145 relations: Acid, Albert von Kölliker, Alexander Butlerov, Alkaline phosphatase, Anatomical pathology, Anatomy, Andrew Pritchard, Animal, Antibody, Arthur Ham, August Franz Josef Karl Mayer, Automated tissue image analysis, Autoradiograph, Base (chemistry), Benedict Stilling, Biology, Biomedical scientist, Blood cell, Camillo Golgi, Canada balsam, Cancer, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion molecule, Cell biology, Cell nucleus, Chromate and dichromate, Chromic acid, Classical compound, Complete circumferential peripheral and deep margin assessment, Confocal microscopy, Congo red, Connective tissue, Cooperative Human Tissue Network, Cryostat, Cytoarchitecture, Cytoplasm, Dark-field microscopy, Denaturation (biochemistry), Digital camera, Digital pathology, DNA replication, Dorland's medical reference works, Dye, Edwin Klebs, Electron microscope, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endothelium, Enzyme, Eosin, Epidermis (botany), ..., Epithelium, Epoxy, Ethanol, Extracellular matrix, Fast Green FCF, Fixation (histology), Fluorescence, Fluorescence microscope, Formaldehyde, Franz Eilhard Schulze, Franz Nissl, Frozen section procedure, Geoffrey H. Bourne, Germ cell, Glutaraldehyde, Golgi's method, Greek language, Gross anatomy, Ground tissue, Gum arabic, H&E stain, Haematoxylin, Heidenhain's AZAN trichrome stain, Histopathology, Historadiography, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, In situ hybridization, Iron overload, Isinglass, Italians, Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Jean Cruveilhier, Laser capture microdissection, Mallory's trichrome stain, Marcello Malpighi, Marie François Xavier Bichat, Masson's trichrome stain, Max Schultze, Medical Laboratory Assistant, Medicine, Meristem, Mesenchyme, Mesothelium, Methylene bridge, Micrometre, Microscope slide, Microscopy, Microtome, Mohs surgery, Monogenea, Morphology (biology), Multicellular organism, Muscle tissue, Nanometre, Neoplasm, Nervous tissue, Neuron, New Latin, Nobel Prize, Nucleic acid, Oil Red O, Oocyte, Optical microscope, Orcein, Organ (anatomy), Osmium tetroxide, Paraffin wax, Pathology, Periodic acid–Schiff stain, Phosphate-buffered saline, Placenta, Plant, Plant anatomy, Prussian blue, Rudolf Heidenhain, S phase, Safranin, Salomon Stricker, Sample (material), Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Silver stain, Spermatozoon, Staining, Stem cell, Thymidine, Tissue (biology), Tissue culture, Tolonium chloride, Uranyl acetate, Vascular tissue, Weigert's elastic stain, Wright's stain, Xylene, Zenker's fixative. Expand index (95 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Albert von Kölliker (born Rudolf Albert Kölliker; 6 July 18172 November 1905) was a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, and histologist.
Alexander Mikhaylovich Butlerov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Бу́тлеров; 15 September 1828 – 17 August 1886) was a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure (1857–1861), the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine (1859), the discoverer of formaldehyde (1859) and the discoverer of the formose reaction (1861).
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Andrew Pritchard FRSE (1804 –1882) was an English naturalist and natural history dealer who made significant improvements to microscopy and studied microscopic organisms.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Arthur Worth Ham (20 February 1902 – 6 September 1992) was a prominent Canadian histologist.
August Franz Josef Karl Mayer (2 November 1787 in Schwäbisch Gmünd – 9 November 1865 in Bonn) was a German anatomist and physiologist.
Automated tissue image analysis is a process by which computer-controlled automatic test equipment is used to evaluate tissue samples, using computations to derive quantitative measurements from an image to avoid subjective errors.
An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g., beta particles or gamma rays) from a distribution of a radioactive substance.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Benedikt Stilling (11 February 1810 – 28 January 1879) was a German anatomist and surgeon who was a native of Kirchhain.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A biomedical scientist is a scientist trained in biology, particularly in the context of medicine.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
Camillo Golgi (7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system.
Canada balsam, also called Canada turpentine or balsam of fir, is a turpentine made from the resin of the balsam fir tree (Abies balsamea) of boreal North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide.
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
CCPDMA is the acronym for "complete circumferential peripheral and deep margin assessment".
Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation.
Congo red is an organic compound, the sodium salt of 3,3′-(-4,4′-diyl)bis(4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid).
