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Index Hippocampus

The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. [1]

203 relations: Action potential, Aerobic exercise, Allocortex, Alzheimer's disease, Amnesia, Amun, Amygdala, Ancient Greek, Animal testing on rodents, Anterior nuclei of thalamus, Anterograde amnesia, Anterograde tracing, Anxiety, Approach-avoidance conflict, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autobiographical memory, Basal ganglia, Basket cell, Bombyx mori, Boundary cell, Brain, Brainstem, Brenda Milner, Brown rat, Calcar avis, Cell surface receptor, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral hemisphere, Cholinergic, Chronic stress, Cingulate cortex, Cognition, Cognitive map, Cushing's syndrome, Cytotoxicity, Dementia, Dendritic spine, Dentate gyrus, Depolarization, Diffusion MRI, Dissection, Donald O. Hebb, Dopamine, Echidna, Edward C. Tolman, Electroencephalography, Encephalitis, Entorhinal cortex, Epileptic seizure, Episodic memory, ..., Excitatory postsynaptic potential, Explicit memory, Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, Fornix (neuroanatomy), Frequency band, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified mouse, Globus pallidus, Glucocorticoid receptor, Glutamate receptor, Glutamic acid, Granule cell, Great Hippocampus Question, Greek language, Grey matter, Grid cell, Hackney carriage, Hagfish, Head direction cells, Hebbian theory, Henry Molaison, Hertz, Hippocampal formation, Hippocampal sclerosis, Hippocampus (journal), Hippocampus (mythology), Hippocampus proper, Hippopotamus, Homology (biology), House mouse, Human, Human evolution, Hypothalamus, Hypoxia (medical), Inhibitory control, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Interneuron, Isbrand van Diemerbroeck, Ischemia, Jacob B. Winslow, Jeffrey Alan Gray, Johann Christoph Andreas Mayer, John O'Keefe (neuroscientist), Julius Caesar Aranzi, Karl Friedrich Burdach, Laboratory rat, Lamprey, Large irregular activity, Lateral ventricles, Latin, Limbic system, List of regions in the human brain, List of thalamic nuclei, Locus coeruleus, Long-term memory, Long-term potentiation, Lynn Nadel, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Mammillary body, Management of drug-resistant epilepsy, Marmoset, Medial septal nucleus, Membrane potential, Memory, Mental mapping, Model organism, Monotreme, Mossy fiber (hippocampus), Mushroom bodies, Neocortex, Neural circuit, Neural ensemble, Neurogenesis, Neuroimaging, Neuron, Neurophysiology, Neuroscience, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, NMDA receptor, Nomina Anatomica, Norepinephrine, Nucleus reuniens, Old age, Olfaction, Olfactory bulb, Olfactory system, Orientation (mental), Oxford University Press, Pallium (neuroanatomy), Parahippocampal gyrus, Parasubiculum, Paul D. MacLean, Perforant path, Perirhinal cortex, Pes hippocampi, Phase precession, Place cell, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prefrontal cortex, Primate, Procedural memory, Psychology, Purposive behaviorism, Pyramidal cell, Radial arm maze, Ramstein air show disaster, Randomized controlled trial, Raphe nuclei, Rapid eye movement sleep, Retrograde amnesia, Reward system, Richard Owen, Rodent, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Schaffer collateral, Schizophrenia, Scientific modelling, Seahorse, Semantic memory, Septal nuclei, Serotonin, Sharp waves and ripples, Short-term memory, Skepticism, Slow-wave sleep, Soma (biology), Spatial memory, Speed cells, Springer Science+Business Media, Stratum lucidum of hippocampus, Subiculum, Symmetry in biology, Synaptic plasticity, Teleost, Temporal lobe, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Terje Lømo, Thalamus, Theta wave, Thomas Henry Huxley, Timothy Bliss, Transient global amnesia, Trisynaptic circuit, Ventricular system, Vertebrate, Vietnam War, Virtual reality, William Beecher Scoville, Working memory. Expand index (153 more) »

Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.

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The allocortex (also known as heterogenetic cortex) is one of the two types of cerebral cortex, the other being the neocortex.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animal testing on rodents

Rodents are commonly used in animal testing, particularly mice and rats, but also guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils and others.

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Anterior nuclei of thalamus

The anterior nuclei of thalamus (or anterior nuclear group) are a collection of nuclei at the rostral end of the dorsal thalamus.

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Anterograde amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Anterograde tracing

In neuroscience, anterograde tracing is a research method which is used to trace axonal projections from their source (the cell body or soma) to their point of termination (the synapse).

