482 relations: Ableton Live, Accompaniment, Activism, Adidas, African Americans, African diaspora, African-American music, Afrika Bambaataa, Afrofuturism, Alternative hip hop, AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted, Amplifier, Angel Haze, Anomie, Anti-establishment, Arab Spring, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Art movement, Arthur Baker (musician), Artists and repertoire, As Nasty As They Wanna Be, Asian Americans, Audio engineer, Audio file format, Austin Powers in Goldmember, Authenticity (philosophy), Auto-Tune, Azealia Banks, Barynya, Bass guitar, Bassline, Beat (music), Beat Street, Beatboxing, Beatmatching, Beats Electronics, BET, BET: Uncut, Bill Clinton, Billboard Hot 100, Biz Markie, Black Spades, Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos, Blackalicious, Block party, Blog, Blondie (band), Bloomberg Businessweek, Blues, Bob Dylan, ..., Body Count (album), Boogie Down Productions, Boombox, Brand Nubian, Brazil, Break (music), Breakbeat, Breakdancing, Breakin', Brooklyn, Brother Ali, Buffalo Gals, Busta Rhymes, Calvin Klein, Canadian identity, Capitalism, Cartier (jeweler), Catchphrase, Champagne Krug, Chiac, Chic (band), Chinese martial arts, Chopped and screwed, Christopher Martin (entertainer), Chuck D, Chuck Philips, Cipher, Coming out, Common (rapper), Cop Killer (song), CORE Music Foundation, Cornell University Library, Courvoisier, Cristal (wine), Cultural translation, Cypress Hill, Da Capo Press, Dark Horse (Katy Perry song), Dead Obies, Dead Prez, Debbie Harry, Deejay (Jamaican), Digital audio workstation, Dilated Peoples, Direct drive mechanism, Disc jockey, Disco, DJ Clue?, DJ Hollywood, DJ Jazzy Jeff, DJ Kool Herc, DJ mixer, DJ Muggs, DJ Premier, DJ Qbert, DJ Scratch, DJ Screw, DMX (rapper), Dom Pérignon, DONDI, Doug E. Fresh, Dr Pepper, Dr. Dre, Drake (musician), Drum kit, Drum machine, Duke Bootee, Duke University, E-40, E.I. (song), Eazy-Duz-It, Eazy-E, Ebonics (word), Effects unit, Electro (music), Eminem, Emmanuel Jal, Energy Brands, Entrepreneurship, EPMD, Eric B., Erick Sermon, Essentialism, Fab Five Freddy, Fade (audio engineering), Faggot (slang), Fatback Band, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Fender Stratocaster, Film director, Five Steez, FL Studio, Foreign Policy, Franglais, Frank Ocean, Free Press (publisher), Freestyle rap, Fuck tha Police, Fugees, Funk, Funkmaster Flex, Futura (graffiti artist), G-Eazy, Gang, Gang Starr, Gangsta rap, Genderqueer, Genre, George H. W. Bush, Good Times (Chic song), Graffiti, Grammy Award, Grand Wizzard Theodore, Grandmaster Caz, Grandmaster Flash, Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, Grandmaster Flowers, Greg Tate, H.I.P. H.O.P., Harvard University, Harvard University Press, Hip Hop Connection, Hip hop fashion, Hip Hop Is Dead (song), Hip Hop Movement, Hip hop music, Hip Hop Pantsula, Hip-hop in academia, Hip-hop theater, HipHopDX, Home Invasion (album), Homie, Homophobia, House music, How to Rap, Ibn Thabit, Ice Cube, Ice-T, Iggy Azalea, Immortal Technique, IMP Labs, It Was a Good Day, It's Like That (Run–D.M.C. song), J Dilla, Ja Rule, Jacob Arabo, Jam Master Jay, Jamaica, James Brown, Jay Electronica, Jay-Z, Jazz, Jazzy Jay, Jeff Chang (journalist), Jerry Calliste Jr., Jeru the Damaja, Jet (magazine), John Matos, Julio 204, Jurassic 5, Kala (album), Kanye West, Katy Perry, Kendrick Lamar, Kid 'n Play, Kid Capri, Kilobyte, King Tim III (Personality Jock), Kraftwerk, KRS-One, Krush Groove, Kurtis Blow, Kurtis Blow (album), Kwaito, Lady Pink, Lauryn Hill, Lee Quiñones, Lens (optics), LGBT community, Libya, Light Years Away (Warp 9 song), Lil Pump, Lil Wayne, Lil' Kim, List of films with associated hip hop songs, List of hip hop albums considered to be influential, List of hip hop festivals, List of hip hop genres, List of hip hop musicians, List of murdered hip hop musicians, Living Legends (group), Los Angeles, Los Angeles Times, Loudspeaker, Louis Roederer, Louis Vuitton, Lovebug Starski, Lowkey, Lupe Fiasco, Luther Campbell, Lynching, M.I.A. (rapper), Machine Gun Kelly (rapper), Macklemore, Malcolm McLaren, Man Parrish, Manthia Diawara, Martin Luther King Jr., Marxism, Master of ceremonies, MC Hammer, MC Lyte, McDonald's, Melle Mel, Men and Masculinities, Michael Eric Dyson, Michael Jackson, Mike Myers, Miley Cyrus, Misogyny, Misogyny in rap music, Missy Elliott, Mix Master Mike, Mixing console, Money laundering, Mos Def, Mr. Magic, MTV, Multitrack recording, Mumia Abu-Jamal, Music, Mykki Blanco, Myspace, N.W.A, Nas, Nasty Boys, National Geographic, National Rifle Association, Nelly, Netflix, New wave music, New York City, New York City blackout of 1977, New York City Breakers, Nicki Minaj, Nigga, Niggaz4Life, Nile Rodgers, North Carolina Central University, Nouveau riche, Nunk (song), Oakland, California, October (journal), Old-school hip hop, Oppression, Orlando Patterson, Ostinato, Otis (song), Otis Redding, Pan-Africanism, Party Music, Paul Gilroy, Penguin Books, Perseus Books Group, Pete Rock, Pete Rock & CL Smooth, Phonograph, Phonograph record, Pitbull (rapper), Pitch control, Planet Rock (song), Planet Rock: The Album, Pocket Books, Police, Pop music, Popular culture, Popular music, Portastudio, Poseur, Post Malone, Pro Tools, Product placement, Profanity, Public address system, Public Enemy (band), Put Your Hands Where My Eyes Could See, Queen Latifah, Queer, Quincy Jones, Race Rebels, Racial discrimination, Radio Radio (band), Ragtime, Rahzel, Ralph Lauren, Rammellzee, Rapper's Delight, Rapping, Rapture (Blondie song), Rastafari, Record producer, Recording studio, Reggae, Rhyme, Rhythm and blues, Rick Ross, Rock music, Rock Steady Crew, Rockism and poptimism, Roger Ebert, Roland TR-808, Ronald Savage, Rough Guides, Run-DMC, Russell Simmons, SAGE Publications, Salt-N-Pepa, Sampling (music), Scat singing, Schoolly D, Science fiction, Scott La Rock, Scratch (magazine), Scratching, Screwed Up Click, Sean Combs, Seen (artist), Serpent's Tail, Sexism, Sexual objectification, Shill, Shing02, Singer-songwriter, Singing, Siya, Slavery, Slick Rick, Snoop Dogg, Soul music, Soulsonic Force, Sound recording and reproduction, SoundCloud, South Bronx, South Sudan, Spanglish, Spanish language, Spoken word, Spotify, Sprite (drink), Sri Lanka, St. Martin's Press, Steven Hager, Straight Outta Compton, Streetwear, Style Wars, Subculture, Suburb, Subway Art, Sun Ra, Supreme Court of the United States, T-Pain, TAKI 183, Talib Kweli, Tap dance, Taylor Swift, Technics SL-1200, TED (conference), Temple University Press, The Breaks, The Bronx, The Cold Crush Brothers, The Coup, The Economist, The Fat Boys, The Get Down, The Isley Brothers, The Message (Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five album), The Message (Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five song), The Roots, The Source, The Sugarhill Gang, The Terminator, The Village Voice, Third World, Three Rivers Press, Tommy Hilfiger, Tony Touch, Tracy 168, Transphobia, Try a Little Tenderness, Tuks Senganga, Tumi Molekane, Turntablism, Underground music, United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, United States district court, Universal Zulu Nation, University of Miami, University of Toronto, University Press of Kansas, Urban area, Vanity Fair (magazine), VH1, Vibe (magazine), Video Soul, Vocal percussion, Vol. 2... Hard Knock Life, WarnerMedia, Warp 9, Wayne Marshall (deejay), Wesleyan University Press, West Bronx, West Coast hip hop, Western canon, Whodini, Wild Style, Wildstyle, Wired (magazine), World BBoy Series, World Trade Center (1973–2001), WorldStarHipHop, Xlibris, XXL (magazine), Yo! MTV Raps, YouTube, Zephyr (artist), 12-inch single, 2 Live Crew, 50 Cent, 6 in the Mornin', 75 Ark, 9th Wonder. Expand index (432 more) » « Shrink index
Ableton Live is a software music sequencer and digital audio workstation for macOS and Windows.
