit sphere, Unit vector, Unitary operator, Unitary representation, Unitary transformation, Vector space, Von Neumann algebra, Wavelet, Weak derivative, Weak formulation, Weak topology, Werner Heisenberg, Wightman axioms, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Zorn's lemma. Expand index (248 more) »

Absolute convergence

In mathematics, an infinite series of numbers is said to converge absolutely (or to be absolutely convergent) if the sum of the absolute values of the summands is finite.

New!!: Hilbert space and Absolute convergence · See more »

Absolute value

In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.

New!!: Hilbert space and Absolute value · See more »

Altitude (triangle)

In geometry, an altitude of a triangle is a line segment through a vertex and perpendicular to (i.e., forming a right angle with) a line containing the base (the side opposite the vertex).

New!!: Hilbert space and Altitude (triangle) · See more »

American Mathematical Monthly

The American Mathematical Monthly is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894.

New!!: Hilbert space and American Mathematical Monthly · See more »

American Mathematical Society

The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy and other programs.

New!!: Hilbert space and American Mathematical Society · See more »

Antilinear map

In mathematics, a mapping f:V\to W from a complex vector space to another is said to be antilinear (or conjugate-linear) if for all a, \, b \, \in \mathbb and all x, \, y \, \in V, where \bar and \bar are the complex conjugates of a and b respectively.

New!!: Hilbert space and Antilinear map · See more »

Applied mathematics

Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.

New!!: Hilbert space and Applied mathematics · See more »

Atiyah–Singer index theorem

In differential geometry, the Atiyah–Singer index theorem, proved by, states that for an elliptic differential operator on a compact manifold, the analytical index (related to the dimension of the space of solutions) is equal to the topological index (defined in terms of some topological data).

New!!: Hilbert space and Atiyah–Singer index theorem · See more »

August Ferdinand Möbius

August Ferdinand Möbius (17 November 1790 – 26 September 1868) was a German mathematician and theoretical astronomer.

New!!: Hilbert space and August Ferdinand Möbius · See more »

Banach algebra

In mathematics, especially functional analysis, a Banach algebra, named after Stefan Banach, is an associative algebra A over the real or complex numbers (or over a non-Archimedean complete normed field) that at the same time is also a Banach space, i.e. a normed space and complete in the metric induced by the norm.

New!!: Hilbert space and Banach algebra · See more »

Banach space

In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced) is a complete normed vector space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Banach space · See more »

Banach–Alaoglu theorem

In functional analysis and related branches of mathematics, the Banach–Alaoglu theorem (also known as Alaoglu's theorem) states that the closed unit ball of the dual space of a normed vector space is compact in the weak* topology.

New!!: Hilbert space and Banach–Alaoglu theorem · See more »

Basis (linear algebra)

In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.

New!!: Hilbert space and Basis (linear algebra) · See more »

Bergman kernel

In the mathematical study of several complex variables, the Bergman kernel, named after Stefan Bergman, is a reproducing kernel for the Hilbert space of all square integrable holomorphic functions on a domain D in Cn.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bergman kernel · See more »

Bergman space

In complex analysis, functional analysis and operator theory, a Bergman space is a function space of holomorphic functions in a domain D of the complex plane that are sufficiently well-behaved at the boundary that they are absolutely integrable.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bergman space · See more »

Bessel potential

In mathematics, the Bessel potential is a potential (named after Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel) similar to the Riesz potential but with better decay properties at infinity.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bessel potential · See more »

Bijection

In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bijection · See more »

Bilinear form

In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map, where K is the field of scalars.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bilinear form · See more »

Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem

In mathematics, specifically in real analysis, the Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem, named after Bernard Bolzano and Karl Weierstrass, is a fundamental result about convergence in a finite-dimensional Euclidean space Rn.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem · See more »

Borel functional calculus

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, the Borel functional calculus is a functional calculus (that is, an assignment of operators from commutative algebras to functions defined on their spectra), which has particularly broad scope.

New!!: Hilbert space and Borel functional calculus · See more »

Bosonic field

In quantum field theory, a bosonic field is a quantum field whose quanta are bosons; that is, they obey Bose–Einstein statistics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bosonic field · See more »

Bounded inverse theorem

In mathematics, the bounded inverse theorem (or inverse mapping theorem) is a result in the theory of bounded linear operators on Banach spaces.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bounded inverse theorem · See more »

Bounded operator

In functional analysis, a bounded linear operator is a linear transformation L between normed vector spaces X and Y for which the ratio of the norm of L(v) to that of v is bounded above by the same number, over all non-zero vectors v in X. In other words, there exists some M\ge 0 such that for all v in X The smallest such M is called the operator norm \|L\|_ \, of L. A bounded linear operator is generally not a bounded function; the latter would require that the norm of L(v) be bounded for all v, which is not possible unless L(v).

New!!: Hilbert space and Bounded operator · See more »

Bounded set

In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bounded set · See more »

Bra–ket notation

In quantum mechanics, bra–ket notation is a standard notation for describing quantum states.

New!!: Hilbert space and Bra–ket notation · See more »

C*-algebra

C∗-algebras (pronounced "C-star") are an area of research in functional analysis, a branch of mathematics.

New!!: Hilbert space and C*-algebra · See more »

Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

New!!: Hilbert space and Calculus · See more »

Calculus of variations

Calculus of variations is a field of mathematical analysis that uses variations, which are small changes in functions and functionals, to find maxima and minima of functionals: mappings from a set of functions to the real numbers.

New!!: Hilbert space and Calculus of variations · See more »

Cardinal number

In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality (size) of sets.

New!!: Hilbert space and Cardinal number · See more »

Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

New!!: Hilbert space and Cartesian coordinate system · See more »

Cartesian product

In set theory (and, usually, in other parts of mathematics), a Cartesian product is a mathematical operation that returns a set (or product set or simply product) from multiple sets.

New!!: Hilbert space and Cartesian product · See more »

Cauchy sequence

In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence, named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses.

New!!: Hilbert space and Cauchy sequence · See more »

Cauchy's convergence test

The Cauchy convergence test is a method used to test infinite series for convergence.

New!!: Hilbert space and Cauchy's convergence test · See more »

Cauchy's integral formula

In mathematics, Cauchy's integral formula, named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a central statement in complex analysis.

New!!: Hilbert space and Cauchy's integral formula · See more »

Cauchy–Schwarz inequality

In mathematics, the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, also known as the Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality, is a useful inequality encountered in many different settings, such as linear algebra, analysis, probability theory, vector algebra and other areas.