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Approach-avoidance conflict

Approach-avoidance conflicts as elements of stress were first introduced by psychologist Kurt Lewin, one of the founders of modern social psychology.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Autobiographical memory

Autobiographical memory is a memory system consisting of episodes recollected from an individual's life, based on a combination of episodic (personal experiences and specific objects, people and events experienced at particular time and place) and semantic (general knowledge and facts about the world) memory.

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Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.

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Basket cell

Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the brain, found throughout different regions of the cortex and cerebellum.

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Bombyx mori

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").

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Boundary cell

Boundary cells (also known as border cells or boundary vector cells) are neurons found in the hippocampal formation that respond to the presence of an environmental boundary at a particular distance and direction from an animal.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Brenda Milner

Brenda Milner, (born July 15, 1918) is a British-Canadian neuropsychologist who has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology, sometimes referred to as "the founder of neuropsychology".

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Brown rat

The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), also known as the common rat, street rat, sewer rat, Hanover rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat, Parisian rat or wharf rat, is one of the best known and most common rats.

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Calcar avis

The calcar avis, previously known as the hippocampus minor, is an involution of the wall of the lateral ventricle's posterior cornu produced by the calcarine fissure.

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Cell surface receptor

Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebral hemisphere

The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.

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In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.

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Chronic stress

Chronic stress is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period of time in which an individual perceives he or she has little or no control.

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Cingulate cortex

The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive map

A cognitive map (sometimes called a mental map or mental model) is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment.

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Cushing's syndrome

Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Dendritic spine

A dendritic spine (or spine) is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single axon at the synapse.

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Dentate gyrus

The dentate gyrus is part of a brain region known as the hippocampus (part of the hippocampal formation).

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In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.

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Diffusion MRI

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI or DW-MRI) is the use of specific MRI sequences as well as software that generates images from the resulting data, that uses the diffusion of water molecules to generate contrast in MR images.

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Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.

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Donald O. Hebb

Donald Olding Hebb FRS (July 22, 1904 – August 20, 1985) was a Canadian psychologist who was influential in the area of neuropsychology, where he sought to understand how the function of neurons contributed to psychological processes such as learning.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Echidnas, sometimes known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals.

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Edward C. Tolman

Edward Chace Tolman (April 14, 1886 – November 19, 1959) was an American psychologist.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.

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Entorhinal cortex

The entorhinal cortex (EC) (ento.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Episodic memory

Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.

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Excitatory postsynaptic potential

In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.

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Explicit memory

Explicit memory (or declarative memory) is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.

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Félix Vicq-d'Azyr

Félix Vicq d'Azyr (23 April 1748 – 20 June 1794) was a French physician and anatomist, the originator of comparative anatomy and discoverer of the theory of homology in biology.

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Fornix (neuroanatomy)

The fornix (arch) is a C-shaped bundle of nerve fibers in the brain that acts as the major output tract of the hippocampus.

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Frequency band

A frequency band is an interval in the frequency domain, delimited by a lower frequency and an upper frequency.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetically modified mouse

A genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) is a mouse that has had its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering techniques.

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Globus pallidus

The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.

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Glucocorticoid receptor

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.

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Glutamate receptor

Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Granule cell

The name granule cell has been used by anatomists for a number of different types of neuron whose only common feature is that they all have very small cell bodies.

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Great Hippocampus Question

The Great Hippocampus Question was a 19th-century scientific controversy about the anatomy of apes and human uniqueness.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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Grid cell

A grid cell is a type of neuron in the brains of many species that allows them to understand their position in space.

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Hackney carriage

A hackney or hackney carriage (also called a cab, black cab, hack or London taxi) is a carriage or automobile for hire.

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Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).

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Head direction cells

Head direction (HD) cells are neurons found in a number of brain regions that increase their firing rates above baseline levels only when the animal's head points in a specific direction.

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Hebbian theory

In neuroscience, Hebbian theory is a theory that proposes an explanation for the adaptation of neurons in the brain during the learning process.

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Henry Molaison

Henry Gustav Molaison (February 26, 1926 – December 2, 2008), known widely as H.M., was an American memory disorder patient who had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to surgically resect the anterior two thirds of his hippocampi, parahippocampal cortices, entorhinal cortices, piriform cortices, and amygdalae in an attempt to cure his epilepsy.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Hippocampal formation

The hippocampal formation is a compound structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain.

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Hippocampal sclerosis

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a neuropathological condition with severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA-1 (Cornu Ammonis area 1) and subiculum of the hippocampus.

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Hippocampus (journal)

Hippocampus is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1991.