Accompaniment is the musical part which provides the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Adidas AG (stylized as ɑdidɑs since 1949) is a multinational corporation, founded and headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Germany, that designs and manufactures shoes, clothing and accessories.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa's peoples, predominantly in the Americas.
African-American music is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of musics and musical genres largely developed by African Americans.
Afrika Bambaataa (born Lance Taylor; April 17, 1957) is an American disc jockey, singer, songwriter and producer from the South Bronx, New York.
Afrofuturism is a cultural aesthetic, philosophy of science, and philosophy of history that explores the developing intersection of African/African Diaspora culture with technology.
Alternative hip hop (also known as alternative rap) is a subgenre of hip hop music that encompasses the wide range of styles of hip hop that are not typically identified as mainstream.
AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted is the debut studio album by American rapper Ice Cube.
An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).
Raykeea Raeen-Roes Wilson (born July 10, 1991) formerly known professionally as Angel Haze, is an American rapper and singer.
Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals".
An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years.
Arthur Baker (born April 22, 1955) is an American record producer and DJ best known for his work with hip hop artists like Afrika Bambaataa, Planet Patrol, and the British group New Order.
Artists and repertoire (A&R) is the division of a record label or music publishing company that is responsible for talent scouting and overseeing the artistic development of recording artists and songwriters.
As Nasty As They Wanna Be is the third album by Miami bass group 2 Live Crew.
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.
An audio engineer (also sometimes recording engineer or a vocal engineer) helps to produce a recording or a performance, editing and adjusting sound tracks using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound.
An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system.
Austin Powers in Goldmember is a 2002 American spy action comedy film.
Authenticity is a concept in psychology (in particular existential psychiatry) as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres).
Auto-Tune is an audio processor created by Antares Audio Technologies which uses a proprietary device to measure and alter pitch in vocal and instrumental music recording and performances.
Azealia Amanda Banks (born May 31, 1991) is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, and actress.
Barynya is a fast Russian folk dance and music.
The bass guitar (also known as electric bass, or bass) is a stringed instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, and four to six strings or courses.
A bassline (also known as a bass line or bass part) is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).
In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse (regularly repeating event), of the mensural level (or beat level).
Beat Street is a 1984 American drama dance film featuring New York City hip hop culture of the early 1980s, breakdancing, DJ-ing and graffiti.
Beatboxing (also beat boxing or b-boxing) is a form of vocal percussion primarily involving the art of mimicking drum machines (typically a TR-808), using one's mouth, lips, tongue, and voice.
Beatmatching or pitch cue is a disc jockey technique of pitch shifting or timestretching an upcoming track to match its tempo to that of the currently playing track, and to adjust them such that the beats (and, usually, the bars) are synchronised — i.e., the kicks and snares in two house records hit at the same time when both records are played simultaneously.
Beats Electronics LLC (also known as Beats by Dr. Dre, or simply Beats by Dre) is a division of Apple Inc. that produces audio products.
Black Entertainment Television (BET, stylised as BET★) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the BET Networks division of Viacom.
BET: Uncut was a television program that aired on BET from 2000 until 2006.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for songs, published weekly by Billboard magazine.
Marcel Theo Hall (born April 8, 1964), better known by his stage name Biz Markie, is an American rapper, beatboxer, DJ, actor, comedian, reality television personality and commercial spokesperson.
The Black Spades were a mostly African-American street gang which started in the Bronx during the late 1960s and gained popularity in the 1970s.
"Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos" is a 1989 song by the American hip hop group Public Enemy from their second album, It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back.
Blackalicious is an American hip-hop duo from Sacramento, California, made up of rapper Gift of Gab and DJ/producer Chief Xcel.
A block party or street party is a crowded party in which many members of a single community congregate, either to observe an event of some importance or simply for mutual enjoyment.
A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").
Blondie is an American rock band founded by singer Debbie Harry and guitarist Chris Stein.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and painter who has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades.
Body Count is the eponymous debut studio album by American crossover thrash band Body Count, released on March 31, 1992 by Sire Records.
Boogie Down Productions was a hip hop group, originally composed of KRS-One, D-Nice, and DJ Scott La Rock.
A boombox is a transistorized portable music player featuring one or two cassette tape recorder/players and AM/FM radio, generally with a carrying handle.
Brand Nubian is an American hip hop group from New Rochelle, New York, composed of three emcees: Grand Puba, Sadat X and Lord Jamar, and formerly two DJs: DJ Alamo and DJ Sincere.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
In popular music, a break is an instrumental or percussion section during a song derived from or related to stop-time – being a "break" from the main parts of the song or piece.
Breakbeat is a broad style of electronic or dance-oriented music which utilizes breaks, often sampled from earlier recordings in funk, jazz and R&B, for the main rhythm.
Breakdancing, also called breaking or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance.
Breakin' (also known as Breakdance: the Movie or Break Street '84 in the UK and other regions) is a 1984 American breakdancing-themed comedy-drama.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Ali Douglas Newman (born Jason Douglas Newman, July 30, 1977), better known by his stage name Brother Ali, is an American rapper, community activist, and member of the Rhymesayers Entertainment hip hop collective.
