148 relations: Alcimoennis, Alfred the Great, Ancient Estonia, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Saxons, Asturias, Atlantic Bronze Age, Östergötland, Bad Urach, Ballista, Barry Cunliffe, Basque Country (autonomous community), Bathampton Down, Battle of Cynwit, Battlesbury Camp, Belgae, Bindon Hill, Bohuslän, Brean Down, Brent Knoll Camp, Broch, Bronze Age, Cadbury Castle, Somerset, Campoo, Cantabria, Castro culture, Celtiberians, Celts, Central Europe, Channel 4, Coney's Castle, Counterscarp, Danebury, Daw's Castle, Dún Aonghasa, Defensive wall, Dinas Dinlle, Ditch (fortification), Dolebury Warren, Dolmen, Douro, Dowsborough, Druid, Earthworks (archaeology), Earthworks (engineering), Ebro, Estonian language, Europe, Finnish language, Fogou, ..., Fortification, Galicia (Spain), Gaul, Gelbe Burg, Goosehill Camp, Gord (archaeology), Gotland, Granary, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Hallstatt culture, Hampshire, Hectare, Herepath, Hill-slope enclosure, Hillfort, Hod Hill, Huelgoat, Ipf (mountain), Iron Age, Julius Caesar, La Tène culture, Lambert's Castle, Late antiquity, Latvia, Lithuania, Lithuanian language, Livonia, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Livonian Crusade, Longhouse, Maes Knoll, Maiden Castle, Dorset, Meander, Mežotne, Megalith, Menhir, Migration Period, Miholjanec, Mortimer Wheeler, Murus Gallicus, Neman, Norte Region, Portugal, Norton Camp, Numantia, Nuraghe, Old Castle of Lieto, Old Oswestry, Oppidum, Pärnu County, Pā, PDF, Pen (enclosure), Pfostenschlitzmauer, Pilsdon Pen, Piracy, Plainsfield Camp, Post-glacial rebound, Post-processual archaeology, Poundbury Hill, Prehistoric warfare, Promontory fort, Promontory forts of Cornwall, Province of Ávila, Rampart (fortification), Rapola Castle, Ringfort, Roman Britain, Roman conquest of Britain, Roman Empire, Roundhouse (dwelling), Runder Berg, Samogitia, Södermanland, Scratchbury Camp, Siege, Slovakia, Solsbury Hill, Souterrain, Stockade, Stonea Camp, Svealand, Tagus, Talsi, Tartu, Tērvete, Teutonic Order, The Rumps, Toompea, Trendle Ring, Uppland, Urnfield culture, Varbola Stronghold, Vikings, Vilnius, Wansdyke (earthwork), Wessex, Western Europe, 1st millennium BC. Expand index (98 more) » « Shrink index
Alcimoennis (aka Alkimoennis) is the name widely attached to a Celtic Oppidum, or hill fort above the modern town of Kelheim in Bavaria, Germany.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
Ancient Estonia refers to a period covering History of Estonia from the middle of the 8th millennium BC until the conquest and subjugation of the local Finnic tribes in the first quarter of the 13th century during the Danish Northern Crusades.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, France, Britain and Ireland.
Östergötland (English exonym: East Gothland) is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish) in the south of Sweden.
Bad Urach is a town in the district of Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα ballistra and that from βάλλω ballō, "throw"), plural ballistae, sometimes called bolt thrower, was an ancient missile weapon that launched a large projectile at a distant target.
Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe (born 10 December 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, is a British archaeologist and academic.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
Bathampton Down, is a flat limestone plateau in Bathampton overlooking Bath, in Somerset near the River Avon, England.
The Battle of Cynwit, also spelt Cynuit, was a battle between West Saxons and Vikings in 878 at a fort which Asser calls Cynwit.
Battlesbury Camp is the site of an Iron Age bivallate hill fort on Battlesbury Hill in Wiltshire in South West England.
The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC.
Bindon Hill is an extensive Iron Age earthwork enclosing a coastal hill area near Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England.
Bohuslän is a Swedish province in Götaland, on the northernmost part of the country's west coast.
Brean Down is a promontory off the coast of Somerset, England, standing high and extending into the Bristol Channel at the eastern end of Bridgwater Bay between Weston-super-Mare and Burnham-on-Sea.
Brent Knoll Camp is an Iron Age Hill fort at Brent Knoll, from Burnham-on-Sea, Somerset, England.
A broch is an Iron Age drystone hollow-walled structure of a type found only in Scotland.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Cadbury Castle is a Bronze and Iron Age hillfort in the civil parish of South Cadbury in the English county of Somerset.