New!!: Hilbert space and Cauchy–Schwarz inequality · See more »

Change of basis

In linear algebra, a basis for a vector space of dimension n is a set of n vectors, called basis vectors, with the property that every vector in the space can be expressed as a unique linear combination of the basis vectors.

New!!: Hilbert space and Change of basis · See more »

Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Chaos theory · See more »

Closed graph theorem

In mathematics, the closed graph theorem is a basic result which characterizes continuous functions in terms of their graphs.

New!!: Hilbert space and Closed graph theorem · See more »

Closed set

In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a closed set is a set whose complement is an open set.

New!!: Hilbert space and Closed set · See more »

Closure (topology)

In mathematics, the closure of a subset S of points in a topological space consists of all points in S together with all limit points of S. The closure of S may equivalently be defined as the union of S and its boundary, and also as the intersection of all closed sets containing S. Intuitively, the closure can be thought of as all the points that are either in S or "near" S. A point which is in the closure of S is a point of closure of S. The notion of closure is in many ways dual to the notion of interior.

New!!: Hilbert space and Closure (topology) · See more »

Coercive function

In mathematics, a coercive function is a function that "grows rapidly" at the extremes of the space on which it is defined.

New!!: Hilbert space and Coercive function · See more »

Cokernel

In mathematics, the cokernel of a linear mapping of vector spaces f: X → Y is the quotient space Y/im(f) of the codomain of f by the image of f. The dimension of the cokernel is called the corank of f. Cokernels are dual to the kernels of category theory, hence the name: the kernel is a subobject of the domain (it maps to the domain), while the cokernel is a quotient object of the codomain (it maps from the codomain).

New!!: Hilbert space and Cokernel · See more »

Compact convergence

In mathematics compact convergence (or uniform convergence on compact sets) is a type of convergence which generalizes the idea of uniform convergence.

New!!: Hilbert space and Compact convergence · See more »

Compact group

In mathematics, a compact (topological) group is a topological group whose topology is compact.

New!!: Hilbert space and Compact group · See more »

Compact operator

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a compact operator is a linear operator L from a Banach space X to another Banach space Y, such that the image under L of any bounded subset of X is a relatively compact subset (has compact closure) of Y. Such an operator is necessarily a bounded operator, and so continuous.

New!!: Hilbert space and Compact operator · See more »

Compact space

In mathematics, and more specifically in general topology, compactness is a property that generalizes the notion of a subset of Euclidean space being closed (that is, containing all its limit points) and bounded (that is, having all its points lie within some fixed distance of each other).

New!!: Hilbert space and Compact space · See more »

Complete metric space

In mathematical analysis, a metric space M is called complete (or a Cauchy space) if every Cauchy sequence of points in M has a limit that is also in M or, alternatively, if every Cauchy sequence in M converges in M. Intuitively, a space is complete if there are no "points missing" from it (inside or at the boundary).

New!!: Hilbert space and Complete metric space · See more »

Complex analysis

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.

New!!: Hilbert space and Complex analysis · See more »

Complex conjugate

In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

New!!: Hilbert space and Complex conjugate · See more »

Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

New!!: Hilbert space and Complex number · See more »

Complex plane

In mathematics, the complex plane or z-plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the perpendicular imaginary axis.

New!!: Hilbert space and Complex plane · See more »

Complex projective space

In mathematics, complex projective space is the projective space with respect to the field of complex numbers.

New!!: Hilbert space and Complex projective space · See more »

Conserved quantity

In mathematics, a conserved quantity of a dynamical system is a function of the dependent variables whose value remains constant along each trajectory of the system.

New!!: Hilbert space and Conserved quantity · See more »

Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.

New!!: Hilbert space and Continuous function · See more »

Continuous functional calculus

In mathematics, particularly in operator theory and C*-algebra theory, a continuous functional calculus is a functional calculus which allows the application of a continuous function to normal elements of a C*-algebra.

New!!: Hilbert space and Continuous functional calculus · See more »

Continuous spectrum

In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers, as opposed to a discrete spectrum, a set of attainable values that is discrete in the mathematical sense, where there is a positive gap between each value and the next one.

New!!: Hilbert space and Continuous spectrum · See more »

Convergence of random variables

In probability theory, there exist several different notions of convergence of random variables.

New!!: Hilbert space and Convergence of random variables · See more »

Convergent series

In mathematics, a series is the sum of the terms of an infinite sequence of numbers.

New!!: Hilbert space and Convergent series · See more »

Convex function

In mathematics, a real-valued function defined on an ''n''-dimensional interval is called convex (or convex downward or concave upward) if the line segment between any two points on the graph of the function lies above or on the graph, in a Euclidean space (or more generally a vector space) of at least two dimensions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Convex function · See more »

Countable set

In mathematics, a countable set is a set with the same cardinality (number of elements) as some subset of the set of natural numbers.

New!!: Hilbert space and Countable set · See more »

David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

New!!: Hilbert space and David Hilbert · See more »

Definite quadratic form

In mathematics, a definite quadratic form is a quadratic form over some real vector space that has the same sign (always positive or always negative) for every nonzero vector of.

New!!: Hilbert space and Definite quadratic form · See more »

Degrees of freedom (mechanics)

In physics, the degree of freedom (DOF) of a mechanical system is the number of independent parameters that define its configuration.

New!!: Hilbert space and Degrees of freedom (mechanics) · See more »

Dense set

In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subset A of a topological space X is called dense (in X) if every point x in X either belongs to A or is a limit point of A, that is the closure of A is constituting the whole set X. Informally, for every point in X, the point is either in A or arbitrarily "close" to a member of A — for instance, every real number either is a rational number or has a rational number arbitrarily close to it (see Diophantine approximation).

New!!: Hilbert space and Dense set · See more »

Densely defined operator

In mathematics – specifically, in operator theory – a densely defined operator or partially defined operator is a type of partially defined function.

New!!: Hilbert space and Densely defined operator · See more »

Density matrix

A density matrix is a matrix that describes a quantum system in a mixed state, a statistical ensemble of several quantum states.

New!!: Hilbert space and Density matrix · See more »

Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

New!!: Hilbert space and Derivative · See more »

Differential geometry

Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.

New!!: Hilbert space and Differential geometry · See more »

Differential operator

In mathematics, a differential operator is an operator defined as a function of the differentiation operator.

New!!: Hilbert space and Differential operator · See more »

Dimension

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

New!!: Hilbert space and Dimension · See more »

Dimension (vector space)

In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space V is the cardinality (i.e. the number of vectors) of a basis of V over its base field.

New!!: Hilbert space and Dimension (vector space) · See more »

Direct method in the calculus of variations

In the calculus of variations, a topic in mathematics, the direct method is a general method for constructing a proof of the existence of a minimizer for a given functional, introduced by Zaremba and David Hilbert around 1900.