"Buffalo Gals" is a traditional American song, written and published as "Lubly Fan" in 1844 by the blackface minstrel John Hodges, who performed as "Cool White." The song was widely popular throughout the United States.
Trevor George Smith Jr. (born May 20, 1972), better known by his stage name Busta Rhymes, is an American rapper, record producer, record executive and actor.
Calvin Klein Inc. is an American fashion house founded by designer Calvin Klein and childhood friend Barry K. Schwartz.
Canadian identity refers to the unique culture, characteristics and condition of being Canadian, as well as the many symbols and expressions that set Canada and Canadians apart from other peoples and cultures of the world.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Société Cartier is a French luxury goods conglomerate company which designs, manufactures, distributes, and sells jewellery and watches.
A catchphrase (alternatively spelled catch phrase) is a phrase or expression recognized by its repeated utterance.
Krug Champagne is a Champagne house founded by Joseph Krug in 1853.
Chiac is a vernacular Acadian French language with influences from English and to a lesser extent from various Canadian aboriginal languages.
Chic, currently called Nile Rodgers & Chic, is an American band that was organized during 1976 by guitarist Nile Rodgers and bassist Bernard Edwards.
Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.
Chopped and screwed (sometimes called screwed and chopped or slowed and throwed) is a technique of remixing hip hop music which developed in the Houston hip hop scene in the early 1990s.
Christopher Martin (born July 10, 1962) is an American actor and rapper, formerly the latter half of the late 1980s/early 1990s hip-hop/comedy duo Kid 'n Play.
Carlton Douglas Ridenhour (born August 1, 1960), known professionally as Chuck D, is an American rapper, author, and producer.
Charles Alan "Chuck" Philips (born October 15, 1952) is an American writer and investigative journalist.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
Coming out of the closet, or simply coming out, is a metaphor for LGBT people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation or of their gender identity.
Lonnie Rashid Lynn Jr. (born March 13, 1972), better known by his stage name Common (formerly Common Sense), is an American rapper, actor, poet, and film producer.
"Cop Killer" is a song composed by Ernie C with words by Ice-T for American heavy metal band Body Count, of which they were both members.
CORE Music Foundation began as C.O.R.E., a network of united hip hop artists working together to obtain success in the music industry, educating artists, promoting creative endeavors, and preserving the true essence of hip-hop culture.
The Cornell University Library is the library system of Cornell University.
Courvoisier is a brand of cognac owned by Beam Suntory, a subsidiary of Suntory Holdings of Osaka, Japan.
Cristal is the flagship cuvée of Champagne Louis Roederer, created in 1876 for Alexander II, tsar of Russia.
Cultural translation represents the practice of translation, which involves cultural differences.
Cypress Hill is an American hip hop group from South Gate, California.
Da Capo Press is an American publishing company with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.
"Dark Horse" is a song recorded by American singer Katy Perry featuring rapper Juicy J. It was originally released on September 17, 2013, by Capitol Records as the first promotional single from Perry's fourth studio album, Prism (2013).
Dead Obies is an experimental hip hop band originating from South Shore (suburbs south of Montreal), Quebec, Canada, that was formed in 2011 by a collective of five MCs Jo RCA, Yes McCan, Snail Kid, 20SOME and O.G. Bear, and Quebec producer VNCE CARTER.
Dead Prez, stylized as dead prez, is a hip hop duo from the United States, composed of stic.man and M-1, formed in 1996 in New York City.
Deborah Ann Harry (born Angela Tremble; July 1, 1945) is an American singer, songwriter, and actress, known as the lead singer of the new wave band Blondie.
In Jamaican music, a deejay (DJ) is a reggae or dancehall musician who sings and "toasts" to an instrumental riddim.
A digital audio workstation (DAW) is an electronic device or application software used for recording, editing and producing audio files.
Dilated Peoples is an American hip hop group from Los Angeles, California.
A direct drive mechanism is one that takes the power coming from a motor without any reductions (such as a gearbox).
A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.
Disco is a musical style that emerged in the mid 1960s and early 1970s from America's urban nightlife scene, where it originated in house parties and makeshift discothèques, reaching its peak popularity between the mid-1970s and early 1980s.
Ernesto Shaw (born January 8, 1975), better known as DJ Clue?, is an American disc jockey (DJ), record producer, and radio personality.
Anthony Holloway, better known as DJ Hollywood (born December 10, 1954), is an American MC/rapper and DJ.
Jeffrey Allen Townes (born January 22, 1965), known professionally as DJ Jazzy Jeff or simply Jazz, is an American record producer, DJ, actor and comedian who is best known for his friendship and collaboration with Will Smith as DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince.
Clive Campbell (born April 16, 1955), better known by his stage name DJ Kool Herc, is a Jamaican–American DJ who is credited with helping originate hip hop music in the early–1970s in The Bronx, New York City.
A DJ mixer is a type of audio mixing console used by DJs for two different purposes: some DJs use the mixer to make seamless transitions from one song to another when they are spinning a set at a dance club.
Lawrence Muggerud (born January 28, 1968), better known by his stage name DJ Muggs, is an American DJ and producer.
Christopher Edward Martin (born March 21, 1966), known professionally as DJ Premier (also known as Preemo), is an American record producer and DJ, and was half of the hip hop duo Gang Starr—alongside the emcee Guru—and forms half of the hip hop duo PRhyme, together with Royce da 5'9".
Richard Quitevis (born October 7, 1969) known by his stage name DJ Qbert or Qbert, is a Filipino American turntablist and composer.
George Spivey (born June 21, 1968), professionally known as DJ Scratch, is an American three time Grammy nominated hip hop disc jockey (DJ) and multi platinum record producer from Brooklyn, New York.
Robert Earl Davis Jr. (July 20, 1971 – November 16, 2000), better known by his stage name DJ Screw, was an American hip hop DJ based in Smithville, Texas, and best known as the creator of the now-famous chopped and screwed DJ technique.
Earl Simmons (born December 18, 1970), known professionally as DMX, is an American rapper and actor.
Dom Pérignon is a brand of vintage Champagne produced by the Champagne house Moët & Chandon and serves as that house's prestige champagne.
Donald Joseph White, "DONDI" (April 7, 1961 – October 2, 1998) was an American graffiti artist.
Doug E. Fresh (born September 17, 1966) is a Barbadian-American rapper, record producer, and beatboxer, also known as the Human Beat Box And the pioneer of 20th-century American beatboxing, Fresh is able to accurately imitate drum machines and various special effects using only his mouth, lips, gums, throat, tongue and a microphone.
Dr Pepper is a carbonated soft drink marketed as having a unique flavor.
Andre Romelle Young (born February 18, 1965), better known by his stage name Dr.
Aubrey Drake Graham (born October 24, 1986) is a Canadian rapper, singer, songwriter, actor, and entrepreneur.
A drum kit — also called a drum set, trap set, or simply drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments, typically cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, and the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum.
A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument that creates percussion.
Edward G. Fletcher, known as Duke Bootee, is an early rapper and hip hop and rap producer, who produced some of the most early and important rap records His best known single was "The Message".
