310 relations: Administration of justice, Administrative counties of England, Administrative county, Ainsty, Ancient borough, Anglo-Saxons, Assizes, Association of British Counties, Avon (county), Banbury, BBC News Online, Bedfordshire, Bedlington, Berkshire, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Birmingham, Bishop of Durham, Borough, Bournemouth, Bridges Act 1530, Bristol, British Army, British Iron Age, Brixton, Bromley, Buckinghamshire, Burh, Burton upon Trent, Butterworth-Heinemann, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Cambridgeshire, Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely, Canterbury, Cardwell Reforms, Celtic Britons, Census, Central Office of Information, Ceremonial counties of England, Charter, Cheshire, Chester, Childers Reforms, Christchurch, Dorset, City of London, Cleveland, England, Cornovii (Cornwall), Cornwall, Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844, Counties of Northern Ireland, ..., County, County and Borough Police Act 1856, County borough, County corporate, County council, County cricket, County Durham, County of London, County of the City of Coventry, County palatine, County Palatine of Durham, County Police Act 1839, County town, CountyWatch, Craven, Cricket, Culvert, Cumberland, Cumbria, Custos rotulorum, Dagenham, Danelaw, Derbyshire, Devon, Diocese, Direct action, Domesday Book, Donisthorpe, Dorchester, Dorset, Dorset, Duchy of Cornwall, Dudley, Duke of Devonshire, Dumnonia, Dumnonii, Ealdorman, Earl, East Riding of Yorkshire, East Suffolk, East Sussex, Edward III of England, Elmet, Enclave and exclave, England, English county histories, English Democrats, English Maelor, Eric Pickles, Essex, Exeter, Flag Institute, Flag of County Durham, Flag of Lancashire, Flintshire (historic), Friends of Real Lancashire, Furness, General Register Office, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, Grampound (UK Parliament constituency), Great Britain, Greater London, Greater Manchester, Greenwich, Halesowen (medieval parish), Hallamshire, Hampshire, Harmondsworth, Harrying of the North, Henry I of England, Heptarchy, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Hexhamshire, Hide (unit), High sheriff, High Sheriff of Middlesex, Historic counties of Wales, History of Kent, Home Office, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of correction, Hullshire, Humberside, Hundred (county division), Hundreds of Cheshire, Huntingdon and Peterborough, Huntingdonshire, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales, Islandshire, Isle of Ely, Justice of the peace, Jutes, Kent, Kesteven, Kingdom of East Anglia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Essex, Kingdom of Kent, Kingdom of Lindsey, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingdom of Powys, Kingdom of Sussex, Kingston upon Hull, Knights of the Shire, Kogan Page, Lancashire, Lancashire County Council, Lathe (county subdivision), Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, Leicestershire, Liberty (division), Lichfield, Lincoln, England, Lincolnshire, Lindsey, Lincolnshire, List of ancient counties of England by area in 1891, List of counties of England by area in 1831, List of county days in the United Kingdom, List of county exclaves in England and Wales 1844–1974, Local government, Local Government Act 1888, Local Government Act 1933, Local Government Act 1972, Local Government Commission for England (1992), Local government in England, London, London postal district, Longitudinal study, Longman, Lord-Lieutenant, M postcode area, Manchester, Manorialism, Marcher Lord, Mercia, Merseyside, Metropolitan county, Metropolitan Police Service, Middle Saxons, Middlesex, Militia, Monmouth, Monmouthshire (historic), Morecambe Bay, Mudflat, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newmarket, Suffolk, Non-metropolitan county, Norfolk, Norhamshire, Norman conquest of England, Normans, North Riding of Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, Northumberland, Norwich, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, Office of Public Sector Information, Ordnance Survey, Ossulstone, Oxford, Oxford University Press, Oxfordshire, Parish, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parts of Holland, Parts of Lincolnshire, Penguin 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The administration of justice is the process by which the legal system of a government is executed.
Administrative counties were a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government from 1889 to 1974.
An administrative county was an administrative division in England and Wales and Ireland from 1888 to 1974, used for the purposes of local government.
The Ainsty or the Ainsty of York was a historic district of Yorkshire, England west of the city of York.
The ancient boroughs were a historic unit of lower-tier local government in England and Wales.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The courts of assize, or assizes, were periodic courts held around England and Wales until 1972, when together with the quarter sessions they were abolished by the Courts Act 1971 and replaced by a single permanent Crown Court.
The Association of British Counties (ABC) is a non-party-political society formed in 1989 by television personality Russell Grant to promote the historic counties of the United Kingdom.
