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The Himalayas or Himalaya (or; हिमालय, Nepali: हिमालय, Hindi: हिमालय, ہمالیہ; from Sanskrit hima (snow) + ālaya (dwelling), literally meaning "abode of snow") is a mountain range in South Asia and East Asia which separates the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Tibetan Plateau. [1]

154 relations: American Himalayan Foundation, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Sea, Andreas Gruschke, Antarctica, Arabian Sea, Arakan Mountains, Arctic, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Augusto Gansser-Biaggi, Australian Plate, Bangladesh, Bay of Bengal, Beas River, Bhutan, Bill Tilman, Brahmaputra River, Buddhism, Chenab River, China, Climate change, Colombia, Continental collision, Continental crust, Convergent boundary, Dalai Lama, Dolakha District, Drainage basin, East Asia, Eastern Himalaya, Eurasian Plate, Extremophile, Fold (geology), Ganges, Ganges in Hinduism, Gangotri Glacier, Glacial lake outburst flood, Glacier, Gobi Desert, Gokyo Lakes, Gurudongmar Lake, Himavat, Hindi, Hindu Kush, Hinduism, Ice age, India, Indian Himalayan Region, Indian Plate, ..., Indian subcontinent, Indo-Australian Plate, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Indus River, Irrawaddy River, Jainism, Jhelum River, John Hunt, Baron Hunt, Juniperus tibetica, Kangchenjunga, Karakoram, Khumbu Glacier, Lake Tsomgo, Langtang, Late Cretaceous, Lhasa, Limestone, List of highest mountains, List of Himalayan peaks and passes, List of Himalayan peaks of Uttarakhand, List of Himalayan topics, List of mountains in India, List of mountains in Nepal, List of mountains in Pakistan, List of Tibetan monasteries, List of Ultras of the Eastern Himalayas, Lower Himalayan Range, Mahalangur Himal, Mantle (geology), Maurice Isserman, Mekong, Metamorphic rock, Michael Palin, Monsoon of South Asia, Mount Everest, Mount Kailash, Mountain range, Mountains of Bhutan, Myanmar, Myrica esculenta, Namcha Barwa, Nanga Parbat, National Geographic (magazine), Nepal, Nepali language, New Guinea, North Sikkim district, Oceanic trench, Orogeny, Padmasambhava, Pakistan, Pangong Tso, Paro Taktsang, Parvati, Perennial stream, Phoksundo Lake, Plate tectonics, Ravi River, Retreat of glaciers since 1850, Rhododendron, River delta, Rolwaling Himal, Rwenzori Mountains, Salween River, Sanskrit, Sedimentary rock, Seismology, Shey Phoksundo National Park, Shigatse, Sikhism, Sikkim, Sivalik Hills, Snow line, Solukhumbu District, South Asia, Sundarbans, Sutlej, Swami Sundaranand, Taklamakan Desert, Tapovan Maharaj, Tarn (lake), Temperate climate, Terai, Tethys Ocean, Thrust fault, Tibet, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan Muslims, Tibetan Plateau, Tilicho Lake, Trekking peak, Tropic of Cancer, Tsho Rolpa, Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya, William McKay Aitken, Yamdrok Lake, Yamuna, Yamunotri, Yangtze, Yarlung Tsangpo River, Yellow River, Zemu Glacier. Expand index (104 more) »

American Himalayan Foundation

The American Himalayan Foundation (AHF) is a non-profit organization in the United States that helps Tibetans, Sherpas, and Nepalis living throughout the Himalayas.

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Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and are a Union Territory of India.

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Andaman Sea

The Andaman Sea (আন্দামান সাগর; अंडमान सागर) is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar (Burma), west of Thailand, north-west of Malay Peninsula, north of Sumatra and east of the Andaman Islands, India, from which it takes its name; it is part of the Indian Ocean.