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
The Collaborative Human Tissue Network (the CHTN) was established in 1987 by the National Cancer Institute in response to an increase in the demand for high quality biospecimens for cancer research.
A cryostat (from cryo meaning cold and stat meaning stable) is a device used to maintain low cryogenic temperatures of samples or devices mounted within the cryostat.
Cytoarchitecture (Greek κύτος.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dark-field microscopy (dark-ground microscopy) describes microscopy methods, in both light and electron microscopy, which exclude the unscattered beam from the image.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
Digital pathology is an image-based information environment which is enabled by computer technology that allows for the management of information generated from a digital slide.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Dorland's is the brand name of a family of medical reference works (including dictionaries, spellers and word books, and spell-check software) in various media spanning printed books, CD-ROMs, and online content.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Theodor Albrecht Edwin Klebs (6 February 1834 – 23 October 1913) was a German-Swiss pathologist.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eosin is the name of several fluorescent acidic compounds which bind to and form salts with basic, or eosinophilic, compounds like proteins containing amino acid residues such as arginine and lysine, and stains them dark red or pink as a result of the actions of bromine on fluorescein.
The word'epidermis' is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Fast Green FCF, also called Food green 3, FD&C Green No.
In the fields of histology, pathology, and cell biology, fixation is the preservation of biological tissues from decay due to autolysis or putrefaction.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.
Franz Eilhard Schulze (22 March 1840 – 2 November 1921) was a German anatomist and zoologist born in Eldena, near Greifswald.
Franz Alexander Nissl (9 September 1860, Frankenthal – 11 August 1919, Munich) was a German psychiatrist and medical researcher.
The frozen section procedure is a pathological laboratory procedure to perform rapid microscopic analysis of a specimen.
Geoffrey Howard Bourne (17 November 1909 – 19 July 1988) was an Australian-American anatomist and primatologist.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
Glutaraldehyde, sold under the brandname Cidex and Glutaral among others, is a disinfectant and medication.
Golgi's method is a silver staining technique that is used to visualize nervous tissue under light microscopy.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the visible (macroscopic) level.
The ground tissue of plants includes all tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular.
Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree.
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.
Haematoxylin or hematoxylin, also called natural black 1 or C.I. 75290, is a compound extracted from the heartwood of the logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum).
Trichrome stains are staining methods in which three anionic dyes are used, in conjunction with either phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), or a mixture of these heteropolyacids.
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
Historadiography is a technique formerly utilized in the fields of histology and cellular biology to provide semiquantitative information regarding the density of a tissue sample.
Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acids strand (i.e., probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (in situ), or, if the tissue is small enough (e.g., plant seeds, Drosophila embryos), in the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells, and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs).
Iron overload (variously known as haemochromatosis, hemochromatosis, hemochromocytosis, Celtic curse, Irish illness, British gene, Scottish sickness and bronzing diabetes) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.
Isinglass is a substance obtained from the dried swim bladders of fish.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Jan Evangelista Purkyně (also written Johann Evangelist Purkinje) (17 or 18 December 1787 – 28 July 1869) was a Czech anatomist and physiologist.
Jean Cruveilhier (February 9, 1791 – March 7, 1874) was a French anatomist and pathologist.
Laser capture microdissection (LCM), also called microdissection, laser microdissection (LMD), or laser-assisted microdissection (LMD or LAM), is a method for isolating specific cells of interest from microscopic regions of tissue/cells/organisms (dissection on a microscopic scale with the help of a laser).
Mallory's trichrome stain is a stain utilized in histology to aid in revealing different macromolecules that make up the cell.
Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".
Marie François Xavier Bichat (14 November 1771 – 22 July 1802) was a French anatomist and pathologist, known as the father of histology.
Masson's trichrome is a three-colour staining protocol used in histology.
Schultze was born in Freiburg im Breisgau (Baden).
Medical Laboratory Assistants (MLAs) prepare, and in some cases process samples within a pathology laboratory.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Mesenchyme, in vertebrate embryology, is a type of connective tissue found mostly during the development of the embryo.
The mesothelium is a membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (thoracic cavity), peritoneum (abdominal cavity including the mesentery), mediastinum and pericardium (heart sac).
In organic chemistry, a methylene bridge, methylene spacer, or methanediyl group is any part of a molecule with formula --; namely, a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms and connected by single bonds to two other distinct atoms in the rest of the molecule.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A microscope slide is a thin flat piece of glass, typically 75 by 26 mm (3 by 1 inches) and about 1 mm thick, used to hold objects for examination under a microscope.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
A microtome (from the Greek mikros, meaning "small", and temnein, meaning "to cut") is a tool used to cut extremely thin slices of material, known as sections.