New!!: Hilbert space and Direct method in the calculus of variations · See more »

Dirichlet boundary condition

In mathematics, the Dirichlet (or first-type) boundary condition is a type of boundary condition, named after Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805–1859).

New!!: Hilbert space and Dirichlet boundary condition · See more »

Dirichlet eigenvalue

In mathematics, the Dirichlet eigenvalues are the fundamental modes of vibration of an idealized drum with a given shape.

New!!: Hilbert space and Dirichlet eigenvalue · See more »

Dot product

In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Dot product · See more »

Dual space

In mathematics, any vector space V has a corresponding dual vector space (or just dual space for short) consisting of all linear functionals on V, together with the vector space structure of pointwise addition and scalar multiplication by constants.

New!!: Hilbert space and Dual space · See more »

Dynamical system

In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Dynamical system · See more »

Eberlein–Šmulian theorem

In the mathematical field of functional analysis, the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem (named after William Frederick Eberlein and Witold Lwowitsch Schmulian) is a result that relates three different kinds of weak compactness in a Banach space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Eberlein–Šmulian theorem · See more »

Eigenfunction

In mathematics, an eigenfunction of a linear operator D defined on some function space is any non-zero function f in that space that, when acted upon by D, is only multiplied by some scaling factor called an eigenvalue.

New!!: Hilbert space and Eigenfunction · See more »

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.

New!!: Hilbert space and Eigenvalues and eigenvectors · See more »

Elliptic partial differential equation

Second order linear partial differential equations (PDEs) are classified as either elliptic, hyperbolic, or parabolic.

New!!: Hilbert space and Elliptic partial differential equation · See more »

Ergodic theory

Ergodic theory (Greek: έργον ergon "work", όδος hodos "way") is a branch of mathematics that studies dynamical systems with an invariant measure and related problems.

New!!: Hilbert space and Ergodic theory · See more »

Erhard Schmidt

Erhard Schmidt (13 January 1876 – 6 December 1959) was a Baltic German mathematician whose work significantly influenced the direction of mathematics in the twentieth century.

New!!: Hilbert space and Erhard Schmidt · See more »

Ernst Sigismund Fischer

Ernst Sigismund Fischer (12 July 1875 – 14 November 1954) was a mathematician born in Vienna, Austria.

New!!: Hilbert space and Ernst Sigismund Fischer · See more »

Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

New!!: Hilbert space and Euclidean space · See more »

Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

New!!: Hilbert space and Euclidean vector · See more »

Eugene Wigner

Eugene Paul "E.

New!!: Hilbert space and Eugene Wigner · See more »

Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.

New!!: Hilbert space and Exponential function · See more »

Finite element method

The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Finite element method · See more »

Fock space

The Fock space is an algebraic construction used in quantum mechanics to construct the quantum states space of a variable or unknown number of identical particles from a single particle Hilbert space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Fock space · See more »

Fourier analysis

In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Fourier analysis · See more »

Fourier series

In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves.

New!!: Hilbert space and Fourier series · See more »

Fourier transform

The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.

New!!: Hilbert space and Fourier transform · See more »

Fredholm operator

In mathematics, a Fredholm operator is an operator that arises in the Fredholm theory of integral equations.

New!!: Hilbert space and Fredholm operator · See more »

Friedrich Bessel

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.

New!!: Hilbert space and Friedrich Bessel · See more »

Frigyes Riesz

Frigyes Riesz (Riesz Frigyes,; 22 January 1880 – 28 February 1956) was a HungarianEberhard Zeidler: Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Its Applications: Linear monotone operators.

New!!: Hilbert space and Frigyes Riesz · See more »

Function space

In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets.

New!!: Hilbert space and Function space · See more »

Functional analysis

Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.

New!!: Hilbert space and Functional analysis · See more »

Galerkin method

In mathematics, in the area of numerical analysis, Galerkin methods are a class of methods for converting a continuous operator problem (such as a differential equation) to a discrete problem.

New!!: Hilbert space and Galerkin method · See more »

Galois connection

In mathematics, especially in order theory, a Galois connection is a particular correspondence (typically) between two partially ordered sets (posets).

New!!: Hilbert space and Galois connection · See more »

Generalized function

In mathematics, generalized functions, or distributions, are objects extending the notion of functions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Generalized function · See more »

Gibbs phenomenon

In mathematics, the Gibbs phenomenon, discovered by Available on-line at: and rediscovered by, is the peculiar manner in which the Fourier series of a piecewise continuously differentiable periodic function behaves at a jump discontinuity.

New!!: Hilbert space and Gibbs phenomenon · See more »

Giuseppe Peano

Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.

New!!: Hilbert space and Giuseppe Peano · See more »

Green's function

In mathematics, a Green's function is the impulse response of an inhomogeneous linear differential equation defined on a domain, with specified initial conditions or boundary conditions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Green's function · See more »

Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

New!!: Hilbert space and Group (mathematics) · See more »

Hadamard space

In geometry, an Hadamard space, named after Jacques Hadamard, is a non-linear generalization of a Hilbert space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hadamard space · See more »

Hahn–Banach theorem

In mathematics, the Hahn–Banach theorem is a central tool in functional analysis.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hahn–Banach theorem · See more »

Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics) · See more »

Hardy space

In complex analysis, the Hardy spaces (or Hardy classes) Hp are certain spaces of holomorphic functions on the unit disk or upper half plane.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hardy space · See more »

Harmonic analysis

Harmonic analysis is a branch of mathematics concerned with the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves, and the study of and generalization of the notions of Fourier series and Fourier transforms (i.e. an extended form of Fourier analysis).

New!!: Hilbert space and Harmonic analysis · See more »

Harmonic function

In mathematics, mathematical physics and the theory of stochastic processes, a harmonic function is a twice continuously differentiable function f: U → R where U is an open subset of Rn that satisfies Laplace's equation, i.e. everywhere on U. This is usually written as or.

New!!: Hilbert space and Harmonic function · See more »

Hölder condition

In mathematics, a real or complex-valued function f on d-dimensional Euclidean space satisfies a Hölder condition, or is Hölder continuous, when there are nonnegative real constants C, α, such that for all x and y in the domain of f. More generally, the condition can be formulated for functions between any two metric spaces.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hölder condition · See more »

Hearing the shape of a drum

To hear the shape of a drum is to infer information about the shape of the drumhead from the sound it makes, i.e., from the list of overtones, via the use of mathematical theory.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hearing the shape of a drum · See more »

Henri Lebesgue

Henri Léon Lebesgue (June 28, 1875 – July 26, 1941) was a French mathematician most famous for his theory of integration, which was a generalization of the 17th century concept of integration—summing the area between an axis and the curve of a function defined for that axis.