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Andreas Gruschke

Andreas Gruschke (born April 16, 1960 in Tengen-Blumenfeld (Germany) is a German author, photographer and Tibet researcher. His scientific background is that of a geographer, Sinologist and ethnologist. He received a 1990 M.A. at Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, and a Ph.D. in 2009 at Leipzig University. Since 1987, Gruschke works as a free-lance writer and picture-journalist with the main topics Tibet, Himalayas, Silk Road and East Asia, holds lectures and seminars at his hometown Freiburg and other places. After finishing his university studies, he went on numerous research trips to Southeast Asia, China, Korea, Central Asia, yet most of them led him to the highland of Tibet. From 2004 to 2012 he worked at Leipzig University, doing research on Tibetan pastoralists in eastern Tibet's Yushu area. Starting from 2012, he is a guest professor at the Institute of Social Development and Western China Development Studies at Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Main research interest is the livelihood security of the rural population, namely pastoralists, in China's Tibetan areas. Gruschke published numerous books and articles mainly on Tibetan culture, among them pioneering works for monasteries in the East Tibetan regions Amdo and Kham. Other books and reports deal with Korea and the Himalayas and China, as well as two picture albums about his homeland: the Hegau and the upper Rhine. His current research is about nomads in the eastern Tibetan region of Yushu (northern Kham).

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.

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Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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Arakan Mountains

The Arakan Mountains (Arakan Range, Rakhine Range, Rakhine Yoma, Arakan Yoma, Rakhine Roma, Arakan Roma; ရခိုင်ရိုးမ) is a mountain range in western Burma (Myanmar), between the coast of Rakhine State and the Central Burma Basin, in which flows the Irrawaddy River.

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The Arctic (f) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of the Earth.

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Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.

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Assam (Ôxôm) is a state in Northeast India.

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Augusto Gansser-Biaggi

Augusto Gansser-Biaggi (28 October 1910 – 9 January 2012) was a Swiss geologist who specialised in the geology of the Himalayas.

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Australian Plate

The Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the southern and eastern hemispheres.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ,, lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal, the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean.

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Beas River

The Beas River is a river in north India.

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Bhutan (Dzongkha Dru Ü), officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in South Asia at the eastern end of the Himalayas.

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Bill Tilman

Major Harold William "Bill" Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar, (14 February 1898–1977) was an English mountaineer and explorer, renowned for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages.

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Brahmaputra River

The Brahmaputra, also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Chenab River

The Chenab River is a major river of India and Pakistan.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.

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Continental collision

Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries.

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Continental crust

The continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks which forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.

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Convergent boundary

In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary (because of subduction), is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.

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Dalai Lama

The Dalai Lama is a monk of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Je Tsongkhapa.

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Dolakha District

Dolakha, often known as Dolkha or Dholkha (दोलखा जिल्ला), a part of Janakpur Zone, is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, a landlocked country situated in South Asia. The district, with Charikot as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,191 km² and has a population of 204,229 in 2001 and 186,557 in 2011. It is a district with a strong religious affiliation. It is popularly known amongst most Nepalese for the temple of Dolakha Bhimeshawor.

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Drainage basin

A drainage basin or catchment basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain, melting snow, or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean.

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East Asia

East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Eastern Himalaya

Eastern Himalaya is situated between Central Nepal in the west and Myanmar in the east, occupying southeast Tibet in China, Sikkim, North Bengal, Bhutan and North-East India.

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Eurasian Plate

The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.

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An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.

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Fold (geology)

A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation.

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The Ganges, also Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.

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Ganges in Hinduism

In Hinduism, the river Ganges is considered sacred and is personified as a goddess known as Ganga.

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Gangotri Glacier

Gangotri Glacier (Sanskrit, Nepali and गंगोत्री) is located in Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India in a region bordering China.

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Glacial lake outburst flood

A glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a type of outburst flood that occurs when the dam containing a glacial lake fails.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Gobi Desert

The Gobi (Говь,, "semidesert") is a large desert region in Asia.

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Gokyo Lakes

Gokyo Lakes are oligotrophic lakes in Nepal's Sagarmatha National Park, located at an altitude of above sea level.