Campoo (really called Campoo-Los Valles) is a comarca of Cantabria (Spain) located in the High Ebro, with a surface little bigger than 1,000 km2, and including the municipalities of Hermandad de Campoo de Suso, Campoo de Enmedio, Campoo de Yuso, Valdeolea, Valdeprado del Río, Valderredible, Reinosa, Las Rozas de Valdearroyo, Santiurde de Reinosa, Pesquera, and San Miguel de Aguayo.
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.
Castro culture (cultura castrexa, cultura castreja, cultura castriega, cultura castreña) is the archaeological term for the material Celtic culture of the north-western regions of the Iberian Peninsula (present-day northern Portugal together with Galicia, Asturias, Castile and León, Cantabria and Basque Country) from the end of the Bronze Age (c. 9th century BC) until it was subsumed by Roman culture (c. 1st century BC).
The Celtiberians were a group of Celts or Celticized peoples inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Coney's Castle is an Iron Age hill fort in Dorset, England.
A scarp and a counterscarp are the inner and outer sides of a ditch or moat used in fortifications.
Danebury is an Iron Age hill fort in Hampshire in England, about north-west of Winchester.
Daw's Castle (or Dart's Castle or Dane's Castle) is a sea cliff hill fort just west of Watchet, a harbour town in Somerset, England.
Dún Aonghasa (anglicized Dun Aengus) is the best-known of several prehistoric hill forts on the Aran Islands of County Galway, Republic of Ireland.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
Dinas Dinlle is a small settlement in Gwynedd, north-west Wales which is also, historically, part of Caernarfonshire.
A ditch in military engineering is an obstacle, designed to slow down or break up an attacking force, while a trench is intended to provide cover to the defenders.
Dolebury Warren (also known as Dolebury Camp) is a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and ancient monument near the villages of Churchill and Rowberrow in North Somerset, part of South West England.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
Dowsborough Camp (or Danesborough or Dawesbury) is an Iron Age hill fort on the Quantock Hills near Nether Stowey in Somerset, England.
A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures.
In archaeology, earthworks are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil.
Earthworks are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock.
The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
A fogou or fougou (pronounced "foo-goo") is an underground, dry-stone structure found on Iron Age or Romano-British-defended settlement sites in Cornwall.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gelbe Burg ("Yellow Castle"), also called the Gelbe Bürg, is the site of a hill castle on the Gelber Berg ("Yellow Mountain") northeast of the market village of Heidenheim in the Middle Franconian county of Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen in the German state of Bavaria.
Goosehill Camp is a prehistoric earthwork that dates back to the Iron Age.
A gord is a medieval Slavic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Hampshire (abbreviated Hants) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
A herepath or herewag is a military road (literally, an army path) in England, typically dating from the ninth century CE.
The term hill-slope enclosure describes a type of late prehistoric earthwork found across South West England and also in Wales.
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.
Hod Hill (or Hodd Hill) is a large hill fort in the Blackmore Vale, north-west of Blandford Forum, Dorset, England.
Huelgoat (meaning "High Forest") is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France.
The Ipf is a mostly treeless mountain (668 metres), near Bopfingen, Ostalbkreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany with a prehistoric hill fort on its top.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
Lambert's Castle is an Iron Age hill fort in the county of Dorset in southwest England.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.
A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America.
Maes Knoll (sometimes Maes tump or Maes Knoll tump) is an Iron Age hill fort in Somerset, England, located at the eastern end of the Dundry Down ridge, south of the city of Bristol and north of the village of Norton Malreward near the eastern side of Dundry Hill.
Maiden Castle is an Iron Age hill fort south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset.
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse.
Mežotne (Mesothen) is a town in Latvia 10 km west of Bauska and 40 km south of the capital of Latvia, Riga.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
A menhir (from Brittonic languages: maen or men, "stone" and hir or hîr, "long"), standing stone, orthostat, lith or masseba/matseva is a large manmade upright stone.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Miholjanec is a village in Croatia and one of the oldest settlements in the country.
Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler (10 September 1890 – 22 July 1976) was a British archaeologist and officer in the British Army.
Murus Gallicus or Gallic Wall is a method of construction of defensive walls used to protect Iron Age hillforts and oppida of the La Tene period in Western Europe.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Norte (Região Norte,; "North Region") or Northern Portugal is the most populous region in Portugal, ahead of Lisboa, and the third most extensive by area.
Norton Camp is a Bronze Age hill fort at Norton Fitzwarren near Taunton in Somerset, England.
Numantia (Numancia in Spanish) was an ancient Celtiberian settlement, whose remains are located 7 km north of the city of Soria, on a hill known as Cerro de la Muela in the municipality of Garray.