New!!: Hilbert space and Henri Lebesgue · See more »

Hermann Grassmann

Hermann Günther Grassmann (Graßmann; April 15, 1809 – September 26, 1877) was a German polymath, known in his day as a linguist and now also as a mathematician.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hermann Grassmann · See more »

Hermann Weyl

Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hermann Weyl · See more »

Hermitian adjoint

In mathematics, specifically in functional analysis, each bounded linear operator on a complex Hilbert space has a corresponding adjoint operator.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hermitian adjoint · See more »

Hilbert algebra

In mathematics, Hilbert algebras occur in the theory of von Neumann algebras in.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hilbert algebra · See more »

Hilbert C*-module

Hilbert C*-modules are mathematical objects which generalise the notion of a Hilbert space (which itself is a generalisation of Euclidean space), in that they endow a linear space with an "inner product" which takes values in a C*-algebra.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hilbert C*-module · See more »

Hilbert curve

A Hilbert curve (also known as a Hilbert space-filling curve) is a continuous fractal space-filling curve first described by the German mathematician David Hilbert in 1891, as a variant of the space-filling Peano curves discovered by Giuseppe Peano in 1890.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hilbert curve · See more »

Hilbert manifold

In mathematics, a Hilbert manifold is a manifold modeled on Hilbert spaces.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hilbert manifold · See more »

Hilbert projection theorem

In mathematics, the Hilbert projection theorem is a famous result of convex analysis that says that for every point x in a Hilbert space H and every nonempty closed convex C \subset H, there exists a unique point y \in C for which \lVert x - y \rVert is minimized over C. This is, in particular, true for any closed subspace M of H. In that case, a necessary and sufficient condition for y is that the vector x-y be orthogonal to M.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hilbert projection theorem · See more »

Hilbert–Schmidt operator

In mathematics, a Hilbert–Schmidt operator, named for David Hilbert and Erhard Schmidt, is a bounded operator A on a Hilbert space H with finite Hilbert–Schmidt norm where \|\ \| is the norm of H, \ an orthonormal basis of H, and Tr is the trace of a nonnegative self-adjoint operator.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hilbert–Schmidt operator · See more »

Hodge theory

In mathematics, Hodge theory, named after W. V. D. Hodge, uses partial differential equations to study the cohomology groups of a smooth manifold M. The key tool is the Laplacian operator associated to a Riemannian metric on M. The theory was developed by Hodge in the 1930s as an extension of de Rham cohomology.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hodge theory · See more »

Holomorphic function

In mathematics, a holomorphic function is a complex-valued function of one or more complex variables that is complex differentiable in a neighborhood of every point in its domain.

New!!: Hilbert space and Holomorphic function · See more »

Homotopy

In topology, two continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (from Greek ὁμός homós "same, similar" and τόπος tópos "place") if one can be "continuously deformed" into the other, such a deformation being called a homotopy between the two functions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Homotopy · See more »

Hyperbolic partial differential equation

In mathematics, a hyperbolic partial differential equation of order n is a partial differential equation (PDE) that, roughly speaking, has a well-posed initial value problem for the first derivatives.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hyperbolic partial differential equation · See more »

Hyperplane

In geometry, a hyperplane is a subspace whose dimension is one less than that of its ambient space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Hyperplane · See more »

Idempotence

Idempotence is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science that they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application.

New!!: Hilbert space and Idempotence · See more »

If and only if

In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.

New!!: Hilbert space and If and only if · See more »

Inclusion map

In mathematics, if A is a subset of B, then the inclusion map (also inclusion function, insertion, or canonical injection) is the function \iota that sends each element, x, of A to x, treated as an element of B: A "hooked arrow" is sometimes used in place of the function arrow above to denote an inclusion map; thus: \iota: A\hookrightarrow B. (On the other hand, this notation is sometimes reserved for embeddings.) This and other analogous injective functions from substructures are sometimes called natural injections.

New!!: Hilbert space and Inclusion map · See more »

Infimum and supremum

In mathematics, the infimum (abbreviated inf; plural infima) of a subset S of a partially ordered set T is the greatest element in T that is less than or equal to all elements of S, if such an element exists.

New!!: Hilbert space and Infimum and supremum · See more »

Inner product space

In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.

New!!: Hilbert space and Inner product space · See more »

Integral equation

In mathematics, an integral equation is an equation in which an unknown function appears under an integral sign.

New!!: Hilbert space and Integral equation · See more »

Integral transform

In mathematics, an integral transform maps an equation from its original domain into another domain where it might be manipulated and solved much more easily than in the original domain.

New!!: Hilbert space and Integral transform · See more »

Irving Segal

Irving Ezra Segal (September 13, 1918 – August 30, 1998) was an American mathematician known for work on theoretical quantum mechanics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Irving Segal · See more »

Isometry

In mathematics, an isometry (or congruence, or congruent transformation) is a distance-preserving transformation between metric spaces, usually assumed to be bijective.

New!!: Hilbert space and Isometry · See more »

Isometry group

In mathematics, the isometry group of a metric space is the set of all bijective isometries (i.e. bijective, distance-preserving maps) from the metric space onto itself, with the function composition as group operation.

New!!: Hilbert space and Isometry group · See more »

Israel Gelfand

Israel Moiseevich Gelfand, also written Israïl Moyseyovich Gel'fand, or Izrail M. Gelfand (ישראל געלפֿאַנד, Изра́иль Моисе́евич Гельфа́нд; – 5 October 2009) was a prominent Soviet mathematician.

New!!: Hilbert space and Israel Gelfand · See more »

John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

New!!: Hilbert space and John von Neumann · See more »

Joseph Fourier

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

New!!: Hilbert space and Joseph Fourier · See more »

Kernel (algebra)

In the various branches of mathematics that fall under the heading of abstract algebra, the kernel of a homomorphism measures the degree to which the homomorphism fails to be injective.

New!!: Hilbert space and Kernel (algebra) · See more »

Kernel (linear algebra)

In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra and functional analysis, the kernel (also known as null space or nullspace) of a linear map between two vector spaces V and W, is the set of all elements v of V for which, where 0 denotes the zero vector in W. That is, in set-builder notation,.

New!!: Hilbert space and Kernel (linear algebra) · See more »

Koopman–von Neumann classical mechanics

The Koopman–von Neumann mechanics is a description of classical mechanics in terms of Hilbert space, introduced by Bernard Koopman and John von Neumann in 1931 and 1932.