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Gurudongmar Lake

Gurudongmar Lake, also known as Gurudogmar Lake, is one of the highest lakes in the world, located at an altitude of in the Indian state of Sikkim. It is a lake which is considered sacred by both Buddhists and Sikhs. The lake is named after Guru Padmasambhava, also known as Guru Rinpoche, founder of Tibetan Buddhism who visited the lake in the 8th century. The lake is not only blessed by Guru Padmasambava but also by Guru Nanak, the spiritual leader of Sikhism while he had passed through this area, and hence regarded as sacred.

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Himavat also called Himavaan, Himaraaj and Parvateshwar is a personification of the Himalayan mountains, which are also known as the Himavat Mountains.

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Hindi (हिन्दी hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी mānak hindī), is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush (Pashto, Persian and هندوکش), also known in Sanskrit as Pāriyātra Parvata and in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), is an mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. It forms the western section of the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region (HKH). It divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus) to the north from the Indus River valley to the south. The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir or Terichmir at in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To the east, the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir Mountains near the point where the borders of China, Pakistan and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan, finally merging into minor ranges in western Afghanistan. The mountain range separates Central Asia from South Asia.

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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Himalayan Region

The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is a range that spans ten states of India namely, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh as well as the hill regions of two states - Assam and West Bengal.

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Indian Plate

The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indo-Australian Plate

The Indo-Australian Plate was a major tectonic plate that included the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extended northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.

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Indo-Gangetic Plain

The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as Indus-Ganga and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million hectare (630 million acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh.

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Indus River

The Indus River, also called the Sindhū River (سنڌو دريا), or Abāsīn (اباسين) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Irrawaddy River

The Irrawaddy River or Ayeyarwady River (also spelt Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows from north to south through Myanmar.

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Jainism, traditionally known as the Jina śāsana or Jain dharma, is one of the oldest Indian religions and belongs to the śramaṇa tradition.

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Jhelum River

Jehlam River or Jhelum River is a river that flows in India and Pakistan.

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John Hunt, Baron Hunt

Brigadier Henry Cecil John Hunt, Baron Hunt, KG, CBE, DSO, PC (22 June 1910 – 7 November 1998) was a British army officer who is best known as the leader of the successful 1953 British Expedition to Mount Everest.

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Juniperus tibetica

Juniperus tibetica (Tibetan juniper) is a species of juniper, native to western China in southern Gansu, southeastern Qinghai, Sichuan, and Tibet, where it grows at high to very high altitudes of.

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Kangchenjunga (कञ्चनजङ्घा, Sikkimese and, कंचनजंघा) is the third highest mountain in the world.

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The Karakoram, or Karakorum (سلسلہ کوہ قراقرم; Balti: ཁརན ཨ ཀུརམ, Uyghur), is a large mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, India and China, located in the regions of Gilgit–Baltistan (Pakistan), Ladakh (India), and southern Xinjiang (China).

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Khumbu Glacier

The Khumbu Glacier is located in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal between Mount Everest and the Lhotse-Nuptse ridge.

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Lake Tsomgo

Tsomgo Lake, also known as Tsongmo Lake or Changu Lake, is a glacial lake in the East Sikkim of the Indian state of Sikkim, some from the capital Gangtok.

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Langtang is a region in the Himalayas of Nepal to the north of the Kathmandu Valley and bordering Tibet.

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Late Cretaceous

The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.

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Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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List of highest mountains

There are at least 109 mountains with elevations greater than above sea level.

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List of Himalayan peaks and passes

Overall, the Himalayan mountain system is the world's highest, and is home to the world's highest peaks, the Eight-thousanders.

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List of Himalayan peaks of Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand is a Himalayan state of India.

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List of Himalayan topics

The Himalaya are a vast mountain chain in Asia that span multiple countries, including China and India.

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List of mountains in India

This is a list of mountains and mountain ranges in India.

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List of mountains in Nepal

Nepal contains part of the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world.

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List of mountains in Pakistan

Pakistan is home to 108 peaks above 7,000 metres.

