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Hindenburg Line

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The Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung or Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne. [1]

97 relations: Asset, Atlantic U-boat campaign of World War I, Australian War Memorial, Épehy, Battle of Arras (1917), Battle of Cambrai (1917), Battle of Cambrai (1918), Battle of Drocourt-Quéant Line, Battle of St Quentin Canal, Battle of the Somme, Battle of Thiepval Ridge, Battle of Verdun, Brusilov Offensive, Camouflage, Canal du Nord, Canberra, Channel Ports, Chantilly Conferences, Charles Bean, Contact fuze, Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique, Cyril Falls, Defence in depth, Defense line, Eastern Front (World War I), Eingreif division, Erich Ludendorff, Erich von Falkenhayn, Ferrocement, French Air Force, Fritz von Below, Fritz von Loßberg, General of the Infantry (Germany), Generalfeldmarschall, German strategic bombing during World War I, Haber process, Hermann von Kuhl, Hindenburg Programme, History of the Great War, Hubert Gough, Hundings, Hundred Days Offensive, IX Reserve Corps (German Empire), Jagdstaffel 11, Joseph Joffre, Kortrijk, Landwehr, Lille, Louis Franchet d'Espèrey, Max Bauer, ..., Max von Gallwitz, Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Nivelle Offensive, Oberste Heeresleitung, Office of Public Sector Information, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Ordnance QF 18-pounder, Paul von Hindenburg, Pillbox (military), Predicted fire, Prisoner of war, Prussian Ministry of War, Rearguard, Reverse slope defence, Robert Nivelle, Romania during World War I, Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, Salient (military), Siegfried Line, Strategic bombing, Tenth Army (France), Trench foot, Unrestricted submarine warfare, Wastage (military), Western Front (World War I), William Heneker, World War I, 12th Brigade (Australia), 13th Division (German Empire), 15th Reserve Division (German Empire), 1st Army (German Empire), 22nd Reserve Division (German Empire), 23rd Reserve Division (German Empire), 25th Division (German Empire), 26th Reserve Division (German Empire), 29th Division (German Empire), 2nd Army (German Empire), 2nd Guards Reserve Division (German Empire), 2nd Indian Cavalry Division, 38th Division (German Empire), 46th Reserve Division (German Empire), 4th Brigade (Australia), 4th Division (Australia), 4th Division (German Empire), 50th Reserve Division (German Empire), 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division, 9th Reserve Division (German Empire). Expand index (47 more) »

Asset

In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.

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Atlantic U-boat campaign of World War I

The Atlantic U-boat campaign of World War I (sometimes called the "First Battle of the Atlantic", in reference to the World War II campaign of that name) was the prolonged naval conflict between German submarines and the Allied navies in Atlantic waters—the seas around the British Isles, the North Sea and the coast of France.

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Australian War Memorial

The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in wars involving the Commonwealth of Australia.

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Épehy

Épehy is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.

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Battle of Arras (1917)

The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War I. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front.

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Battle of Cambrai (1917)

The Battle of Cambrai (Battle of Cambrai, 1917, First Battle of Cambrai and Schlacht von Cambrai) was a British attack followed by the biggest German counter-attack against the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) since 1914, in the First World War.

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Battle of Cambrai (1918)

The Battle of Cambrai, 1918 (also known as the Second Battle of Cambrai) was a battle between troops of the British First, Third and Fourth Armies and German Empire forces during the Hundred Days Offensive of the First World War.

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Battle of Drocourt-Quéant Line

The Drocourt-Quéant Line (Wotan Stellung) was a set of mutually supporting defensive lines constructed by Germany between the French towns of Drocourt and Quéant during World War I. This defensive system was part of the northernmost section of the Hindenburg Line, a vast German defensive system that ran through northeastern France.

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Battle of St Quentin Canal

The Battle of St Quentin Canal was a pivotal battle of World War I that began on 29 September 1918 and involved British, Australian and American forces operating as part of the British Fourth Army under the overall command of General Sir Henry Rawlinson.

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Battle of the Somme

The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.

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Battle of Thiepval Ridge

The Battle of Thiepval Ridge was the first large offensive mounted by the Reserve Army (Lieutenant General Hubert Gough), during the Battle of the Somme on the Western Front during the First World War.

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Battle of Verdun

The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies.