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
Earl Stevens (born November 15, 1967), better known by his stage name E-40, is an American rapper.
"E.I." is a single by American rapper Nelly.
Eazy-Duz-It is the debut studio album by American hip hop artist Eazy-E, released on September 13, 1988, by Ruthless Records and Priority Records.
Eric Lynn Wright (September 7, 1964March 26, 1995), better known by his stage name Eazy-E, was an American rapper who performed solo and in the hip hop group N.W.A. Wright is affectionately called "The Godfather of Gangsta rap".
Ebonics (a blend of the words ebony and phonics) is a term that was originally intended to refer to the language of all people descended from enslaved Black Africans, particularly in West Africa, the Caribbean, and North America.
An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source.
Electro (or electro-funk).
Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), known professionally as Eminem (often stylized as EMINƎM), is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, record executive, and actor.
Emmanuel Jal (born Jal Jok c. 1980) is a South Sudanese-Canadian artist, actor, former child soldier, and political activist.
Energy Brands, also doing business as Glacéau, is a privately owned subsidiary of The Coca-Cola Company based in Whitestone, Queens, New York that manufactures and distributes various lines of enhanced water.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
EPMD is an American Hip Hop group from Brentwood, New York.
Eric B. (born Louis Eric Barrier on November 8, 1963 in in East Elmhurst, Queens, New York) was the producer and DJ for the golden age hip hop duo Eric B. & Rakim.
Erick Sermon (born November 25, 1968) is an American rapper, musician, and record producer.
Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.
Fred Brathwaite (born August 31, 1959) more popularly known as Fab 5 Freddy, is an American visual artist, filmmaker, rapper and hip hop pioneer.
In audio engineering, a fade is a gradual increase or decrease in the level of an audio signal.
Faggot, often shortened to fag, is a pejorative term used chiefly in North America primarily to refer to a gay male.
The Fatback Band (later, simply Fatback) is an American funk and disco band that was popular in the 1970s and 1980s.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Fender Stratocaster is a model of electric guitar designed in 1954 by Leo Fender, Bill Carson, George Fullerton, and Freddie Tavares.
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film.
Five Steez is an independent underground Hip Hop artiste from Kingston, Jamaica.
FL Studio (formerly known as FruityLoops) is a digital audio workstation (DAW) developed by the Belgian company Image-Line.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Franglais (also Frenglish) is a French portmanteau word referring initially to the pretentious overuse of English words by Francophones, and subsequently to the macaronic mixture of the French (français) and English (anglais) languages.
Frank Ocean (born Christopher Edwin Breaux; October 28, 1987) is an American singer, songwriter, rapper, record producer and photographer.
Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.
Freestyle is a style of improvisation with or without instrumental beats, in which lyrics are recited with no particular subject or structure.
"Fuck tha Police" is a protest song by American rap group N.W.A that appears on the album Straight Outta Compton as well as on the ''N.W.A's Greatest Hits'' compilation.
Fugees (sometimes The Fugees; formerly Tranzlator Crew) was an American hip hop group who rose to fame in the early-1990s.
Funk is a music genre that originated in African American communities in the mid-1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).
Aston George Taylor Jr. (born August 5, 1968), professionally known as Funkmaster Flex, is an American disc jockey, rapper, record producer, actor, and host on New York City's Hot 97 radio station.
Leonard Hilton McGurr (born 17 November 1955), known as Futura, and formerly known as "Futura 2000", is an American graffiti artist.
Gerald Earl Gillum (born May 24, 1989), better known by his stage name G-Eazy, is an American rapper and record producer from Oakland, California.
A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, and possibly violent, behavior.
Gang Starr was an East Coast hip hop duo that consisted of rapper Guru and DJ/producer DJ Premier.
Gangsta rap or Gangster rap is a style of hip hop characterized by themes and lyrics that generally emphasize the "gangsta" lifestyle.
Genderqueer, also known as non-binary, is a catch-all category for gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminineidentities which are outside the gender binary and cisnormativity.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
"Good Times" is a song by American R&B band Chic from their third album Risqué (1979).
Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.
A Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievement in the music industry.
Theodore Livingston (born March 5, 1963), better known as Grand Wizzard Theodore, is an American hip hop DJ.
Curtis Fisher (born April 18, 1961), better known by his stage name Grandmaster Caz, is an American rapper, songwriter and DJ.
Joseph Saddler (born January 1, 1958), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is an American hip hop recording artist and DJ.
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five were an American hip hop group formed in the South Bronx of New York City in 1976.
Grandmaster Flowers (Jonathon Cameron Flowers) was a DJ from Brooklyn, New York.
Greg Tate is an African-American writer, musician, and producer.
H.I.P. H.O.P. was France's first television show and first regular nationwide weekly show in the world to be dedicated to the hip hop culture.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hip Hop Connection (HHC) was the longest running monthly periodical devoted entirely to hip hop culture.
Hip hop fashion, also known as big fashion, is a distinctive style of dress originating from African American, Latin and other inner city youth on the scene of New York City, later followed by Los Angeles, Houston, Chicago, Philadelphia, the San Francisco Bay Area, Detroit, Memphis, Virginia, Atlanta, St. Louis and others.
"Hip Hop Is Dead" is the first and title single taken from Nas' 2006 album of the same name.
The Hip Hop Movement offers a critical theory and history of hip hop culture as stated by Reiland Rabaka in his book The Hip Hop Movement: From R&B and the Civil Rights Movement to Rap and the Hip Hop Generation.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
Jabulani Tsambo (born 14 September 1980), better known by his stage name Hip Hop Pantsula, shortened to HHP (pronounced double "H" P), and his nickname Jabba is a South African Motswako MC who frequently performs in several languages, though mostly in Setswana.
Hip hop studies is a multidisciplinary field of study that encompasses sociology, anthropology, communication and rhetoric studies, religious studies, cultural studies, critical race theory, missiological studies, art history, dance, musicology, ethnomusicology, music theory, and gender studies.
Hip-hop theater is a form of theater that presents contemporary stories through the use of one or more of the four elements of hip-hop culture—b-boying, graffiti writing, MCing (rapping), and DJing.
HipHopDX is an online magazine of hip hop music criticism and news.
Home Invasion is the fifth studio album by American rapper Ice-T. It was released on March 23, 1993 via Rhyme $yndicate/Priority Records.
Homie (from "homeboy") is an English language slang term found in American urban culture, whose origins etymologists generally trace to Mexican-American Spanglish from the late 19th century, with the word "homeboy" meaning a male friend from back home.
Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).
House music is a genre of electronic dance music created by club DJs and music producers in Chicago in the early 1980s.
How to Rap: The Art & Science of the Hip-Hop MC is a book on hip hop music and rapping by Paul Edwards.
Ibn Thabit is an anonymous Hip hop musician from Libya known for his anti-government songs.
O'Shea Jackson Sr. (born June 15, 1969), known professionally as Ice Cube, is an American rapper, writer and actor.
Tracy Lauren Marrow (born February 16, 1958), better known by his stage name Ice-T, is an American musician, rapper, songwriter, actor, record executive, record producer, and author.