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List of Tibetan monasteries

This list of Tibetan monasteries is a listing of historical and contemporary monasteries of Tibetan Buddhism within Tibet itself and abroad: The list includes monasteries that were within Tibetan borders when extant, or that were culturally included within the Tibetan tradition.

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List of Ultras of the Eastern Himalayas

This is a list of all the Ultra prominent peaks (with topographic prominence greater than 1,500 metres) in the Eastern Himalayas.

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Lower Himalayan Range

The Mahabharata Range (महाभारत श्रृंखला mahābhārat shrinkhalā) – also called the Lesser Himalaya – is a major east-west mountain range with elevations 3,700 to 4,500 m (12,000 to 14,500 feet) along the crest, paralleling the much higher Great Himalaya range from the Indus River in Pakistan across northern India, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan but then the two ranges become increasingly difficult to differentiate east of Bhutan as the ranges approach the Brahmaputra River.

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Mahalangur Himal

Mahālangūr Himāl (महालङ्गूर हिमाल) is a section of the Himalayas in northeast Nepal and south-central Tibet extending east from the pass Nangpa La between Rolwaling Himal and Cho Oyu, to the Arun River.

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Mantle (geology)

The mantle is an interior part of a terrestrial planet or other rocky body large enough to have differentiation by density.

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Maurice Isserman

Maurice Isserman (born March 12, 1951) is James L. Ferguson Professor of History at Hamilton College and an important contributor to the "new history of American communism," which reinterpreted the role of the Communist Party USA during the Popular Front period of the 1930s and 1940s.

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The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia.

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Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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Michael Palin

Michael Edward Palin (pronounced; born 5 May 1943) is an English comedian, actor, writer and television presenter.

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Monsoon of South Asia

The monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed observations of global monsoon taking place in the Indian Subcontinent.

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Mount Everest

Mount Everest, also known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in Tibet as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain.

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Mount Kailash

Mount Kailash (also Mount Kailas; Kangrinboqê or Gang Rinpoche; Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ, simplified Chinese:, Gāngrénbōqí fēng, कैलाश Kailāśa) is a peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which forms part of the Transhimalaya in Tibet.

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Mountain range

A mountain range (also mountain barrier/belt/chain/system) is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains.

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Mountains of Bhutan

The mountains of Bhutan are some of the most prominent natural geographic features of the kingdom.

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Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.

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Myrica esculenta

Myrica esculenta is a small tree or large shrub native to the hills of northern India and Nepal.

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Namcha Barwa

Namcha Barwa or Namchabarwa (Chinese: 南迦巴瓦峰, Pinyin: Nánjiābāwǎ Fēng) is a mountain in the Tibetan Himalaya.

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Nanga Parbat

Nanga Parbat (literally, Naked Mountain Urdu) is the ninth highest mountain in the world at above sea level.

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National Geographic (magazine)

National Geographic, formerly The National Geographic Magazine, is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country located in South Asia.

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Nepali language

Nepali or Nepalese is an Indo-Aryan language.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Papua or, historically, Irian) is a large Island in the South West Pacific region.

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North Sikkim district

North Sikkim is a district of the Indian state of Sikkim.

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Oceanic trench

The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor.

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Orogeny refers to forces and events leading to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between tectonic plates.

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Padmasambhava (lit.

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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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Pangong Tso

Pangong Tso (Hindi: पांगोंग त्सो), Tibetan for "long, narrow, enchanted lake", also referred to as Pangong Lake, is an endorheic lake in the Himalayas situated at a height of about.

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Paro Taktsang

Paro Taktsang (Dzongkha: སྤ་གྲོ་སྟག་ཚང་ spa phro stag tshang / spa gro stag tshang) is the popular name of Taktsang Palphug Monastery (also known as Tiger's Nest), a prominent Himalayan Buddhist sacred site and temple complex, located in the cliffside of the upper Paro valley, in Bhutan.