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Brusilov Offensive

The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv, literally: "Brusilov's breakthrough"), also known as the "June Advance", of June to September 1916 was the Russian Empire’s greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.

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Camouflage

Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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Canal du Nord

The Canal du Nord is a long canal in northern France.

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Canberra

Canberra is the capital city of Australia.

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Channel Ports

The Channel Ports are seaports in southern England and the facing continent, which allow for short crossings of the English Channel.

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Chantilly Conferences

The Chantilly Conferences were a series of three conferences held between 1915 and 1916 by the Allied Powers of World War I. The conferences were named after Chantilly, France, where the meetings took place.

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Charles Bean

Charles Edwin Woodrow Bean (18 November 1879 – 30 August 1968), usually identified as C.E.W. Bean, was an Australian World War I war correspondent and historian.

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Contact fuze

A contact fuze, impact fuze, percussion fuze or direct-action (D.A.) fuze (UK) is the fuze that is placed in the nose of a bomb or shell so that it will detonate on contact with a hard surface.

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Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique

Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.

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Cyril Falls

Cyril Bentham Falls CBE (2 March 1888 – 23 April 1971) was a military historian noted for his work on the First World War.

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Defence in depth

Defence in depth (also known as deep or elastic defence) is a military strategy that seeks to delay rather than prevent the advance of an attacker, buying time and causing additional casualties by yielding space.

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Defense line

Defense line or fortification line is a geographically-recognizable line of troops and armament, fortified and set up to protect a high-value location during an armed conflict.

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Eastern Front (World War I)

The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.

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Eingreif division

Eingreif division is a term for a type of German Army formation of World War I, which developed in 1917, which was responsible for engaging in immediate counter-attacks (''Gegenstoße'') against enemy troops who broke through a defensive position being held by a front-holding division (Stellungsdivision).

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Erich Ludendorff

Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.

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Erich von Falkenhayn

General Erich Georg Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was the Chief of the German General Staff during the First World War from September 1914 until 29 August 1916.

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Ferrocement

Ferrocement or ferro-cement (also called thin-shell concrete or ferro-concrete) is a system of reinforced mortar or plaster (lime or cement, sand and water) applied over layer of metal mesh, woven expanded-metal or metal-fibers and closely spaced thin steel rods such as rebar.

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French Air Force

The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).

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Fritz von Below

Fritz Theodor Carl von Below (23 September 1853 – 23 November 1918) was a Prussian general in the German Army during the First World War.

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Fritz von Loßberg

Friedrich Karl "Fritz" von Loßberg (30 April 1868 – 4 May 1942) was a German colonel, and later general, of World War I. He was a strategic planner, especially of defence, who was Chief of Staff for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th armies.

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General of the Infantry (Germany)

General of the Infantry (General der Infanterie; short: General d. Inf.) is a former rank of German Ground forces (de: Heer).

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Generalfeldmarschall

Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.

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German strategic bombing during World War I

The best-known German strategic bombing campaign during World War I was the campaign against England, although strategic bombing raids were carried out or attempted on other fronts.

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Haber process

The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

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Hermann von Kuhl

Hermann Josef von Kuhl (2 November 1856 – 4 November 1958) was a Prussian military officer, member of the German General Staff, and a Generalleutnant during World War I. One of the most competent commanders in the German Army, he retired in 1919 to write a number of critically acclaimed essays on the war.

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Hindenburg Programme

The Hindenburg Programme of August 1916 is the name given to the armaments and economic policy begun in late 1916 by the Third Oberste Heeresleitung (OHL, the German General Staff), Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff.

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History of the Great War

The History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Committee of Imperial Defence (abbreviated to History of the Great War or British Official History) is a series of concerning the war effort of the British state during the First World War.

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Hubert Gough

General Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough (12 August 1870 – 18 March 1963) was a senior officer in the British Army in the First World War.

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Hundings

The Hundings (Old English Hundingas, the "hound-clan") are a legendary tribe or clan in early Germanic sources, mostly mentioned due to their feud with the Wulfings (the "wolf-clan").

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Hundred Days Offensive

The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens.

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IX Reserve Corps (German Empire)

The IX Reserve Corps (IX.) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.

