130 relations: A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush, Afghanistan, Al-Biruni, Al-Ma'mun, Al-Qaeda, Alexander the Great, Alexander von Humboldt, Alfred Charles Auguste Foucher, Amu Darya, An Advanced History of India, Avestan, Babur, Bactria, Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex, Badakhshan, Birch bark, Black Sea, Brill Publishers, Buddhas of Bamiyan, Buddhism, Caspian Sea, Central Asia, Chiliss, China, Chitral, Chitral District, Cold War, Dardistan, Darius I, Delhi Sultanate, Early Buddhist schools, East Africa, Emerald, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Eric Newby, Frederick Drew, Gāndhārī language, Geography of Afghanistan, Geography of Pakistan, Ghazni, Ghizer District, Glacier, Greater Caucasus, Gulbahar, Afghanistan, Gupta script, Hari (Afghanistan), Helmand River, Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri, Hephthalite Empire, Himalayas, ..., Hindu, Hindustan, Hobson-Jobson, Ibn Battuta, Indian subcontinent, Indus River, International Security Assistance Force, Ishkoman Valley, Islam in India, Istor-o-Nal, Kabul, Kabul River, Karakoram, Kashmir, Kharosthi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kuh-e Bandaka, Kunar River, Kushan Empire, Kushan Pass, Laghman Province, Landai Sin River, Lapis lazuli, Library of Congress, List of highest mountains on Earth, List of mountain ranges, Lokottaravāda, Lunkho e Dosare, Mahayana sutras, Mahāsāṃghika, Mahmud of Ghazni, Maurya Empire, Mount Imeon, Mountain range, Muhammad of Ghor, Mujahideen, Noshaq, Nuristan Province, October 2015 Hindu Kush earthquake, Pakistan, Palm-leaf manuscript, Pamir Mountains, Panjshir River, Paropamisadae, Pashto, Persian language, R. C. Majumdar, Ranjit Singh, Rihla, River, Salang Pass, Salang Tunnel, Sanskrit, Saraghrar, Schøyen Collection, Scott Fetzer Company, Seleucid Empire, Sharia, Shina people, Sind Division, Sistan Basin, South Asia, Soviet Union, Spīn Ghar, Strabo, Tajikistan, Taliban, Terich, Timur, Tirich Mir, Udren Zom, Varanasi, Vendidad, World Book Encyclopedia, Xuanzang, Yasht, Yasin Valley, 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes, 2005 Hindu Kush earthquake, 2016 Afghanistan earthquake. Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush is a 1958 book by the English travel writer Eric Newby.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو العباس المأمون; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alfred Charles Auguste Foucher (1865–1952), a French scholar, identified the Buddha image as having Greek origins.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
An Advanced History of India is a book on Indian history written by R.C. Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhuri and Kalikinkar Datta, first published in 1946.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (short BMAC), also known as the Oxus civilisation, is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, dated to c. 2300–1700 BC, located in present-day northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus River).
Badakhshan (Pashto/بدخشان, Badaxšân; Бадахшон, Badaxşon;;, Dungan: Бадахәшон, Xiao'erjing: بَا دَا کْ شًا, Ming dynasty era Chinese name- 巴丹沙) is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan.
Birch bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Persian:بت های باميان. – bott-hâye Bāmiyān) were 4th- and 5th-century monumental statues of Gautam Buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, northwest of Kabul at an elevation of.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chiliss were an ancient people from the Indus Valley in the Hindu Kush, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chitral (Pashto/چترال; چھترار, Khowar for "field") is the capital of the Chitral District, situated on the Chitral River in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Chitral (ضلع چترال) is the largest district in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, covering an area of 14,850 km².
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Dardistan is a term coined by Gottlieb William Leitner for northern Pakistan, Kashmir and parts of north-eastern Afghanistan.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
The early Buddhist schools are those schools into which the Buddhist monastic saṅgha initially split, due originally to differences in vinaya and later also due to doctrinal differences and geographical separation of groups of monks.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
George Eric Newby CBE MC (6 December 1919 – 20 October 2006) was an English travel author.
Frederick Drew FGS, FRGS (11 August 1836 – 28 October 1891), was an English geologist.