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Parvati (Devanagari: पार्वती, IAST: Pārvatī) is the Hindu goddess of love, fertility and devotion.

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Perennial stream

A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) that has continuous flow in parts of its stream bed all year round during years of normal rainfall.

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Phoksundo Lake

Phoksundo Lake, (फोक्सुण्डो ताल, NLK Phoksuṇḍo tāl), is an alpine fresh water oligotrophic lake in Nepal's Shey Phoksundo National Park, located at an elevation of above sea level in the Dolpa District.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere.

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Ravi River

The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, इरावती, परुष्णि, रावी) is a trans-boundary river flowing through Northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.

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Retreat of glaciers since 1850

The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans.

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Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the Southern Highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms at the mouth of a river, where the river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, or reservoir.

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Rolwaling Himal

Rolwāling Himāl (रोल्वालिङ् हिमाल), (Rolwaling Valley), (Gaurishankar (village)) VDC is a section of the Himalayas in east-central Nepal along the Tibet border.

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Rwenzori Mountains

The Rwenzori Mountains, previously called the Ruwenzori Range (spelling changed c. 1980 to conform more closely with the local name "Rwenjura"), and sometimes the Mountains of the Moon, is a mountain range of eastern Equatorial Africa, located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Salween River

The Salween (သံလွင်မြစ်,, also spelt Thanlwin; သာန်လာန်,;, Gyalmo Ngulchu;, literally "Angry River" in Chinese —the river is actually named after the Nu people living in the area, but Chinese having no phonetic script had to use a character with a similar sound as Nu which happens to be the character for rage; Shan and Thai, Mae Nam Salawin (แม่น้ำสาละวิน); is a river, about long, that flows from the Tibetan Plateau into the Andaman Sea in Southeast Asia. It drains a narrow and mountainous watershed of that extends into the countries of China, Burma and Thailand. Steep canyon walls line the swift, powerful and undammed Salween, one of the longest free-flowing rivers in the world. Its extensive drainage basin supports a biodiversity comparable with the Mekong and is home to about 7 million people. In 2003, key parts of the mid-region watershed of the river were included within the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The people who live on the Salween are relatively isolated from the rest of the world. The river is only navigable up to from the mouth, and only in the rainy season. The Burma Road was constructed between 1937 and 1938 during the Second Sino-Japanese War and crossed the river at the Huitong bridge. The Huitong bridge was blown by the retreating Chinese army and the river became the frontline from 1942 to 1944. The Salween Campaign of World War II, was launched in order to liberate occupied China and open the Burma Road again and connect it to the Ledo Road. Logging began on the mountains surrounding the Salween in the late 20th century, and has damaged the river's ecology. In recent years, there have been a number of proposals to dam the Salween river in China, prompting environmental concerns and wide opposition. Construction of at least one dam on a tributary of the Salween is currently underway in China's Yunnan province, and more are expected to follow.

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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

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Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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Seismology (from Greek σεισμός "earthquake" and -λογία "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.

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Shey Phoksundo National Park

The Shey Phoksundo National Park (Nepali: शे-फोकसुण्डो She-Phoksundo) is the largest and only trans-Himalayan national park in Nepal.

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Shigatse, officially known as Xigazê, is a prefecture-level city of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, with an area of.

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Sikhism, or Sikhi (from Sikh, meaning a disciple, or a learner), is a monotheistic religion founded in South Asia in the 15th century.

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Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state located in the Himalayan mountains.

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Sivalik Hills

The Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas also known as Manak Parbat in ancient times.

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Snow line

The climatic snow line is the point above which snow and ice cover the ground throughout the year.

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Solukhumbu District

Solukhumbu District (सोलुखुम्बु जिल्ला, a part of the Sagarmatha Zone, is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. As the name suggests, it consists of the subregions Solu and Khumbu. The district, with Salleri as its headquarters, covers an area of 3,312 km² and had a population 107,686 in 2001 and 105,886 in 2011. Mount Everest is in the northern part of this district, within Sagarmatha National Park. Indigenous ethnic Rai and hill Caste Chhetri are the main groups living in the mid-hills, while Sherpas occupy high mountains. There is a notable hiking trail known as the Solukhumbu Trail.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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The Sundarbans (সুন্দরবন, Shundorbôn) is a natural region in the Bengal region comprising Eastern India and Bangladesh.