New!!: Hilbert space and Koopman–von Neumann classical mechanics · See more »

Laplace operator

In mathematics, the Laplace operator or Laplacian is a differential operator given by the divergence of the gradient of a function on Euclidean space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Laplace operator · See more »

Laws of thermodynamics

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.

New!!: Hilbert space and Laws of thermodynamics · See more »

Least squares

The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns.

New!!: Hilbert space and Least squares · See more »

Lebesgue integration

In mathematics, the integral of a non-negative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the -axis.

New!!: Hilbert space and Lebesgue integration · See more »

Lebesgue measure

In measure theory, the Lebesgue measure, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, is the standard way of assigning a measure to subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Lebesgue measure · See more »

Limit (mathematics)

In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function (or sequence) "approaches" as the input (or index) "approaches" some value.

New!!: Hilbert space and Limit (mathematics) · See more »

Limit point

In mathematics, a limit point (or cluster point or accumulation point) of a set S in a topological space X is a point x that can be "approximated" by points of S in the sense that every neighbourhood of x with respect to the topology on X also contains a point of S other than x itself.

New!!: Hilbert space and Limit point · See more »

Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

New!!: Hilbert space and Linear algebra · See more »

Linear combination

In mathematics, a linear combination is an expression constructed from a set of terms by multiplying each term by a constant and adding the results (e.g. a linear combination of x and y would be any expression of the form ax + by, where a and b are constants).

New!!: Hilbert space and Linear combination · See more »

Linear form

In linear algebra, a linear functional or linear form (also called a one-form or covector) is a linear map from a vector space to its field of scalars.

New!!: Hilbert space and Linear form · See more »

Linear function

In mathematics, the term linear function refers to two distinct but related notions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Linear function · See more »

Linear independence

In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if one of the vectors in the set can be defined as a linear combination of the others; if no vector in the set can be written in this way, then the vectors are said to be.

New!!: Hilbert space and Linear independence · See more »

Linear map

In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.

New!!: Hilbert space and Linear map · See more »

Linear span

In linear algebra, the linear span (also called the linear hull or just span) of a set of vectors in a vector space is the intersection of all subspaces containing that set.

New!!: Hilbert space and Linear span · See more »

Linear subspace

In linear algebra and related fields of mathematics, a linear subspace, also known as a vector subspace, or, in the older literature, a linear manifold, is a vector space that is a subset of some other (higher-dimension) vector space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Linear subspace · See more »

Liouville's theorem (Hamiltonian)

In physics, Liouville's theorem, named after the French mathematician Joseph Liouville, is a key theorem in classical statistical and Hamiltonian mechanics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Liouville's theorem (Hamiltonian) · See more »

Lp space

In mathematics, the Lp spaces are function spaces defined using a natural generalization of the ''p''-norm for finite-dimensional vector spaces.

New!!: Hilbert space and Lp space · See more »

Marc-Antoine Parseval

Marc-Antoine Parseval des Chênes (27 April 1755 – 16 August 1836) was a French mathematician, most famous for what is now known as Parseval's theorem, which presaged the unitarity of the Fourier transform.

New!!: Hilbert space and Marc-Antoine Parseval · See more »

Mark Naimark

Mark Aronovich Naimark (Марк Ароно́вич Наймарк) (5 December 1909 – 30 December 1978) was a Soviet mathematician who made important contributions to functional analysis and mathematical physics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Mark Naimark · See more »

Mathematical analysis

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Mathematical analysis · See more »

Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics

The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are those mathematical formalisms that permit a rigorous description of quantum mechanics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics · See more »

Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

The book Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (1932) by John von Neumann is an important early work in the development of quantum theory.

New!!: Hilbert space and Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics · See more »

Mathematical structure

In mathematics, a structure on a set is an additional mathematical object that, in some manner, attaches (or relates) to that set to endow it with some additional meaning or significance.

New!!: Hilbert space and Mathematical structure · See more »

Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

New!!: Hilbert space and Mathematician · See more »

Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

New!!: Hilbert space and Mathematics · See more »

Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

New!!: Hilbert space and Matrix (mathematics) · See more »

Matrix mechanics

Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925.

New!!: Hilbert space and Matrix mechanics · See more »

Maurice René Fréchet

Maurice Fréchet (2 September 1878 – 4 June 1973) was a French mathematician.

New!!: Hilbert space and Maurice René Fréchet · See more »

Measure (mathematics)

In mathematical analysis, a measure on a set is a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size.

New!!: Hilbert space and Measure (mathematics) · See more »

Measurement in quantum mechanics

The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement.

New!!: Hilbert space and Measurement in quantum mechanics · See more »

Metamerism (color)

In colorimetry, metamerism is a perceived matching of the colors with different (nonmatching) spectral power distributions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Metamerism (color) · See more »

Metric space

In mathematics, a metric space is a set for which distances between all members of the set are defined.

New!!: Hilbert space and Metric space · See more »

Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

New!!: Hilbert space and Momentum · See more »

Monotonic function

In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.

New!!: Hilbert space and Monotonic function · See more »

Multivariable calculus

Multivariable calculus (also known as multivariate calculus) is the extension of calculus in one variable to calculus with functions of several variables: the differentiation and integration of functions involving multiple variables, rather than just one.

New!!: Hilbert space and Multivariable calculus · See more »

Natural transformation

In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a natural transformation provides a way of transforming one functor into another while respecting the internal structure (i.e., the composition of morphisms) of the categories involved.

New!!: Hilbert space and Natural transformation · See more »

Noncommutative harmonic analysis

In mathematics, noncommutative harmonic analysis is the field in which results from Fourier analysis are extended to topological groups that are not commutative.

New!!: Hilbert space and Noncommutative harmonic analysis · See more »

Norbert Wiener

Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher.

New!!: Hilbert space and Norbert Wiener · See more »

Norm (mathematics)

In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero.

New!!: Hilbert space and Norm (mathematics) · See more »

Null set

In set theory, a null set N \subset \mathbb is a set that can be covered by a countable union of intervals of arbitrarily small total length.

New!!: Hilbert space and Null set · See more »

Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

New!!: Hilbert space and Numerical analysis · See more »

Observable

In physics, an observable is a dynamic variable that can be measured.

New!!: Hilbert space and Observable · See more »

Open and closed maps

In topology, an open map is a function between two topological spaces which maps open sets to open sets.

New!!: Hilbert space and Open and closed maps · See more »

Open mapping theorem (functional analysis)

In functional analysis, the open mapping theorem, also known as the Banach–Schauder theorem (named after Stefan Banach and Juliusz Schauder), is a fundamental result which states that if a continuous linear operator between Banach spaces is surjective then it is an open map.