Gāndhārī is a modern name (first used by scholar Harold Walter Bailey in 1946) for the Prakrit language of Kharoṣṭhi texts dating to between the third century BCE and fourth century CE found in the northwestern region of Gandhāra, but it was also heavily used in Central Asia and even appears in inscriptions in Luoyang and Anyang.
Afghanistan is a landlocked mountainous country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Geography of Pakistan (جغرافیۂ پاکِستان) is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian) or Ghaznai, also historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people.
Ghizer District (ضلع غذر) is the westernmost part of the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Greater Caucasus (Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; დიდი კავკასიონი, Didi K’avk’asioni; Большой Кавказ, Bolshoy Kavkaz, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major", "Big Caucasus" or "Large Caucasus") is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains.
Gulbahar (Persian: گلبهار) is located 76 km north the Afghanistan capital Kabul.
The Gupta script (sometimes referred to as Gupta Brahmi Script or Late Brahmi Script)Sharma, Ram.
The Heray Rud River (Dari: هری رود Hari Rūd, Heray Rūd, i.e. "Herat River") is a river flowing from the mountains of central Afghanistan to Turkmenistan, where it disappears in the Kara-Kum desert forming the Tejend oasis.
The Helmand River (also spelled Helmend, Helmund, Hirmand; Pashto/Persian: هیرمند, هلمند Hīrmand, Helmand, Greek: Ἐτύμανδρος (Etýmandros), Latin: Erymandrus) is the longest river in Afghanistan and the primary watershed for the endorheic Sistan Basin.
Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri (হেম চন্দ্র রায়চৌধুরী) (8 April 1892 – 4 May 1957Raychaudhuri, Hemchandra (1972). Political History of Ancient India: From the Accession of Parikshit to the Extinction of the Gupta Dynasty, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 7th edition, pp. iv-vi) was an Indian historian, known for his studies on ancient India.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.
Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive is a historical dictionary of Anglo-Indian words and terms from Indian languages which came into use during the British rule of India.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
The Ishkoman (اشکومن) valley lies in the north of Pakistan in Gilgit-Baltistan, bordering Afghanistan and the Pamir Wakhan Corridor.
Islam is the second largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or roughly 172 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2011 census) as an ethnoreligious group.
Istor-o-Nal or इस्तोर-ओ-नल is the third highest mountain in the Hindu Kush, in the Chitral District of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
The Kabul River (کابل سیند, دریای کابل), the classical Cophes, is a long river that emerges in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan.
The Karakoram, or Karakorum is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
Kuh-e Bandaka (Pashto: کوه بندکا) or Kohe Bandaka, Koh-i Bandaka, Bandako, or incorrectly Koh-i-BandakorRobin Hartshorne, "Bandako", American Alpine Journal, 1966.
The Kunar River (Urdu,کونړ سيند), also called the Chitral River (چترال سيند) or the Kama River (کامه سيند), is about 480 km long, located in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and eastern Afghanistan.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Kushan Pass or Kaoshan Pass (el. about 4,370 m or 14,340 ft) is a mountain pass just west of the famous Salang Pass (3,878 m. or 12,723 ft.) in the Hindu Kush mountain range of northern Afghanistan.
Laghman (Pashto/Persian: لغمان) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.
The Landai Sin River (لنډی سين Lanḍai Sīn, "Short River"), also called the Bashgal River (باشګال سيند), is located in eastern Afghanistan.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
There are at least 109 mountains on Earth with elevations greater than above sea level.
This is a list of mountain ranges on Earth and a few other astronomical bodies.
The Lokottaravāda (Sanskrit, लोकोत्तरवाद) was one of the early Buddhist schools according to Mahayana doxological sources compiled by Bhāviveka, Vinitadeva and others, and was a subgroup which emerged from the Mahāsāṃghika.
Lunkho e Dosare is a mountain in the Hindu Kush mountains.
The Mahayana sutras are a broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that various traditions of Mahayana Buddhism accept as canonical.