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Jagdstaffel 11

Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 11 ("No 11 Fighter Squadron"; commonly abbreviated to Jasta 11) was founded on 28 September 1916 from elements of 4 Armee's Kampfeinsitzerkommandos (or KEKs) 1, 2 and 3 and mobilized on 11 October as part of the German Air Service's expansion program, forming permanent specialised fighter squadrons, or "Jastas".

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Joseph Joffre

Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 – 3 January 1931), was a French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916.

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Kortrijk

Kortrijk (in English also Courtrai or Courtray; official name in Dutch: Kortrijk,; West Flemish: Kortryk or Kortrik, Courtrai,; Cortoriacum) is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders.

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Landwehr

Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe.

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Lille

Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.

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Louis Franchet d'Espèrey

Louis Félix Marie François Franchet d'Espèrey (25 May 1856 – 8 July 1942) was a French general during World War I. As commander of the large Allied army based at Salonika, he conducted the successful Macedonian campaign, which caused the collapse of the Southern Front and contributed to the armistice.

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Max Bauer

Colonel Max Hermann Bauer (31 January 1869 – 6 May 1929) was a German artillery expert in the First World War who was also prominent in the army's political meddling.

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Max von Gallwitz

Max Karl Wilhelm von Gallwitz (2 May 1852 – 18 April 1937) was a German general from Breslau (Wrocław), Silesia, who served with distinction during World War I on both the Eastern and Western Fronts.

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Meuse-Argonne Offensive

The Meuse-Argonne Offensive (also known as Battles of the Meuse-Argonne and the Meuse-Argonne Campaign) was a major part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire Western Front.

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Nivelle Offensive

The Nivelle Offensive of 1917, was a Franco-British offensive on the Western Front in the First World War.

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Oberste Heeresleitung

The Oberste Heeresleitung (Supreme Army Command or OHL) was the highest echelon of command of the army (Heer) of the German Empire.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918

The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 is a 12-volume series covering Australian involvement in the First World War.

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Ordnance QF 18-pounder

The Ordnance QF 18 pounder,British military traditionally denoted smaller ordnance by the weight of its standard projectile, in this case approximately or simply 18-pounder Gun, was the standard British Empire field gun of the First World War-era.

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Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.

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Pillbox (military)

Pillboxes are concrete dug-in guard posts, normally equipped with loopholes through which to fire weapons.

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Predicted fire

Predicted fire (originally called map shooting) is a tactical technique for the use of artillery, enabling it to fire for effect without alerting the enemy with ranging shots or a lengthy preliminary bombardment.

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Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.

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Prussian Ministry of War

The Prussian War Ministry was gradually established between 1808 and 1809 as part of a series of reforms initiated by the Military Reorganization Commission created after the disastrous Treaty of Tilsit.

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Rearguard

A rearguard is that part of a military force that protects it from attack from the rear, either during an advance or withdrawal.

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Reverse slope defence

A reverse slope defence is a military tactic where a defending force is positioned on the slope of an elevated terrain feature such as a hill, ridge, or mountain, on the side opposite from the attacking force.

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Robert Nivelle

Robert Georges Nivelle (15 October 1856 – 22 March 1924) was a French artillery officer who served in the Boxer Rebellion, and the First World War.

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Romania during World War I

The Kingdom of Romania was neutral for the first two years of World War I, entering on the side of the Allied powers from 27 August 1916 until Central Power occupation led to the Treaty of Bucharest in May 1918, before reentering the war on 10 November 1918. It had the only oil fields in Europe, and Germany eagerly bought its petroleum, as well as food exports. King Carol favored Germany but after his death in 1914, King Ferdinand and the nation's political elite favored the Entente. For Romania, the highest priority was taking Transylvania from Hungary, with its 3,000,000 Romanians. The Allies wanted Romania to join its side in order to cut the rail communications between Germany and Turkey, and to cut off Germany's oil supplies. Britain made loans, France sent a military training mission, and Russia promised modern munitions. The Allies promised at least 200,000 soldiers to defend Romania against Bulgaria to the south, and help it invade Austria. The Romanian campaign was part of the Balkan theatre of World War I, with Romania and Russia allied with Britain and France against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria, and Turkey. Fighting took place from August 1916 to December 1917 across most of present-day Romania, including Transylvania, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, as well as in southern Dobruja, which is currently part of Bulgaria. Despite initial successes, the Romanian forces (aided by Russia) suffered massive setbacks, and by the end of 1916 only Moldavia remained. After several defensive victories in 1917, with Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania, almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers, was also forced to drop out of the war; it signed the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central Powers in May 1918. On 10 November 1918, just one day before the German armistice and after all the other Central Powers had already capitulated, Romania re-entered the war after the successful Allied advances on the Macedonian Front.