The nuraghe (plural: Italian nuraghi, Logudorese Sardinian nuraghes / Campidanese Sardinian nuraxis) is the main type of ancient megalithic edifice found in Sardinia, developed during the Nuragic Age between 1900 and 730 BCE.
Old Castle of Lieto (Liedon Vanhalinna) is a site of a hillfort in Lieto, Finland.
Old Oswestry is one of Britain's most spectacular and impressive early Iron Age hill forts in the Welsh Marches near Oswestry in north west Shropshire.
An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement.
Pärnu County (Pärnu maakond), or Pärnumaa (Kreis Pernau), is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
The word pā (IPA) can refer to any Māori village or defensive settlement, but often refers to hill forts – fortified settlements with palisades and defensive terraces – and also to fortified villages.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A pen is an enclosure for holding animals such as livestock or pets that are unwanted inside the house.
(German for "post-slot wall") is the name for defensive walls protecting Iron Age hill forts and oppida in Central Europe, especially in Bavaria and the Czech Republic.
Pilsdon Pen is a 277-metre (909 ft) hill in Dorset in South West England, situated at the north end of the Marshwood Vale in the West Dorset administrative district, approximately west of Beaminster.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Plainsfield Camp (or Park Plantation or Cockercombe Castle) is a possible Iron Age earthwork on the Quantock Hills near Aisholt in Somerset, England.
Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
Post-processual archaeology, which is sometimes alternately referred to as the interpretative archaeologies by its adherents, is a movement in archaeological theory that emphasizes the subjectivity of archaeological interpretations.
Poundbury Hill hill fort is the site of a Middle Bronze Age enclosure.
Prehistoric warfare refers to war that occurred between societies without recorded history.
A promontory fort is a defensive structure located above a steep cliff, often only connected to the mainland by a small neck of land, thus utilizing the topography to reduce the ramparts needed.
Cornish promontory forts, commonly known in Cornwall as cliff castles, are coastal equivalents of the hill forts and Cornish "rounds" found on Cornish hilltops and slopes.
Ávila is a province of central-western Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
In fortification architecture, a rampart is a length of bank or wall forming part of the defensive boundary of a castle, hillfort, settlement or other fortified site.
Rapola hill fort (Rapolan linnavuori) is a hill fort in Sääksmäki in the municipality of Valkeakoski, Finland.
Ringforts, ring forts or ring fortresses are circular fortified settlements that were mostly built during the Bronze age up to about the year 1000.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A roundhouse is a type of house with a circular plan, usually with a conical roof.
Runder Berg is a mountain of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Samogitia or Žemaitija (Samogitian: Žemaitėjė; Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai. Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect.
Södermanland, sometimes referred to under its Latin form Sudermannia or Sudermania, is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden.
Scratchbury Camp is the site of an Iron Age univallate hillfort located on Scratchbury Hill, near the village of Norton Bavant in Wiltshire, England.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Little Solsbury Hill (more commonly known as Solsbury Hill) is a small flat-topped hill and the site of an Iron Age hill fort.
Souterrain (from French sous terrain, meaning "under ground") is a name given by archaeologists to a type of underground structure associated mainly with the European Atlantic Iron Age.
A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened as a defensive wall.
Stonea Camp is an Iron Age multivallate hill fort located at Stonea near March in the Cambridgeshire Fens.
Svealand, Swealand or (rarely or historically) Sweden proper is the historical core region of Sweden.
The Tagus (Tajo,; Tejo) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.
Talsi (Tālsa, Talsen) (population 11,371) is a town in Latvia.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
Tērvete (liv. Terwenden) is a village in Tērvete municipality, Latvia.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Rumps (Din Pentir, meaning fort at Pentire) is a twin-headland promontory at the north-east corner of Pentire Head in north Cornwall, United Kingdom.
Toompea (from Domberg, "Cathedral Hill") is a limestone hill in the central part of the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Trendle Ring (or Trundle Ring) is a late prehistoric earthwork on the Quantock Hills near Bicknoller in Somerset, England.
Uppland is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital.
The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.
The Varbola Stronghold (Castrum Warbole., Varbola Jaanilinn) was the largest circular rampart fortress and trading centre built in Estonia, in Harju County (Harria) in the 10th – 12th centuries.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Wansdyke (from Woden's Dyke) is a series of early medieval defensive linear earthworks in the West Country of England, consisting of a ditch and a running embankment from the ditch spoil, with the ditching facing north.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.
Castro (name), Citania, Contour fortress, Hill Fort, Hill fort, Hill forts, Hill settlement, Hill-fort, Hill-forts, Hillforts, Hilltop fort, Hilltop fortress, Iron Age Hill Towns, Iron Age hill fort, Iron age fort, Multivallate, Piliakalnis, Univallate, Univallate hill fort, Univallate hillfort.