New!!: Hilbert space and Open mapping theorem (functional analysis) · See more »

Open set

In topology, an open set is an abstract concept generalizing the idea of an open interval in the real line.

New!!: Hilbert space and Open set · See more »

Operator algebra

In functional analysis, an operator algebra is an algebra of continuous linear operators on a topological vector space with the multiplication given by the composition of mappings.

New!!: Hilbert space and Operator algebra · See more »

Operator norm

In mathematics, the operator norm is a means to measure the "size" of certain linear operators.

New!!: Hilbert space and Operator norm · See more »

Operator theory

In mathematics, operator theory is the study of linear operators on function spaces, beginning with differential operators and integral operators.

New!!: Hilbert space and Operator theory · See more »

Operator topologies

In the mathematical field of functional analysis there are several standard topologies which are given to the algebra B(X) of bounded linear operators on a Banach space X.

New!!: Hilbert space and Operator topologies · See more »

Ordered pair

In mathematics, an ordered pair (a, b) is a pair of objects.

New!!: Hilbert space and Ordered pair · See more »

Ordinary differential equation

In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation containing one or more functions of one independent variable and its derivatives.

New!!: Hilbert space and Ordinary differential equation · See more »

Orthogonal polynomials

In mathematics, an orthogonal polynomial sequence is a family of polynomials such that any two different polynomials in the sequence are orthogonal to each other under some inner product.

New!!: Hilbert space and Orthogonal polynomials · See more »

Orthogonality

In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.

New!!: Hilbert space and Orthogonality · See more »

Orthonormal basis

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, an orthonormal basis for an inner product space V with finite dimension is a basis for V whose vectors are orthonormal, that is, they are all unit vectors and orthogonal to each other.

New!!: Hilbert space and Orthonormal basis · See more »

Overtone

An overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.

New!!: Hilbert space and Overtone · See more »

Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

New!!: Hilbert space and Oxford University Press · See more »

Parabolic partial differential equation

A parabolic partial differential equation is a type of partial differential equation (PDE).

New!!: Hilbert space and Parabolic partial differential equation · See more »

Parallelogram law

In mathematics, the simplest form of the parallelogram law (also called the parallelogram identity) belongs to elementary geometry.

New!!: Hilbert space and Parallelogram law · See more »

Parseval's identity

In mathematical analysis, Parseval's identity, named after Marc-Antoine Parseval, is a fundamental result on the summability of the Fourier series of a function.

New!!: Hilbert space and Parseval's identity · See more »

Partial differential equation

In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.

New!!: Hilbert space and Partial differential equation · See more »

Partially ordered set

In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set.

New!!: Hilbert space and Partially ordered set · See more »

Peter–Weyl theorem

In mathematics, the Peter–Weyl theorem is a basic result in the theory of harmonic analysis, applying to topological groups that are compact, but are not necessarily abelian.

New!!: Hilbert space and Peter–Weyl theorem · See more »

Phase factor

For any complex number written in polar form (such as reiθ), the phase factor is the complex exponential factor (eiθ).

New!!: Hilbert space and Phase factor · See more »

Phase space

In dynamical system theory, a phase space is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, with each possible state corresponding to one unique point in the phase space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Phase space · See more »

Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

New!!: Hilbert space and Physics · See more »

Plancherel theorem

In mathematics, the Plancherel theorem is a result in harmonic analysis, proven by Michel Plancherel in 1910.

New!!: Hilbert space and Plancherel theorem · See more »

Plancherel theorem for spherical functions

In mathematics, the Plancherel theorem for spherical functions is an important result in the representation theory of semisimple Lie groups, due in its final form to Harish-Chandra.

New!!: Hilbert space and Plancherel theorem for spherical functions · See more »

Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.

New!!: Hilbert space and Plane (geometry) · See more »

Poisson kernel

In potential theory, the Poisson kernel is an integral kernel, used for solving the two-dimensional Laplace equation, given Dirichlet boundary conditions on the unit disc.

New!!: Hilbert space and Poisson kernel · See more »

Poisson's equation

In mathematics, Poisson's equation is a partial differential equation of elliptic type with broad utility in mechanical engineering and theoretical physics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Poisson's equation · See more »

Polarization identity

In mathematics, the polarization identity is any one of a family of formulas that express the inner product of two vectors in terms of the norm of a normed vector space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Polarization identity · See more »

Position operator

In quantum mechanics, the position operator is the operator that corresponds to the position observable of a particle.

New!!: Hilbert space and Position operator · See more »

POVM

In functional analysis and quantum measurement theory, a positive-operator valued measure (POVM) is a measure whose values are non-negative self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space, and whose integral is the identity operator.

New!!: Hilbert space and POVM · See more »

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

New!!: Hilbert space and Princeton University Press · See more »

Principles of Quantum Mechanics

Principles of Quantum Mechanics is a textbook by Ramamurti Shankar.

New!!: Hilbert space and Principles of Quantum Mechanics · See more »

Probability amplitude

In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex number used in describing the behaviour of systems.

New!!: Hilbert space and Probability amplitude · See more »

Projection (linear algebra)

In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself such that.

New!!: Hilbert space and Projection (linear algebra) · See more »

Projective space

In mathematics, a projective space can be thought of as the set of lines through the origin of a vector space V. The cases when and are the real projective line and the real projective plane, respectively, where R denotes the field of real numbers, R2 denotes ordered pairs of real numbers, and R3 denotes ordered triplets of real numbers.

New!!: Hilbert space and Projective space · See more »

Providence, Rhode Island

Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States.

New!!: Hilbert space and Providence, Rhode Island · See more »

Pseudo-differential operator

In mathematical analysis a pseudo-differential operator is an extension of the concept of differential operator.

New!!: Hilbert space and Pseudo-differential operator · See more »

Pythagorean theorem

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.

New!!: Hilbert space and Pythagorean theorem · See more »

Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Quantum field theory · See more »

Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

New!!: Hilbert space and Quantum mechanics · See more »

Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.

New!!: Hilbert space and Quantum state · See more »

Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

New!!: Hilbert space and Real number · See more »

Reflexive space

In the area of mathematics known as functional analysis, a reflexive space is a Banach space (or more generally a locally convex topological vector space) that coincides with the continuous dual of its continuous dual space, both as linear space and as topological space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Reflexive space · See more »

Relatively compact subspace

In mathematics, a relatively compact subspace (or relatively compact subset, or precompact subset) Y of a topological space X is a subset whose closure is compact.

New!!: Hilbert space and Relatively compact subspace · See more »

Representation theory

Representation theory is a branch of mathematics that studies abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations of vector spaces, and studies modules over these abstract algebraic structures.