Amethyst Amelia Kelly (born 7 June 1990), known professionally as Iggy Azalea, is an Australian rapper.
Felipe Andres Coronel (born February 19, 1978), better known by the stage name Immortal Technique, is a Peruvian-American hip hop recording artist and activist.
The Interactive Media and Performance (IMP) Labs are a public space for research and performance at the University of Regina in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
"It Was a Good Day" (aka "Today Was a Good Day") is a song by American gangsta rapper Ice Cube.
"It's Like That" is the debut single by American hip hop group Run-DMC.
James Dewitt Yancey (February 7, 1974 – February 10, 2006), better known by the stage names J Dilla and Jay Dee, was an American record producer and rapper who emerged from the mid-1990s underground hip hop scene in Detroit, Michigan, as one third of the acclaimed music group Slum Village.
Jeffrey Bruce Atkins (born February 29, 1976), better known by his stage name Ja Rule, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer, record executive, and actor from Queens, New York.
Jacob Arabo (born 1964) is a Bukharian-American jeweler and founder of Jacob & Company.
Jason William Mizell (January 21, 1965 – October 30, 2002), better known by his stage name Jam Master Jay, was an American musician and DJ.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, musician, record producer and bandleader.
Timothy Elpadaro Thedford (born September 19, 1976), known professionally as Jay Electronica, is an American rapper and record producer from New Orleans.
Shawn Corey Carter (born December 4, 1969) known professionally as Jay-Z (stylized JAY-Z), is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, and entrepreneur.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jazzy Jay, born on November 18, 1961), also known as The Original Jazzy Jay or DJ Jazzy Jay, is an American hip hop DJ and producer. He has collected roughly 400,000 records.
Jeff Chang is an American journalist and music critic on hip hop music and culture.
Jerry Calliste Jr. (born Gerald C. Calliste Jr., November 26, 1965 in Bronx, New York), also known as Hashim, is an American entrepreneur, music industry executive producer, songwriter, record producer, music publisher, and former DJ who is best known for the internationally renowned, seminal hip hop, electro-funk, and dance music classic recording "Al-Naafiysh (The Soul)" (1983).
Kendrick Jeru Davis, known as Jeru the Damaja (born February 14, 1972), is an American rapper best known for his 1994 debut album, The Sun Rises in the East, ranked as one of the 100 greatest hip-hop albums of all time by the editors of About.com.
Jet is a magazine, currently in digital format, marketed to African-American readers.
Crash (b. John Matos, Bronx, New York, October 11, 1961) is a graffiti artist.
JULIO 204 was one of the first graffiti writers in New York City.
Jurassic 5 is an American alternative hip hop group formed in 1993 by members of two previous groups (Rebels of Rhythm and Unity Committee): rappers Charles Stewart (Chali 2na), Dante Givens (Akil), Courtenay Henderson (Soup aka Zaakir), Marc Stuart (Marc 7); and disc jockeys Mark Potsic (DJ Nu-Mark) and Lucas Macfadden (Cut Chemist).
Kala is the second studio album by English-Sri Lankan recording artist M.I.A., released on 8 August 2007 by XL Recordings.
Kanye Omari West (born June 8, 1977) is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer, entrepreneur and fashion designer.
Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson (born October 25, 1984), known professionally as Katy Perry, is an American singer, songwriter, and television judge.
Kendrick Lamar Duckworth (born June 17, 1987) is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, and record producer.
Kid 'n Play is an American hip-hop duo from New York City that was popular in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
David Anthony Love, Jr.
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
"King Tim III (Personality Jock)" is a 1979 song by the Fatback Band from the disco album XII.
Kraftwerk ("power station") is a German band formed in Düsseldorf in 1970 by Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider.
Lawrence "Kris" Parker (born August 20, 1965), better known by his stage names KRS-One, and Teacha, is an American rapper and occasional producer from The Bronx, New York City, New York.
Krush Groove is an American 1985 Warner Bros. film that was written by Ralph Farquhar and directed by Michael Schultz (who also produced the movie, along with George Jackson and Doug McHenry).
Kurtis Walker (born August 9, 1959), professionally known by his stage name Kurtis Blow, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record/film producer, Bboy, DJ, public speaker and minister.
Kurtis Blow is the self-titled debut album by American rapper Kurtis Blow.
Kwaito is a music genre that emerged in Johannesburg, South Africa, during the 1990s.
Lady Pink (born Sandra Fabara, 1964) is a graffiti and mural artist based in New York City.
Lauryn Noelle Hill (born May 26, 1975) is an American singer, songwriter, rapper, record producer, and actress.
George Lee Quiñones (born 1960) is a Puerto Rican artist and actor.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
The LGBT community or GLBT community, also referred to as the gay community, is a loosely defined grouping of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, LGBT organizations, and subcultures, united by a common culture and social movements.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
"Light Years Away" is the second single by the hip hop group, Warp 9, released in 1983.
Gazzy Garcia (born August 17, 2000), known professionally as Lil Pump, is an American rapper, record producer and songwriter.
Dwayne Michael Carter Jr. (born September 27, 1982), known professionally as Lil Wayne, is an American rapper.
Kimberly Denise Jones (born July 11, 1975 or 1976), known professionally by her stage name Lil' Kim, is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, model, and actress.
This is a list of films that have hip hop songs associated with them.
This list provides a guide to the most important hip hop albums, as determined by their presence on compiled lists of significant albums: see the "Lists consulted" section for full details.
The following is an incomplete list of hip hop festivals, which encapsulates music festivals focused on hip hop music or other elements of hip hop culture.
Hip hop music can be subdivided into various subgenres, fusions with other genres, and regional hip hop scenes.
This is a list of hip hop musicians.
The following is a list of notable hip hop musicians murdered since the genre began in the early 1970s.
Living Legends is an American hip hop supergroup consisting of six indie hip hop artists from California.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
Louis Roederer is a producer of Champagne based in Reims, France.
Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton.
Kevin Smith (May 16, 1960 – February 8, 2018), best known by his stage name Lovebug Starski, was an American MC, musician, and record producer.
Kareem Dennis (born 23 May 1986), better known by his stage name Lowkey, is an English-Iraqi hip hop artist based in London, England.
Wasalu Muhammad Jaco (born February 16, 1982), better known by his stage name Lupe Fiasco, is an American rapper, record producer, and entrepreneur.
Luther Roderick Campbell (born December 22, 1960), also known as Luke Skyywalker and simply Luke, is an American record label owner, rap performer, promoter, and actor.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
Mathangi "Maya" Arulpragasam (born 18 July 1975), better known by her stage name M.I.A. (pronounced as distinct initials), is a British rapper, singer-songwriter, record producer, and activist.
Colson Baker (born April 22, 1990), known professionally as MGK or Machine Gun Kelly, is an American rapper, singer and actor from Cleveland, Ohio.
Benjamin Hammond "Ben" Haggerty (born June 19, 1983), known by his stage name Macklemore, and formerly Professor Macklemore, is an American rapper, singer, and songwriter, from Seattle, Washington.
Malcolm Robert Andrew McLaren (22 January 1946 – 8 April 2010) was an English impresario, visual artist, performer, musician, clothes designer and boutique owner, notable for combining these activities in an inventive and provocative way.