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Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria

Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria (Rupprecht Maria Luitpold Ferdinand; 18 May 1869 – 2 August 1955) was the last heir apparent to the Bavarian throne.

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Salient (military)

A salient, also known as a bulge, is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory.

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Siegfried Line

The term Siegfried Line refers to two different German defensive lines, one during the First World War and the other during the Second World War.

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Strategic bombing

Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.

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Tenth Army (France)

The Tenth Army (Xe Armée) was a Field army of the French Army during World War I and World War II.

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Trench foot

Trench foot is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp, unsanitary, and cold conditions.

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Unrestricted submarine warfare

Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").

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Wastage (military)

Wastage was a British term used during the First World War.

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Western Front (World War I)

The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.

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William Heneker

General Sir William Charles Giffard Heneker, (22 August 1867 – May 1939) was a Canadian-born and educated soldier who served with the British Army in West Africa, India, and then later on the Western Front during the First World War.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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12th Brigade (Australia)

The 12th Brigade was an infantry brigade of the Australian Army.

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13th Division (German Empire)

The 13th Division (13. Division) was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.

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15th Reserve Division (German Empire)

The 15th Reserve Division (15. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Prussian Army within the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed on mobilization of the German Army in August 1914 as part of VIII Reserve Corps.

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1st Army (German Empire)

The 1st Army (1.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 from the VIII Army Inspection.

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22nd Reserve Division (German Empire)

The 22nd Reserve Division (22. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the German Army in World War I. The division was formed on the mobilization of the German Army in August 1914.

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23rd Reserve Division (German Empire)

The Royal Saxon 23rd Reserve Division (Kgl. Sächsische 23. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed on mobilization of the German Army in August 1914 as part of the XII (Royal Saxon) Reserve Corps.

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25th Division (German Empire)

The 25th Division (25. Division), officially the Grand Ducal Hessian (25th) Division (Großherzoglich Hessische (25.) Division), was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.

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26th Reserve Division (German Empire)

The 26th Reserve Division (26. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed on the mobilization of the German Army in August 1914 as part of the XIV Reserve Corps.

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29th Division (German Empire)

The 29th Division (29. Division) was a unit of the Prussian/German Army, almost entirely made up of troops from the Grand Duchy of Baden.

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2nd Army (German Empire)

The 2nd Army (2.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 from the III Army Inspection.

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2nd Guards Reserve Division (German Empire)

The 2nd Guards Reserve Division (2. Garde-Reserve-Division) was a reserve infantry division of the Imperial German Army in World War I. Despite its name, it was not a reserve formation of the Prussian Guards like the 1st Guards Reserve Division.

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2nd Indian Cavalry Division

The 2nd Indian Cavalry Division was a division of the British Indian Army formed at the outbreak of World War I. It served on the Western Front, being renamed as 5th Cavalry Division on 26 November 1916.

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38th Division (German Empire)

The 38th Division (38. Division) was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.

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46th Reserve Division (German Empire)

The 46th Reserve Division (46. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed in August 1914 and organized over the next two months.

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4th Brigade (Australia)

The 4th Brigade is a brigade-level formation of the Australian Army.

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4th Division (Australia)

The Australian 4th Division was formed in the First World War during the expansion of the Australian Imperial Force infantry brigades in February 1916.

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4th Division (German Empire)

The 4th Division (4. Division) was a unit of the Prussian/German Army.

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50th Reserve Division (German Empire)

The 50th Reserve Division (50. Reserve-Division) was a formation of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed in September 1914 and organized over the next month, arriving in the line in October.

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62nd (2nd West Riding) Division

The 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division was an infantry division of the British Army that saw active service on the Western Front during the First World War.

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9th Reserve Division (German Empire)

The 9th Reserve Division (9. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German Army, in World War I. The division was formed on the mobilization of the German Army in August 1914.

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Redirects here:

Advance to the Hindenburg Line, Battles of the Hindenburg Line, Hindenberg Line, Hindenburg line, The Hindenburg Line.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindenburg_Line

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