New!!: Hilbert space and Representation theory · See more »

Reproducing kernel Hilbert space

In functional analysis (a branch of mathematics), a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) is a Hilbert space of functions in which point evaluation is a continuous linear functional.

New!!: Hilbert space and Reproducing kernel Hilbert space · See more »

Resolvent formalism

In mathematics, the resolvent formalism is a technique for applying concepts from complex analysis to the study of the spectrum of operators on Banach spaces and more general spaces.

New!!: Hilbert space and Resolvent formalism · See more »

Riemann integral

In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval.

New!!: Hilbert space and Riemann integral · See more »

Riemann–Stieltjes integral

In mathematics, the Riemann–Stieltjes integral is a generalization of the Riemann integral, named after Bernhard Riemann and Thomas Joannes Stieltjes.

New!!: Hilbert space and Riemann–Stieltjes integral · See more »

Riemannian manifold

In differential geometry, a (smooth) Riemannian manifold or (smooth) Riemannian space (M,g) is a real, smooth manifold M equipped with an inner product g_p on the tangent space T_pM at each point p that varies smoothly from point to point in the sense that if X and Y are differentiable vector fields on M, then p \mapsto g_p(X(p),Y(p)) is a smooth function.

New!!: Hilbert space and Riemannian manifold · See more »

Riesz potential

In mathematics, the Riesz potential is a potential named after its discoverer, the Hungarian mathematician Marcel Riesz.

New!!: Hilbert space and Riesz potential · See more »

Riesz representation theorem

There are several well-known theorems in functional analysis known as the Riesz representation theorem.

New!!: Hilbert space and Riesz representation theorem · See more »

Riesz–Fischer theorem

In mathematics, the Riesz–Fischer theorem in real analysis is any of a number of closely related results concerning the properties of the space ''L''2 of square integrable functions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Riesz–Fischer theorem · See more »

Rigged Hilbert space

In mathematics, a rigged Hilbert space (Gelfand triple, nested Hilbert space, equipped Hilbert space) is a construction designed to link the distribution and square-integrable aspects of functional analysis.

New!!: Hilbert space and Rigged Hilbert space · See more »

Ring (mathematics)

In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.

New!!: Hilbert space and Ring (mathematics) · See more »

Robin boundary condition

In mathematics, the Robin boundary condition (properly), or third type boundary condition, is a type of boundary condition, named after Victor Gustave Robin (1855–1897).

New!!: Hilbert space and Robin boundary condition · See more »

Self-adjoint operator

In mathematics, a self-adjoint operator on a finite-dimensional complex vector space V with inner product \langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle is a linear map A (from V to itself) that is its own adjoint: \langle Av,w\rangle.

New!!: Hilbert space and Self-adjoint operator · See more »

Separable space

In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence \_^ of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence.

New!!: Hilbert space and Separable space · See more »

Sequence

In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.

New!!: Hilbert space and Sequence · See more »

Sequence space

In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, a sequence space is a vector space whose elements are infinite sequences of real or complex numbers.

New!!: Hilbert space and Sequence space · See more »

Series (mathematics)

In mathematics, a series is, roughly speaking, a description of the operation of adding infinitely many quantities, one after the other, to a given starting quantity.

New!!: Hilbert space and Series (mathematics) · See more »

Sesquilinear form

In mathematics, a sesquilinear form is a generalization of a bilinear form that, in turn, is a generalization of the concept of the dot product of Euclidean space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Sesquilinear form · See more »

Sigma-algebra

In mathematical analysis and in probability theory, a σ-algebra (also σ-field) on a set X is a collection Σ of subsets of X that includes the empty subset, is closed under complement, and is closed under countable unions and countable intersections.

New!!: Hilbert space and Sigma-algebra · See more »

Signal processing

Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.

New!!: Hilbert space and Signal processing · See more »

Sobolev space

In mathematics, a Sobolev space is a vector space of functions equipped with a norm that is a combination of ''Lp''-norms of the function itself and its derivatives up to a given order.

New!!: Hilbert space and Sobolev space · See more »

Spectral color

A spectral color is a color that is evoked in a normal human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as monochromatic light.

New!!: Hilbert space and Spectral color · See more »

Spectral theorem

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis).

New!!: Hilbert space and Spectral theorem · See more »

Spectral theory

In mathematics, spectral theory is an inclusive term for theories extending the eigenvector and eigenvalue theory of a single square matrix to a much broader theory of the structure of operators in a variety of mathematical spaces.

New!!: Hilbert space and Spectral theory · See more »

Spectrum (functional analysis)

In mathematics, particularly in functional analysis, the spectrum of a bounded operator is a generalisation of the set of eigenvalues of a matrix.

New!!: Hilbert space and Spectrum (functional analysis) · See more »

Spherical harmonics

In mathematics and physical science, spherical harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere.

New!!: Hilbert space and Spherical harmonics · See more »

Spinors in three dimensions

In mathematics, the spinor concept as specialised to three dimensions can be treated by means of the traditional notions of dot product and cross product.

New!!: Hilbert space and Spinors in three dimensions · See more »

Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

New!!: Hilbert space and Springer Science+Business Media · See more »

Square root of a matrix

In mathematics, the square root of a matrix extends the notion of square root from numbers to matrices.

New!!: Hilbert space and Square root of a matrix · See more »

Square-integrable function

In mathematics, a square-integrable function, also called a quadratically integrable function, is a real- or complex-valued measurable function for which the integral of the square of the absolute value is finite.

New!!: Hilbert space and Square-integrable function · See more »

State space (physics)

In physics, a state space is an abstract space in which different "positions" represent, not literal locations, but rather states of some physical system.

New!!: Hilbert space and State space (physics) · See more »

Sturm–Liouville theory

In mathematics and its applications, a classical Sturm–Liouville theory, named after Jacques Charles François Sturm (1803–1855) and Joseph Liouville (1809–1882), is the theory of a real second-order linear differential equation of the form where y is a function of the free variable x. Here the functions p(x), q(x), and w(x) > 0 are specified at the outset.

New!!: Hilbert space and Sturm–Liouville theory · See more »

Surjective function

In mathematics, a function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective (or onto), or a surjection, if for every element y in the codomain Y of f there is at least one element x in the domain X of f such that f(x).

New!!: Hilbert space and Surjective function · See more »

Symmetric matrix

In linear algebra, a symmetric matrix is a square matrix that is equal to its transpose.