Manuel Joseph "Man" Parrish (born May 6, 1958) is an American composer, songwriter, vocalist and producer.
Manthia Diawara (born December 19, 1953) is a Malian writer, filmmaker, cultural theorist, scholar, and art historian.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
A master of ceremonies, abbreviated M.C. or emcee, also called compère and announcer, is the official host of a ceremony, a staged event or similar performance.
Stanley Kirk Burrell (born March 30, 1962), better known by his stage name MC Hammer (or simply Hammer), is an American hip hop recording artist, dancer, record producer and entrepreneur.
MC Lyte (born Lana Michelle Moorer; October 11, 1970) is an American rapper who first gained fame in the late 1980s, becoming the first solo female rapper to release a full album with 1988's critically acclaimed Lyte as a Rock.
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.
Melvin Glover (born May 15, 1961), better known as Melle Mel and Grandmaster Melle Mel, is an American hip-hop musician – one of the pioneers of rap as lead rapper and main songwriter for Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five.
Men and Masculinities is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering men's studies.
Michael Eric Dyson (born October 23, 1958) an academic, author, preacher, and radio host.
Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, and dancer.
Michael John Myers (born May 25, 1963) is a Canadian-American actor, comedian, screenwriter, and film producer.
Miley Ray Cyrus (born Destiny Hope Cyrus; November 23, 1992) is an American singer, songwriter, and actress.
Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.
Misogyny in rap music refers to lyrics, videos or other aspects of rap music that support, glorify, justify, or normalize the objectification, exploitation, or victimization of women.
Melissa Arnette Elliott (born July 1, 1971), better known as Missy "Misdemeanor" Elliott, is an American rapper, singer, dancer and record producer.
Michael Schwartz (born April 4, 1970), better known by his stage name Mix Master Mike, is an American turntablist best known for his work with the Beastie Boys.
In sound recording and reproduction, and sound reinforcement systems, a mixing console is an electronic device for combining sounds of many different audio signals.
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
Yasiin Bey (born Dante Terrell Smith; December 11, 1973), best known by his stage name Mos Def, is an American hip hop recording artist, actor, and activist.
MTV (originally an initialism of Music Television) is an American cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks (a division of Viacom) and headquartered in New York City.
Multitrack recording (MTR)—also known as multitracking, double tracking, or tracking—is a method of sound recording developed in 1955 that allows for the separate recording of multiple sound sources or of sound sources recorded at different times to create a cohesive whole.
Mumia Abu-Jamal (born Wesley Cook; April 24, 1954) is a political activist and journalist who was convicted of murder and sentenced to death in 1982 for the 1981 murder of Philadelphia police officer Daniel Faulkner.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Michael David Quattlebaum Jr. (born April 2, 1986), better known by the stage name Mykki Blanco, is an American rapper, performance artist, poet and activist.
Myspace (stylized as MySpace) is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos.
N.W.A (an abbreviation for Niggaz Wit Attitudes) was an American hip hop group from Los Angeles, California.
Nasir Bin Olu Dara Jones (born September 14, 1973), better known by his stage name Nas, is an American rapper, record producer, actor and entrepreneur.
The Nasty Boys, sometimes referred to incorrectly as the Nasty Boyz, are a fictional group of supervillain mutants appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is an American nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights.
Cornell Iral Haynes Jr. (born November 2, 1974), known professionally as Nelly, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, entrepreneur, investor, and occasional actor from St. Louis, Missouri.
Netflix, Inc. is an American over-the-top media services provider, headquartered in Los Gatos, California.
New wave is a genre of rock music popular in the late 1970s and the 1980s with ties to mid-1970s punk rock.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York City blackout of 1977 was an electricity blackout that affected most of New York City on July 13–14, 1977.
The New York City Breakers are an original B-boy group pioneering the birth of hip-hop in early 1980s that was established in the Bronx borough of New York City.
Onika Tanya Maraj (born December 8, 1982), known professionally as Nicki Minaj, is a Trinidadian-born American rapper, singer, songwriter, model, and actress.
Nigga is a colloquial term used in African-American Vernacular English that began as an eye dialect form of the word nigger, an ethnic slur against black people.
Niggaz4Life (also known as Efil4zaggin) is the second and final studio album by gangsta rap group N.W.A, released in May 28, 1991.
Nile Gregory Rodgers Jr. (born September 19, 1952) is an American record producer, songwriter, musician, composer, arranger and guitarist.
North Carolina Central University (NCCU), also known as simply Central, is a public historically black university in the University of North Carolina system, located in Durham, North Carolina, offering programs at the baccalaureate, master’s, professional and doctoral levels.
"Nouveau riche" (French: 'new rich') is a term, usually derogatory, to describe those whose wealth has been acquired within their own generation, rather than by familial inheritance.
"Nunk" (also known as "Nunk (New Wave Funk)") the first single by the group Warp 9, released on Prism Records in 1982, was written and produced by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher.
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.
October is a peer-reviewed academic journal specializing in contemporary art, criticism, and theory, published by MIT Press.
Old-school hip hop (also spelled old skool) is a term describes the earliest commercially recorded hip hop music.
Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.
Orlando Patterson (born 5 June 1940) is a Jamaican-born American historical and cultural sociologist known for his work regarding issues of race in the United States, as well as the sociology of development.
In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English, from Latin: 'obstinate') is a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in the same musical voice, frequently at the same pitch.
"Otis" is a song by American hip hop artists Kanye West and Jay-Z, from their first collaborative album Watch the Throne (2011).
Otis Ray Redding Jr. (September 9, 1941 – December 10, 1967) was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, arranger, and talent scout.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.
Party Music is the fourth studio album by The Coup, an alternative hip hop group based in Oakland, California.
Paul Gilroy FBA (born 16 February 1956) is a Professor of American and English Literature at King's College London.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Perseus Books Group was an American publishing company founded in 1996 by investor Frank Pearl.
Peter O. Philips (born June 21, 1970), better known by his stage name Pete Rock, is an American record producer, DJ and rapper.
Pete Rock & CL Smooth are a hip-hop duo from Mount Vernon, New York.
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
Armando Christian Pérez (born January 15, 1981), known by the stage name Pitbull (also known as Mr. Worldwide), is an American rapper.
A variable speed pitch control (or vari-speed) is a control on an audio device such as a turntable, tape recorder, or CD player that allows the operator to deviate from a standard speed (such as 33⅓, 45 or even 78 rpm on a turntable).
"Planet Rock" (also known as 'Don't Stop... Planet Rock') is a 1982 song by Afrika Bambaataa & the Soulsonic Force.
Planet Rock: The Album is an old school hip hop album by Afrika Bambaataa & Soulsonic Force, released in 1986 as a collection of previous singles.
Pocket Books is a division of Simon & Schuster that primarily publishes paperback books.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
The TASCAM Portastudio was the world's first four-track recorder based on a standard compact audio cassette tape.
A "poseur" (or "poser") is someone who "poses for effect, or behaves affectedly", who "affects a particular attitude, character or manner to impress others", or who pretends to belong to a particular group.
Austin Richard Post (born July 4, 1995), known professionally as Post Malone, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter and record producer.