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Hippocampus (mythology)

The hippocampus or hippocamp, also hippokampoi (plural: hippocampi or hippocamps; ἱππόκαμπος, from ἵππος, "horse" and κάμπος, "sea monster" at reference.com; compare the nameless monster Campe.), often called a sea-horse in English, is a mythological creature shared by PhoenicianIsrael Antiquities Authority, (retrieved Jan 10 2013), Etruscan, and Greek mythology, though its name has a Greek origin.

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Hippocampus proper

The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields.

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The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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House mouse

The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human evolution

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Inhibitory control

Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process that permits an individual to inhibit their impulses and natural, habitual, or dominant behavioral responses to stimuli (prepotent responses) in order to select a more appropriate behavior that is consistent with completing their goals.

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Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.

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An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.

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Isbrand van Diemerbroeck

Isbrand van Diemerbroeck (also Ijsbrand or Ysbrand) (13 December 1609 – 16 November 1674) was a Dutch physician, anatomist, and professor.

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Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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Jacob B. Winslow

Jacob Benignus Winsløw, also known as Jacques-Bénigne Winslow (17 April 1669 – 3 April 1760), was a Danish-born French anatomist.

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Jeffrey Alan Gray

Jeffrey Alan Gray (26 May 1934 – 30 April 2004) was a British psychologist.

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Johann Christoph Andreas Mayer

Johann Christophe Andreas Mayer was a German anatomist born on December 8, 1747 and who died in November 1801 at the age of 54.

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John O'Keefe (neuroscientist)

John O'Keefe, (born November 18, 1939) is an American-British neuroscientist and a professor at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour and the Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at University College London.

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Julius Caesar Aranzi

Julius Caesar Aranzi (Giulio Cesare Aranzio, Arantius) (1529/1530 – April 7, 1589) was a leading figure in the history of the science of human anatomy.

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Karl Friedrich Burdach

Karl Friedrich Burdach (12 June 1776 – 16 July 1847) was a German physiologist.

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Laboratory rat

A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific research.

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Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.

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Large irregular activity

Large (amplitude) irregular activity (LIA), refers to one of two local field states that have been observed in the hippocampus.

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Lateral ventricles

The lateral ventricles are the two largest cavities of the ventricular system of the human brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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List of regions in the human brain

The human brain anatomical regions are ordered following standard neuroanatomy hierarchies.

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List of thalamic nuclei

This traditional list does not accord strictly with human thalamic anatomy.

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Locus coeruleus

The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

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Long-term memory

Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

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Long-term potentiation

In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.

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Lynn Nadel

Lynn Nadel (born 12 November 1942) is the Regents' Professor of psychology at the University of Arizona.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Mammillary body

The mammillary bodies are a pair of small round bodies, located on the undersurface of the brain that, as part of the diencephalon, form part of the limbic system.

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Management of drug-resistant epilepsy

Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), also known as refractory epilepsy or pharmacoresistant epilepsy, is defined as failure of adequate trials of two tolerated and appropriately chosen and used antiepileptic drugs (AED schedules) (whether as monotherapies or in combination) to achieve sustained seizure freedom.

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The marmosets,, also known as zaris, are twenty-two New World monkey species of the genera Callithrix, Cebuella, Callibella and Mico.

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Medial septal nucleus

The medial septal nucleus is one of the septal nuclei.

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Membrane potential

The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.

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Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Mental mapping

In behavioral geography, a mental map is a person's point-of-view perception of their area of interaction.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).

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Mossy fiber (hippocampus)

In the hippocampus, the mossy fiber pathway consists of unmyelinated axons projecting from granule cells in the dentate gyrus that terminate on modulatory hilar mossy cells and in Cornu Ammonis area 3 (CA3), a region involved in encoding short-term memory.

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Mushroom bodies

The mushroom bodies or corpora pedunculata are a pair of structures in the brain of insects, other arthropods, and some annelids (notably the ragworm).

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The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.

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Neural circuit

A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.

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Neural ensemble

A neural ensemble is a population of nervous system cells (or cultured neurons) involved in a particular neural computation.

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Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.

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Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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NMDA receptor

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.

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Nomina Anatomica

Nomina Anatomica (NA) was the international standard on human anatomic terminology from 1955 until it was replaced by Terminologia Anatomica in 1998.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Nucleus reuniens

The nucleus reuniens is a component of the thalamic midline nuclear group.

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Old age

Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.

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Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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Olfactory bulb

The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.

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Olfactory system

The olfactory system, or sense of smell, is the part of the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction).

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Orientation (mental)

Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pallium (neuroanatomy)

In neuroanatomy, pallium refers to the layers of grey and white matter that cover the upper surface of the cerebrum in vertebrates.

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Parahippocampal gyrus

The parahippocampal gyrus (Syn. hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus and is part of the limbic system.

