141 relations: Ablative case, Adjective, Adverb, Affricate consonant, Agent (grammar), Agglutination, Agreement (linguistics), Alveolar consonant, Animacy, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Aspirated consonant, Auxiliary verb, Bilabial consonant, Bound and unbound morphemes, Branching (linguistics), Causative, Comparative, Comparison (grammar), Compound verb, Conjunction (grammar), Consonant, Continuous and progressive aspects, Contraction (grammar), Copula (linguistics), Count noun, Counterfactual conditional, Dative case, Decimal, Declension, Definiteness, Deixis, Delhi, Demonstrative, Dental consonant, Devanagari, Diphthong, Direct case, Dot (diacritic), Dual (grammatical number), English language, Ergative case, Finch, Finite verb, Flap consonant, Fricative consonant, Genitive case, Glottal consonant, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, ..., Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Habitual aspect, Hindi, Hindustani language, Hyphen, Imperative mood, Imperfective aspect, Indefinite pronoun, Infinitive, Inflection, Instrumental case, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, International Phonetic Alphabet, King, Kolkata, Labiodental consonant, Lateral consonant, Lemma (morphology), Lingua franca, Loanword, Macron (diacritic), Mass noun, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nasalization, Nastaʿlīq script, Nepali language, Nonfinite verb, Noun, Object (grammar), Oblique case, Ordinal number (linguistics), Oriental studies, Palatal consonant, Parent, Participle, Past tense, Patient (grammar), Penknife, Perfective aspect, Periphrasis, Persian language, Personal pronoun, Plural, Plus and minus signs, Postalveolar consonant, Preposition and postposition, Present tense, Pronoun, Quantifier (linguistics), Reflexive pronoun, Register (sociolinguistics), Retroflex consonant, Root (linguistics), Royal we, Sanskrit, Semivowel, Split ergativity, Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subject–object–verb, Subjunctive mood, Subscript and superscript, Suffix, Teach Yourself, Tilde, Transcription (linguistics), Transitive verb, Transitivity (grammar), Translation, Transliteration, Uncle, University of California, Urdu, Urdu alphabet, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Verb, Vocative case, Voice (grammar), Vowel, Vowel length, Water well, Word order, Word stem, Yes–no question. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
In morphology, a bound morpheme is a morpheme (the most basic unit of meaning) that can appear only as part of a larger word; a free morpheme or unbound morpheme is one that can stand alone or can appear with other morphemes in a lexeme.
In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
In linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, or degree.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.
In linguistics, a compound verb or complex predicate is a multi-word compound that functions as a single verb.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.
A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters and sounds.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
In linguistics, a count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.
A counterfactual conditional (abbreviated), is a conditional containing an if-clause which is contrary to fact.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as “me” or “here”, that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information -- in this case, the identity of the speaker (“me”) and the speaker's location (“here”).
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
A direct case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case used with all three core relations: both the agent and patient of transitive verbs and the argument of intransitive verbs, though not always at the same time.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The ergative case (abbreviated) is the grammatical case that identifies the noun as a subject of a transitive verb in ergative–absolutive languages.
The true finches are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Fringillidae.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
In linguistics, the aspect of a verb is a grammatical category that defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in a given action, event, or state.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to non-specific beings, objects, or places.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
A nonfinite verb is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot perform action as the root of an independent clause.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.
In linguistics, ordinal numbers (or ordinal numerals) are words representing position or rank in a sequential order; the order may be of size, importance, chronology, and so on (e.g., "third", "tertiary").
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.
In linguistics, a grammatical patient, also called the target or undergoer, is the participant of a situation upon whom an action is carried out or the thematic relation such a participant has with an action.
A penknife, or pen knife, is a British English term for a small folding knife.
The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.
In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
In linguistics and grammar, a quantifier is a type of determiner, such as all, some, many, few, a lot, and no, (but not numerals) that indicates quantity.
In language, a reflexive pronoun, sometimes simply called a reflexive, is a pronoun that is preceded or followed by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
The royal we, or majestic plural (pluralis maiestatis), is the use of a plural pronoun (or corresponding plural-inflected verb forms) to refer to a single person who is a monarch.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Split ergativity is a term used by comparative linguists to refer to languages where some constructions use ergative syntax and morphology, but other constructions show another pattern, usually nominative-accusative.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
A subscript or superscript is a character (number, letter or symbol) that is (respectively) set slightly below or above the normal line of type.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Teach Yourself is currently an imprint of Hodder Education, formerly by the English Universities Press, that specializes in self-instruction books.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.
In linguistics, transitivity is a property of verbs that relates to whether a verb can take direct objects and how many such objects a verb can take.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Uncle (from avunculus the diminutive of avus "grandfather") is a male family relationship or kinship within an extended or immediate family.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
In linguistics, a yes–no question, formally known as a polar question or a general question, is a question whose expected answer is either "yes" or "no".
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