Pro Tools is a digital audio workstation developed and released by Avid Technology for Microsoft Windows and macOS which can be used for a wide range of sound recording and sound production purposes.
Product placement, also known as embedded marketing, is a marketing technique in which references to specific brands or products are incorporated into another work, such as a film or television program, with specific promotional intent.
Profanity is socially offensive language, which may also be called swear words, curse words, cuss words, bad language, strong language, offensive language, crude language, coarse language, foul language, bad words, oaths, blasphemous language, vulgar language, lewd language, choice words, or expletives.
A public address system (PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment.
Public Enemy is an American hip hop group consisting of Chuck D, Flavor Flav, Professor Griff, Khari Wynn, DJ Lord, and the S1W group.
"Put Your Hands Where My Eyes Could See" is a Hip hop song recorded by American rapper Busta Rhymes.
Dana Elaine Owens (born March 18, 1970), known professionally as Queen Latifah, is an American rapper, songwriter, singer, actress, and producer.
Queer is an umbrella term for sexual and gender minorities who are not heterosexual or cisgender.
Quincy Delight Jones Jr. (born March 14, 1933), also known as "Q", is an American musician and record producer.
Race Rebels: Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class is a 1994 non-fiction book by American writer Robin D. G. Kelley.
Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race.
Radio Radio is a Canadian electro hip-hop band formed in 2007 from Clare, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Ragtime – also spelled rag-time or rag time – is a musical style that enjoyed its peak popularity between 1895 and 1918.
Rahzel Manely Brown is an American beatboxer and rapper, formerly a member of The Roots.
Ralph Lauren (born Ralph Lifshitz; October 14, 1939) is an American fashion designer, philanthropist, and business executive, best known for the Ralph Lauren Corporation, a global multibillion-dollar enterprise.
Rammellzee (stylized RAMM:ΣLL:ZΣΣ, pronounced "Ram: Ell: Zee"; late 1960 – June 27, 2010) was a visual artist, gothic futurist "graffiti writer", painter, performance artist, hip hop musician, art theoretician, and sculptor from New York City.
"Rapper's Delight" is a 1979 hip hop track by the Sugarhill Gang and produced by Sylvia Robinson.
Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.
"Rapture" is a song by the American pop rock band Blondie from their fifth studio album, Autoamerican (1980).
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
A record producer or track producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album.
A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording, mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds.
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.
Rhythm and blues, commonly abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s.
William Leonard Roberts II (born January 28, 1976), known professionally by his stage name Rick Ross, is an American rapper and entrepreneur.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
Rock Steady Crew is an American breaking and hip hop group which has become a franchise name for multiple groups in other locations.
Rockism is the belief in the superiority of certain rock music values, which often results in discrimination and prejudice against other forms of popular music.
Roger Joseph Ebert (June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American film critic, historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author.
The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer is a drum machine introduced by the Roland Corporation in 1980 and discontinued in 1983.
Ronald Savage (born 1965) is an American entrepreneur, hip hop artist, author, and activist.
Rough Guides Ltd is a British travel guidebook and reference publisher, since November 2017 owned by APA Publications.
Run-DMC was an American hip hop group from Hollis, Queens, New York, founded in 1981 by Joseph Simmons, Darryl McDaniels, and Jason Mizell.
Russell Wendell Simmons (born October 4, 1957) is an American entrepreneur, record producer, and author.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Salt-N-Pepa (also stylized as Salt 'N' Pepa, Salt 'N Pepa) are an American hip-hop/rap trio from New York City, New York.
In music, sampling is the act of taking a portion, or sample, of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or a sound recording in a different song or piece.
In vocal jazz, scat singing is vocal improvisation with wordless vocables, nonsense syllables or without words at all.
Jesse Bonds Weaver, Jr. (born June 22, 1962), better known by the stage name Schoolly D (sometimes spelled Schooly D), is an American rapper from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Scott Monroe Sterling (March 2, 1962 – August 27, 1987), known by the stage name DJ Scott La Rock, was an American hip hop disc jockey (DJ) and music producer from the Bronx borough of New York City.
Scratch was a magazine about the art of creating hip-hop.
Scratching, sometimes referred to as scrubbing, is a DJ and turntablist technique of moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable to produce percussive or rhythmic sounds.
The Screwed Up Click (or S.U.C.) is an American hip hop collective based out of Houston, Texas, that was led by DJ Screw.
Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969), also known by his stage names Puff Daddy, Puffy, P. Diddy, Diddy, Love and Brother Love is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, actor, record producer, and entrepreneur.
Richard "Richie" Mirando, known as Seen UA (born 1961) is an American graffiti artist.
Serpent's Tail is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Pete Ayrton.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexual objectification is the act of treating a person as a mere object of sexual desire.
A shill, also called a plant or a stooge, is a person who publicly helps or gives credibility to a person or organization without disclosing that they have a close relationship with the person or organization.
(born 1975), better known by his stage name Shing02, is a Japanese American hip hop recording artist, record producer, activist and investor.
Singer-songwriters are musicians who write, compose, and perform their own musical material, including lyrics and melodies.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
Michele Sherman (born March 23, 1986) better known by her stage name Siya is an American hip hop recording artist.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Richard Martin Lloyd Walters (born January 14, 1965); better known as Slick Rick, Rick The Ruler and MC Ricky D, is a British-born American rapper.
Calvin Cordozar Broadus Jr. (born October 20, 1971), known professionally as Snoop Dogg, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer, television personality and actor.
Soul music (often referred to simply as soul) is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Soulsonic Force (also referred to as Afrika Bambaataa & Soulsonic Force) was an American electro-funk and hip hop ensemble led by Afrika Bambaataa who helped establish hip-hop in the early 1980s with songs such as "Planet Rock".
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
SoundCloud is an online audio distribution platform based in Berlin, Germany that enables its users to upload, promote, and share their originally-created audio.
The South Bronx is an area of the New York City borough of the Bronx.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Spanglish (a portmanteau of the words "Spanish" and "English") is a name sometimes given to various contact dialects, pidgins, or creole languages that result from interaction between Spanish and English used by people who speak both languages or parts of both languages, mainly in the United States.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spoken word is a performance art that is word based.
Spotify Technology SA is a Swedish entertainment company founded by Daniel Ek and Martin Lorentzon.
Sprite is a colorless, caffeine-free, lemon- and lime-flavored soft drink created by The Coca-Cola Company.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Steven Hager (born May 25, 1951, Illinois) is an American writer, journalist, filmmaker, and counterculture and cannabis rights activist.
Straight Outta Compton is the debut studio album by American hip hop group N.W.A, released August 8, 1988, on group member Eazy-E's record label Ruthless Records.
Streetwear is a style of street fashion rooted in Californian surf and skate culture.
Style Wars is an American 1983 documentary film on hip hop culture and its American roots, directed by Tony Silver and produced in collaboration with Henry Chalfant.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.
Subway Art is a collaborative book by Martha Cooper and Henry Chalfant, which documents the early history of New York City's graffiti movement.