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The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (Punjabi: ਸਤਲੁਜ, Hindi: सतलुज, Sanskrit: शतद्रु (shatadru) درياۓ ستلُج) is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan.

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Swami Sundaranand

Swami Sundaranand (born 1926 in India) is a Yogi, photographer, author and mountaineer who lectures widely in India on threats to the Ganges River and the loss of Himalayan glaciers due to global warming.

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Taklamakan Desert

The Taklamakan Desert, also known as Taklimakan and Teklimakan, is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.

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Tapovan Maharaj

Tapovan Maharaj (1889–1957) was a Hindu Sannyasi and Vedanta scholar.

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Tarn (lake)

A tarn (or corrie loch) is a mountain lake or pool, formed in a cirque excavated by a glacier.

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Temperate climate

In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.

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The Terai (Nepali: Tarāī) is a belt of marshy grasslands, savannas, and forests located south of the outer foothills of the Himalaya, the Siwalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and their tributaries.

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Tethys Ocean

The Tethys Ocean (Greek: Τηθύς) was an ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia during much of the Mesozoic era, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous period.

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Thrust fault

A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust across which there has been relative movement, in which rocks of lower stratigraphic position are pushed up and over higher strata.

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Tibet is a region on the Tibetan Plateau in Asia northeast of the Himalayas.

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Tibet Autonomous Region

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Buddhism in Tibet, Mongolia, Tuva, Bhutan, Kalmykia, Buryatia and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, and India (particularly in Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim).

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Tibetan Muslims

The Tibetan Muslims, also known as the Kachee (also spelled Kache), form a small minority in Tibet.

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Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qingzang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia or East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir state of India.

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Tilicho Lake

Tilicho lake is the lake situated in the highest altitude in the world.

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Trekking peak

Wikipedia contradicts itself: At https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepal_Mountaineering_Association: "The NMA is also responsible to issue climbing permits for 33 mountains with altitudes between 5,500 metres and 6,600 metres categorised as trekking peaks..."...while at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trekking_peak, a "trekking peak" is reduced to a list of only 18 peaks.

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Tropic of Cancer

The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on the Earth at which the Sun may appear directly overhead at its culmination.

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Tsho Rolpa

Tsho Rolpa (also Chho Rolpa) is one of the biggest glacial lakes in Nepal.

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Uttarakhand, formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.

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Western Himalaya

Western Himalaya, also called Punjab Himalaya refers to the western half of the Himalayan Mountain region, stretching from Badakhshan in northeastern Afghanistan/southern Tajikistan, through Kashmir to Nepal.

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William McKay Aitken

William McKay Aitken (Bill Aitken) is a Scottish born, naturalized Indian travel writer and a mountain lover.

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Yamdrok Lake

Yamdrok Lake (also known as Yamdrok Yumtso or Yamzho Yumco) is a freshwater lake in Tibet, it is one of the three largest sacred lakes in Tibet.

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The Yamuna (/jəmʊnaː/; Sanskrit and Hindi: यमुना), sometimes called Jamuna (Hindi: जमुना; /d͡ʒəmʊna:/), is the largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.

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Yamunotri (यमुनोत्री) is the source of the Yamuna River and the seat of the Goddess Yamuna in Hinduism.

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The Yangtze River, (Chinese: 长江, Cháng Jiāng), known in China as the Chang Jiang or the Yangzi, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yarlung Tsangpo River

The Yarlung Tsangpo is the part of Brahmaputra River that flows through Tibet, known by its Tibetan name.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huáng Hé is the third-longest river in Asia, following the Yangtze River and Yenisei River, and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of.

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Zemu Glacier

Zemu Glacier is the largest glacier in the Eastern Himalaya.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Himalayas

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