79 relations: Acid dissociation constant, Actinobacteria, Adenosine triphosphate, Albrecht Kossel, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ammonium, Antioxidant, Aromaticity, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, Biomarker (medicine), Biosynthesis, Carbon monoxide, Carbonic anhydrase, Carboxylate, Carboxylic acid, Carnosine, Carnosinemia, Catalysis, Catalytic triad, Chemical shift, Cysteine, De novo synthesis, Diphthamide, Double bond, Electron transport chain, Enzyme, Ergothioneine, Essential amino acid, Formiminoglutamic acid, Genetic code, Heme, Hemoglobin, Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, Histamine, Histidine ammonia-lyase, Histidinemia, Histidinol dehydrogenase, Imidazole, Ion, Iron, Β-Alanine, Ligand, Lone pair, Metalloprotein, Methyltransferase, Mitochondrion, National Academy of Medicine, Neurospora crassa, ..., Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nucleophile, Paramagnetism, Pauly reaction, Pentose phosphate pathway, PH, Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, Physiological condition, Pi bond, Prokaryote, Protein, Protonation, Radical (chemistry), Resonance (chemistry), Ribose 5-phosphate, Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase, Serine, Side chain, Stacking (chemistry), Succinate dehydrogenase, Tautomer, Tetrahydrofolic acid, Threonine, Urocanic acid, Urocanic aciduria, Zinc, 3-Methylhistidine. Expand index (29 more) » « Shrink index
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (16 September 1853 – 5 July 1927) was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
In enzymology, an ATP phosphoribosyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-ATP and diphosphate, whereas its two products are ATP and 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.
In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).
A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), featuring the characteristic Imidazole-ring, is a dipeptide molecule, made up of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine.
Carnosinemia, also called carnosinase deficiency or aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase deficiency, is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of carnosinase', a dipeptidase (a type of enzyme that splits dipeptides into their two amino acid constituents).
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A catalytic triad is a set of three coordinated amino acids that can be found in the active site of some enzymes.
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the chemical shift is the resonant frequency of a nucleus relative to a standard in a magnetic field.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to recycling after partial degradation.
Diphthamide is a post-translationally modified histidine amino acid found in archaeal and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2).
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ergothioneine is a naturally occurring amino acid and is a thiourea derivative of histidine, containing a sulfur atom on the imidazole ring.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) is an intermediate in the metabolism of histidine.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
In chemistry, the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation describes the derivation of pH as a measure of acidity (using, the negative log of the acid dissociation constant) in biological and chemical systems.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Histidine ammonia-lyase (or histidase, or histidinase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HAL gene.
Histidinemia, also referred to as histidinuria, is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme histidase.
In enzymology, a histidinol dehydrogenase (HIS4) (HDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-histidinol and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are L-histidine, NADH, and H+.
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
β-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is at the β-position from the carboxylate group (i.e., two atoms away, see Figure 1).
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor.
Methyltransferases are a large group of enzymes that all methylate their substrates but can be split into several subclasses based on their structural features.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
The Pauly reaction is a chemical test used for detecting the presence of tyrosine or histidine in proteins.
The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a pentosephosphate.
Physiological condition or, more often "physiological conditions" is a term used in biology, biochemistry, and medicine.
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
Ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) is both a product and an intermediate of the pentose phosphate pathway.
Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase (or phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase or ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase) is an enzyme that converts ribose 5-phosphate into phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP).
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
In chemistry, pi stacking (also called π–π stacking) refers to attractive, noncovalent interactions between aromatic rings, since they contain pi bonds.
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.
Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.
Tetrahydrofolic acid, or tetrahydrofolate, is a folic acid derivative.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Urocanic acid is an intermediate in the catabolism of L-histidine.
Urocanic aciduria, also called urocanate hydratase deficiency or urocanase deficiency, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme urocanase.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) is a post-translationally modified amino acid which is excreted in human urine.