Sun Ra (born Herman Poole Blount, legal name Le Sony'r Ra; May 22, 1914 – May 30, 1993) was an American jazz composer, bandleader, piano and synthesizer player, and poet known for his experimental music, "cosmic" philosophy, prolific output, and theatrical performances.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Faheem Rashad Najm (born September 30, 1985), better known by his stage name T-Pain, is an American singer, rapper, songwriter, and record producer.
TAKI 183 is the "tag" of a Greek graffiti writer who was active during the late 1960s and early 1970s in New York City.
Talib Kweli Greene (born October 3, 1975) is an American hip hop recording artist, entrepreneur, and social activist.
Tap dance is a form of dance characterized by using the sounds of tap shoes striking the floor as a form of percussion.
Taylor Alison Swift (born December 13, 1989) is an American singer-songwriter.
Technics SL-1200 is a series of direct-drive turntables originally manufactured from October 1972 until 2010, and resumed in 2016, by Matsushita under the brand name of Technics.
TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".
Temple University Press is a university press founded in 1969 that is part of Temple University (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
"The Breaks" is a 1980 single by Kurtis Blow from his self-titled debut album.
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York.
The Cold Crush Brothers are an American hip hop group that formed in 1978 in the Bronx, New York City, New York.
The Coup is an American hip hop band from Oakland, California.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Fat Boys are an American hip hop trio from Brooklyn, New York City, who emerged in the early 1980s.
The Get Down is an American musical drama television series created by Baz Luhrmann and Stephen Adly Guirgis.
The Isley Brothers are an American musical group originally from Cincinnati, Ohio, that started as a vocal trio consisting of brothers O'Kelly Isley, Jr., Rudolph Isley and Ronald Isley.
The Message is the debut studio album of American hip hop group Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, released in October 1982 by Sugar Hill Records.
"The Message" is a song by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five.
The Roots is an American hip hop band, formed in 1987 by Tariq "Black Thought" Trotter and Ahmir "Questlove" Thompson in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
The Source is a United States-based monthly full-color magazine covering hip-hop music, politics, and culture, founded in 1988.
The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop group.
The Terminator is a 1984 American science-fiction action film directed by James Cameron.
The Village Voice is an American news and culture paper, known for being the country's first alternative newsweekly.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Three Rivers Press is the trade paperback imprint of the Crown Publishing Group, a division of Random House.
Thomas Jacob "Tommy" Hilfiger (born March 24, 1951) is an American fashion designer best known for founding the lifestyle brand Tommy Hilfiger Corporation in 1985.
Joseph Anthony Hernandez (born July 2, 1969), professionally known as Tony Touch, is an American hip hop break dancer, Singer-songwriter, Producer and DJ of Puerto Rican descent.
TRACY 168 (born Michael Tracy in 1958) is an American graffiti artist.
Transphobia is a range of negative attitudes, feelings or actions toward transgender or transsexual people, or toward transsexuality.
"Try a Little Tenderness" is a song written by Jimmy Campbell, Reg Connelly, and Harry M. Woods.
Tumelo Kepadisa (born 2 May 1981), simply known as Tuks or Tuks Senganga is a South African Motswako rapper born in Mafikeng, in the former homeland of the Bophuthatswana.
Tumi Molekane (born 16 August 1981) is a South African rapper and poet.
Turntablism is the art of manipulating sounds and creating new music, sound effects, mixes and other creative sounds and beats, typically by using two or more turntables and a cross fader-equipped DJ mixer.
Underground music comprises musical genres beyond mainstream culture.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (in case citations, 11th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The Universal Zulu Nation is an international hip hop awareness group formed and formerly headed by hip hop artist Afrika Bambaataa.
The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, U of M, or The U) is a private, nonsectarian research university in Coral Gables, Florida, United States.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
The University Press of Kansas is a publisher located in Lawrence, KS that represents the six state universities in the US state of Kansas: Emporia State University, Fort Hays State University, Kansas State University (K-State), Pittsburg State University, the University of Kansas (KU), and Wichita State University.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Vanity Fair is a magazine of popular culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast in the United States.
VH1 (originally an initialism of Video Hits One) is an American cable and satellite television network based in New York City operated by the Viacom Global Entertainment Group, a unit of Viacom Media Networks, a division of Viacom.
Vibe is an American music and entertainment magazine founded by producer Quincy Jones.
Video Soul is a 2–hour long American music video program that originally aired on The Black Entertainment Network (BET) from June 26, 1981 to September 1996.
Vocal percussion is the art of creating sounds with one's mouth that approximate, imitate, or otherwise serve the same purpose as a percussion instrument, whether in a group of singers, an instrumental ensemble, or solo.
Warner Media, LLC (formerly Time Warner Inc.), doing business as WarnerMedia, is an American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered in New York City and owned by AT&T.
Warp 9, was a science-fiction-themed electro-funk and hip hop trio, best known for its influential singles "Nunk," "Light Years Away," and "Beat Wave," which ranked among the most iconic groups of the electro hip hop era.
Wayne Mitchell (born 1980), better known by his stage name Wayne Marshall, is a reggae and dancehall artist from Jamaica.
Wesleyan University Press is a university press that is part of Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut.
The West Bronx is a region in the New York City borough of the Bronx.
West Coast hip hop is a hip hop music regional genre that encompasses any artists or music that originate in the West Coast region of the United States.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
Whodini is a hip hop group that was formed in 1981.
Wild Style is an American 1983 hip hop film produced by Charlie Ahearn.
Wildstyle is a complicated and intricate form of graffiti.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
The World B-Boy Series is a b-boy championship series established in 2013 that connects nine different renowned solo international b-boy competitions worldwide.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
WorldStarHipHop is a content-aggregating video blog.
Xlibris is a self-publishingRachel Donadio: The New York Times, April 27, 2008 and on-demand printing services provider, founded in 1997 and based in Bloomington, Indiana.
XXL is an American hip hop magazine, published by Townsquare Media, founded in 1997.
Yo! MTV Raps is a two-hour American television music video program, which ran from August 1988 to August 1995.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
ZEPHYR, born Andrew Witten, is a graffiti artist, lecturer and author from New York City.
The 12-inch single (often simply called 12″) is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to typical LPs.
The 2 Live Crew is an American hip-hop group from Miami, Florida.
Curtis James Jackson III (born July 6, 1975), known professionally as 50 Cent, is an American rapper, actor, businessman, and investor.
"6 in the Mornin'" is a song by Ice-T. Released in 1986 as the B-side of "Dog 'N the Wax (Ya Don't Quit-Part II)", the song is considered to be one of the defining tracks of the gangsta rap genre.
75 Ark is a hip hop record label based in San Francisco, California.
Patrick Denard Douthit (born January 15, 1975), better known as 9th Wonder, is a hip hop record producer, record executive, DJ, lecturer, and rapper from Midway, North Carolina, U.S. He began his career as the main producer for the group Little Brother in Durham, North Carolina, and has also worked with Mary J. Blige, Jean Grae, Wale, Jay-Z, Murs, Drake, Buckshot, Chris Brown, Destiny's Child, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar, Erykah Badu, Ludacris, Mac Miller, David Banner, Lecrae, Jill Scott, Big Boi, Rapsody, and Anderson.Paak.
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