New!!: Hilbert space and Symmetric matrix · See more »

Symmetry

Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

New!!: Hilbert space and Symmetry · See more »

Szegő kernel

In the mathematical study of several complex variables, the Szegő kernel is an integral kernel that gives rise to a reproducing kernel on a natural Hilbert space of holomorphic functions.

New!!: Hilbert space and Szegő kernel · See more »

Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

New!!: Hilbert space and Temperature · See more »

Tensor (intrinsic definition)

In mathematics, the modern component-free approach to the theory of a tensor views a tensor as an abstract object, expressing some definite type of multi-linear concept.

New!!: Hilbert space and Tensor (intrinsic definition) · See more »

Tensor product

In mathematics, the tensor product of two vector spaces and (over the same field) is itself a vector space, together with an operation of bilinear composition, denoted by, from ordered pairs in the Cartesian product into, in a way that generalizes the outer product.

New!!: Hilbert space and Tensor product · See more »

Terence Tao

Terence Chi-Shen Tao (born 17 July 1975) is an Australian-American mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Terence Tao · See more »

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

New!!: Hilbert space and Thermodynamics · See more »

Time translation symmetry

Time translation symmetry or temporal translation symmetry (TTS) is a mathematical transformation in physics that moves the times of events through a common interval.

New!!: Hilbert space and Time translation symmetry · See more »

Topological vector space

In mathematics, a topological vector space (also called a linear topological space) is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis.

New!!: Hilbert space and Topological vector space · See more »

Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

New!!: Hilbert space and Topology · See more »

Trace (linear algebra)

In linear algebra, the trace of an n-by-n square matrix A is defined to be the sum of the elements on the main diagonal (the diagonal from the upper left to the lower right) of A, i.e., where aii denotes the entry on the ith row and ith column of A. The trace of a matrix is the sum of the (complex) eigenvalues, and it is invariant with respect to a change of basis.

New!!: Hilbert space and Trace (linear algebra) · See more »

Triangle inequality

In mathematics, the triangle inequality states that for any triangle, the sum of the lengths of any two sides must be greater than or equal to the length of the remaining side.

New!!: Hilbert space and Triangle inequality · See more »

Trichromacy

Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.

New!!: Hilbert space and Trichromacy · See more »

Trigonometric series

A trigonometric series is a series of the form: It is called a Fourier series if the terms A_ and B_ have the form: where f is an integrable function.

New!!: Hilbert space and Trigonometric series · See more »

Unbounded operator

In mathematics, more specifically functional analysis and operator theory, the notion of unbounded operator provides an abstract framework for dealing with differential operators, unbounded observables in quantum mechanics, and other cases.

New!!: Hilbert space and Unbounded operator · See more »

Uniform boundedness principle

In mathematics, the uniform boundedness principle or Banach–Steinhaus theorem is one of the fundamental results in functional analysis.

New!!: Hilbert space and Uniform boundedness principle · See more »

Uniformly convex space

In mathematics, uniformly convex spaces (or uniformly rotund spaces) are common examples of reflexive Banach spaces.

New!!: Hilbert space and Uniformly convex space · See more »

Unit disk

In mathematics, the open unit disk (or disc) around P (where P is a given point in the plane), is the set of points whose distance from P is less than 1: The closed unit disk around P is the set of points whose distance from P is less than or equal to one: Unit disks are special cases of disks and unit balls; as such, they contain the interior of the unit circle and, in the case of the closed unit disk, the unit circle itself.

New!!: Hilbert space and Unit disk · See more »

Unit sphere

In mathematics, a unit sphere is the set of points of distance 1 from a fixed central point, where a generalized concept of distance may be used; a closed unit ball is the set of points of distance less than or equal to 1 from a fixed central point.

New!!: Hilbert space and Unit sphere · See more »

Unit vector

In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.

New!!: Hilbert space and Unit vector · See more »

Unitary operator

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a unitary operator is a surjective bounded operator on a Hilbert space preserving the inner product.

New!!: Hilbert space and Unitary operator · See more »

Unitary representation

In mathematics, a unitary representation of a group G is a linear representation π of G on a complex Hilbert space V such that π(g) is a unitary operator for every g ∈ G. The general theory is well-developed in case G is a locally compact (Hausdorff) topological group and the representations are strongly continuous.

New!!: Hilbert space and Unitary representation · See more »

Unitary transformation

In mathematics, a unitary transformation is a transformation that preserves the inner product: the inner product of two vectors before the transformation is equal to their inner product after the transformation.

New!!: Hilbert space and Unitary transformation · See more »

Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

New!!: Hilbert space and Vector space · See more »

Von Neumann algebra

In mathematics, a von Neumann algebra or W*-algebra is a *-algebra of bounded operators on a Hilbert space that is closed in the weak operator topology and contains the identity operator.

New!!: Hilbert space and Von Neumann algebra · See more »

Wavelet

A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation with an amplitude that begins at zero, increases, and then decreases back to zero.

New!!: Hilbert space and Wavelet · See more »

Weak derivative

In mathematics, a weak derivative is a generalization of the concept of the derivative of a function (strong derivative) for functions not assumed differentiable, but only integrable, i.e., to lie in the L''p'' space \mathrm^1().

New!!: Hilbert space and Weak derivative · See more »

Weak formulation

Weak formulations are important tools for the analysis of mathematical equations that permit the transfer of concepts of linear algebra to solve problems in other fields such as partial differential equations.

New!!: Hilbert space and Weak formulation · See more »

Weak topology

In mathematics, weak topology is an alternative term for certain initial topologies, often on topological vector spaces or spaces of linear operators, for instance on a Hilbert space.

New!!: Hilbert space and Weak topology · See more »

Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

New!!: Hilbert space and Werner Heisenberg · See more »

Wightman axioms

In physics, the Wightman axioms (also called Gårding–Wightman axioms), named after Lars Gårding and Arthur Wightman, are an attempt at a mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum field theory.

New!!: Hilbert space and Wightman axioms · See more »

Zeroth law of thermodynamics

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

New!!: Hilbert space and Zeroth law of thermodynamics · See more »

Zorn's lemma

Zorn's lemma, also known as the Kuratowski–Zorn lemma, after mathematicians Max Zorn and Kazimierz Kuratowski, is a proposition of set theory that states that a partially ordered set containing upper bounds for every chain (that is, every totally ordered subset) necessarily contains at least one maximal element.

New!!: Hilbert space and Zorn's lemma · See more »

Redirects here:

Complete inner product space, Complex Hilbert space, Hilbert Space, Hilbert space dimension, Hilbert spaces, Hilbert spaces and Fourier analysis, Linear Algebra/Hilbert Spaces, Separable Hilbert space.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilbert_space

OutgoingIncoming
Hey! We are on Facebook now! »