Mohs surgery, developed in 1938 by a general surgeon, Frederic E. Mohs, is microscopically controlled surgery used to treat common types of skin cancer.
Monogeneans are a group of ectoparasites commonly found on the skin, gills, or fins of fish.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Oil Red O (Solvent Red 27, Sudan Red 5B, C.I. 26125, C26H24N4O) is a lysochrome (fat-soluble dye) diazo dye used for staining of neutral triglycerides and lipids on frozen sections and some lipoproteins on paraffin sections.
An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Orcein, also archil, orchil, lacmus and C.I. Natural Red 28, are names for dyes extracted from several species of lichen, commonly known as "orchella weeds", found in various parts of the world.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Osmium tetroxide (also osmium(VIII) oxide) is the chemical compound with the formula OsO4.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides such as glycogen, and mucosubstances such as glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucins in tissues.
Phosphate-buffered saline (abbreviated PBS) is a buffer solution commonly used in biological research.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants.
Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts.
Rudolf Peter Heinrich Heidenhain (29 January 1834 – 13 October 1897) was a German physiologist born in Marienwerder, East Prussia (now Kwidzyn, Poland).
S phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase.
Safranin (also Safranin O or basic red 2) is a biological stain used in histology and cytology.
Salomon Stricker (1 January 1834, Waag-Neustadtl/Vágújhely/Nové Mesto nad Váhom) – 2 April 1898) was an Austrian pathologist and histologist born in Waag-Neustadtl, a town that is now located in Slovakia. He studied at the University of Vienna, and subsequently became a research assistant at the Institute of Physiology under Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke. Later he became head of the Institute of General and Experimental Pathology in Vienna. Stricker is remembered for his extensive studies in the fields of histology and experimental pathology, and is credited with making discoveries involving the diapedesis of erythrocytes and the contractility of vascular walls. He also made contributions in his research of cell division in vivo, on the histology of the cornea, and on the relationship of cells to the extracellular matrix. Among his written works is the "Handbuch der Lehre von den Geweben des Menschen und der Thiere", a two-volume textbook that contains Stricker's essays on histology, along with treatises from several other prominent physicians and scientists, such as Max Schultze, Wilhelm Kühne, Joseph von Gerlach, Sigmund Mayer, Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer, Theodor Meynert, Ewald Hering, et al. During its time, it was considered one of the greatest textbooks concerning histology. Stricker was also the author of a number of philosophical works. In his landmark "Interpretation of Dreams", Sigmund Freud discusses a passage in Stricker's Studien uber das Bewusstsein regarding the expression of affect in dreams (e.g. fear, joy) and the dream's ideational content, and how these two elements compare to the ideational/affective dynamic in an awake state. In his book, Stricker uses as an example; "If I am afraid of robbers in my dreams, the robbers, to be sure, are imaginary, but the fear of them is real". It was at Stricker's institute that ophthalmologist Karl Koller, who at the suggestion of Freud, began his experimentation with cocaine as a local anaesthetic.
In general, a sample is a limited quantity of something which is intended to be similar to and represent a larger amount of that thing(s).
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.
Silver staining is the use of silver to selectively alter the appearance of a target in microscopy of histological sections; in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis; and in polyacrylamide gels.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
Tolonium chloride (INN, also known as toluidine blue or TBO) is a blue cationic (basic) dye used in histology and sometimes clinically.
Uranyl acetate (UO2(CH3COO)2·2H2O) is the acetate salt of uranyl and is a yellow-green crystalline solid made up of yellow-green rhombic crystals and has a slight acetic odor.
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants.
Weigert's elastic stain is a combination of stains used in histology which is useful in identifying elastic fibers.
Wright's stain is a histologic stain that facilitates the differentiation of blood cell types.
Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.
Zenker's fixative is a rapid-acting fixative for animal tissues.
Bread Loafing, Breadloafing, Histochemical, Histochemist, Histography, Histologic, Histologic section, Histologic sections, Histological, Histological analysis, Histological section, Histological techniques, Histologically, Histologist, Histologists, Histology slide, Histomorphologic, Histomorphology, History of histology, Histotechnician, Histotechnologist, Histotechnology, Microanatomy, Microscopic anatomy.