The Mahāsāṃghika (Sanskrit "of the Great Sangha") was one of the early Buddhist schools.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mount Imeon is an ancient name for the Central Asian complex of mountain ranges comprising the present Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tian Shan, extending from the Zagros Mountains in the southwest to the Altay Mountains in the northeast, and linked to the Kunlun, Karakoram and Himalayas to the southeast.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
Noshaq (also called Nowshak or Nōshākh; Persian/نوشاخ) is the second highest peak in the Hindu Kush Range (after Tirich Mir) at.
Nuristan, also spelled Nurestan or Nooristan, (Nuristani: نورستان) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.
The October 2015 Hindu Kush earthquake was a magnitude 7.5 earthquake that struck South Asia on 26 October 2015, at 13:39 AFT (14:09 PKT; 14:39 IST; 09:09 UTC) with the epicenter 45 km north of `Alaqahdari-ye Kiran wa Munjan, Afghanistan, at a depth of 212.5 km.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palm-leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
The Panjshir River flows through the Panjshir Valley in northeastern Afghanistan, north of Kabul.
The Paropamisadae, also known by other names, were a people and district of Gandhara, which stretched along the Hindu Kush range and lying between Kabul Valley of Afghanistan and Peshawar Valley of Pakistan.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (known as R. C. Majumdar; 4 December 1884 – 11 February 1980) was a historian and professor of Indian history.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.
Riḥlah (رحلة, "Journey" or "Travels") is a Classical Arabic term of a quest, with connotations of a voyage undertaken for the sake of divine knowledge of Islam.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
The Salang Pass (كتل سالنگ, el.) is nowadays the major mountain pass connecting northern Afghanistan with Parwan Province, with onward connections to Kabul Province, southern Afghanistan, and to the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The Salang Tunnel (تونل سالنگ Tūnel-e Sālang) is a long tunnel located at the Salang Pass in the Hindu Kush mountains, between the Parwan and Baghlan provinces of Afghanistan.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Saraghrar is the fourth highest independent peak in the Hindu Kush.
The Schøyen Collection is the largest private manuscript collection in the world, mostly located in Oslo and London.
The Scott Fetzer Company is a company in Cleveland suburb of Westlake, Ohio and owned by Berkshire Hathaway, which bought the company (then known as Scott & Fetzer) in early 1986 for about $400 million.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
The Shina, also known as the Shin are a Dardic tribe residing in southern Gilgit–Baltistan, Chitral and the western part of the Kohistan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, as well as the Dras Valley and Kishenganga Valley in the northern region of Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The Sind Division was the name an administrative division of the British Raj located in Sindh.
The Sistan Basin is an inland endorheic basin encompassing large parts of southwestern Afghanistan and minor parts of southeastern Iran, one of the driest regions in the world and an area subjected to prolonged droughts.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spīn Ghar (سپين غر), "white mountain", also known as Safēd Kōh (Persian/Urdu: سفید کوه), Speen Ghar, or the Indian Caucasus as late as the 19th century, and as the Morga Range, in Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009 is a mountain range in eastern Afghanistan, which expands into the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Terich is an administrative unit, known as Union Council, of Chitral District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Tirich Mir (Khowar/Pashto/ترچ میر) (alternatively Terich Mir, Terichmir and Turch Mir) is the highest mountain of the Hindu Kush range, and the highest mountain in the world outside of the Himalayas-Karakoram range, located in Chitral District of Pakistan.
Udren Zom is a mountain in the Hindu Kush mountain range in Pakistan.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
The Vendidad or Videvdat is a collection of texts within the greater compendium of the Avesta.
The World Book Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia published in the United States.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
The Yashts (Yašts) are a collection of twenty-one hymns in the Younger Avestan language.
Yasin (یاسین Yāsīn), also known as Babaye-i-Yasen (بابائے یاسین) or Worshigum (ورشیگوم Worśigūm), is a high mountain valley in the Hindu Kush mountains, in the northwestern Ghizer District in Gilgit-Baltistan, northern Pakistan.
The 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes struck in northern Afghanistan during the month of March.
The 2005 Hindu Kush earthquake hit northeastern Afghanistan with a magnitude of 6.5 on December 12 at 21:47 (UTC).
The 2016 Afghanistan earthquake was a magnitude 6.6 earthquake which struck west-southwest of Ashkasham on April 10, at a depth of.
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