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In the rodent, the parasubiculum is a retrohippocampal isocortical structure, and a major component of the subicular complex.

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Paul D. MacLean

Paul Donald MacLean (May 1, 1913 – December 26, 2007) was an American physician and neuroscientist who made significant contributions in the fields of physiology, psychiatry, and brain research through his work at Yale Medical School and the National Institute of Mental Health.

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Perforant path

In the brain, the perforant path or perforant pathway, provides a connectional route from the entorhinal cortex to all fields of the hippocampal formation, including the dentate gyrus, all CA fields (including CA1), and the subiculum.

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Perirhinal cortex

The Perirhinal cortex is a cortical region in the medial temporal lobe that is made up of Brodmann areas 35 and 36.

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Pes hippocampi

The lower end of the hippocampus is enlarged, and presents two or three rounded elevations or digitations which give it a paw-like appearance, and hence it is named the pes hippocampi (pes meaning foot) or pes hippocampi major.

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Phase precession

Phase precession is a neurophysiological process in which the firing of action potentials by individual neurons is timed in relation to the phase of neural oscillations in the surrounding cells.

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Place cell

A place cell is a type of pyramidal neuron within the hippocampus that becomes active when an animal enters a particular place in its environment; this place is known as the place field.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Procedural memory

Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Purposive behaviorism

Purposive behaviorism is a branch of psychology that was introduced by Edward Tolman.

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Pyramidal cell

Pyramidal cells, or (pyramidal neurons), are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.

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Radial arm maze

The radial arm maze was designed by Olton and Samuelson in 1976 to measure spatial learning and memory in rats.

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Ramstein air show disaster

The Ramstein air show disaster occurred on Sunday, 28 August 1988 during the Flugtag '88 airshow at the United States's Ramstein Air Base near Kaiserslautern, West Germany.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

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Raphe nuclei

The raphe nuclei (ῥαφή "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem.

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Rapid eye movement sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.

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Retrograde amnesia

Retrograde amnesia (RA) is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.

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Reward system

The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

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Richard Owen

Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.

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Schaffer collateral

Schaffer collaterals are axon collaterals given off by CA3 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Scientific modelling

Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.

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Seahorse (also written sea-horse and sea horse) is the name given to 54 species of small marine fishes in the genus Hippocampus.

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Semantic memory

Semantic memory is one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved).

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Septal nuclei

The septal nuclei (medial olfactory area) are a set of structures that lie below the rostrum of the corpus callosum, anterior to the lamina terminalis (the layer of gray matter in the brain connecting the optic chiasma and the anterior commissure where the latter becomes continuous with the rostral lamina).

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Sharp waves and ripples

Sharp waves and ripples (SWRs) are oscillatory patterns in the mammalian brain hippocampus seen on an EEG during immobility and sleep.

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Short-term memory

Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.

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Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

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Slow-wave sleep

Slow-wave sleep (SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, consists of stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep.

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Soma (biology)

The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.

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Spatial memory

In cognitive psychology and neuroscience, spatial memory is that part of the memory responsible for the recording of information about one's environment and spatial orientation.

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Speed cells

Speed cells are present in the medial Entorhinal cortex.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stratum lucidum of hippocampus

The stratum lucidum of the hippocampus is also a layer of the hippocampus between the stratum pyramidale and the stratum radiatum.

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The subiculum (Latin for "support") is the most inferior component of the hippocampal formation.

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Symmetry in biology

Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.

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Synaptic plasticity

In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.

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The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Temporal lobe epilepsy

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.

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Terje Lømo

Terje Lømo (born 3 January 1935) is a Norwegian physiologist who specialized in neuroscience.

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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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Theta wave

Theta waves generate the theta rhythm, a neural oscillatory pattern that can be seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG), recorded either from inside the brain or from electrodes attached to the scalp.

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Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.

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Timothy Bliss

Timothy Vivian Pelham Bliss FRS (born 27 July 1940) is a British neuroscientist.

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Transient global amnesia

Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological disorder whose key defining characteristic is a temporary but almost total disruption of short-term memory with a range of problems accessing older memories.

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Trisynaptic circuit

The trisynaptic circuit, or trisynaptic loop is a relay of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

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Ventricular system

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Virtual reality

Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.

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William Beecher Scoville

William Beecher Scoville (January 13, 1906 – February 25, 1984) was a neurosurgeon at Hartford Hospital.

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Working memory

Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.

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Ammon's horn, Ammon's horns, Amun's horn, Amun's horns, Cornu ammonis, Evolution of the Hippocampus, Evolution of the hippocampus, Hippocampal, Hippocampal region, Hippocampus (anatomy), Hippocampus major.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampus

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