Avon was, from 1974 to 1996, a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county in the west of England.
Banbury is a historic market town on the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England.
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.
Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds.) is a county in the East of England.
Bedlington is a town in Northumberland, England, with a population of roughly 15,400, measured at 18,470 at the 2011 Census.
Berkshire (abbreviated Berks, in the 17th century sometimes spelled Barkeshire as it is pronounced) is a county in south east England, west of London and is one of the home counties.
Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in the Province of York.
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.
Bournemouth is a large coastal resort town on the south coast of England to the east of the Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site, long.
The Bridges Act 1530 (22 Hen 8 c 5), sometimes called the Statute of Bridges, was an Act of the Parliament of England.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Iron Age is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron Age culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, which had an independent Iron Age culture of its own.
Brixton is a district of south London, England, within the London Borough of Lambeth.
Bromley is a town in the London Borough of Bromley, Greater London, England, south east of Charing Cross.
Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east.
A burh or burg was an Old English fortification or fortified settlement.
Burton upon Trent, also known as Burton-on-Trent or simply Burton, is a town on the River Trent in East Staffordshire, England, close to the border with Derbyshire.
Butterworth–Heinemann is a British publishing company specialized in professional information and learning materials for higher education and professional training, in printed and electronic forms.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.), is an East Anglian county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west.
Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely was, from 1965 to 1974, an administrative and geographical county in East Anglia in the United Kingdom.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
The Cardwell Reforms were a series of reforms of the British Army undertaken by Secretary of State for War Edward Cardwell between 1868 and 1874 with the support of Liberal prime minister William Ewart Gladstone.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
The Central Office of Information (COI) was the UK government's marketing and communications agency.
The ceremonial counties, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed.
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.
Cheshire (archaically the County Palatine of Chester) is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire, Wales and Wrexham county borough to the west.
Chester (Caer) is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales.
The Childers Reforms of 1881 reorganised the infantry regiments of the British Army.
Christchurch is a town and borough on the south coast of England.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
Cleveland is an area in the north-east of England.
The Cornovii is a hypothetical name for a tribe who would have been part of the Dumnonii, a Celtic tribe inhabiting the South West peninsula of Great Britain, during some part of the Iron Age, Roman and post-Roman periods.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844 (7 & 8 Vict. c. 61), which came into effect on 20 October 1844, was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which eliminated many outliers or exclaves of counties in England and Wales for civil purposes.
The counties of Northern Ireland were the principal local government divisions of Northern Ireland from its creation in 1921 until 1972, when their governmental features were abolished and replaced with twenty-six unitary authorities.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
The County and Borough Police Act 1856 (19 & 20 Vict c 69) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (excluding Scotland), to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control.
A county corporate or corporate county was a type of subnational division used for local government in England, Ireland, and Wales.
A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county.
Inter-county cricket matches are known to have been played since the early 18th century, involving teams that are representative of the historic counties of England and Wales.
County Durham (locally) is a county in North East England.
The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London.
The County of the City of Coventry was a former county corporate of England which existed between 1451 and 1842.
In England, a county palatine or palatinate was an area ruled by a hereditary nobleman enjoying special authority and autonomy from the rest of a kingdom or empire.
The County Palatine of Durham was an area in the North of England that was controlled by the Bishop of Durham.
The County Police Act 1839 (2 & 3 Vict c 93) (also known as the Rural Police Act or the Rural Constabularies Act) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
A county town in Great Britain or Ireland is usually, but not always, the location of administrative or judicial functions within the county.
CountyWatch is a direct action group in the United Kingdom that was set up in 2004 to remove what they consider to be wrongly placed county boundary signs that do not mark the historic or ancient county boundaries of England and Wales.
Craven is a local government district of North Yorkshire, England centred on the market town of Skipton.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side.
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
Custos rotulorum (plural: custodes rotulorum; Latin for "keeper of the rolls") is a civic post which is recognised in the United Kingdom (except Scotland) and in Jamaica.
Dagenham is a town in East London and in the county of Essex, England.
The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England.
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Direct action occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
Donisthorpe is a village in the North West Leicestershire district of Leicestershire, England.
Dorchester is the county town of Dorset, England.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
The Duchy of Cornwall (Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Lancaster.
Dudley is a large town in the county of West Midlands, England, south-east of Wolverhampton and north-west of Birmingham.
Duke of Devonshire is a title in the Peerage of England held by members of the Cavendish family.
Dumnonia is the Latinised name for the Brythonic kingdom in Sub-Roman Britain between the late 4th and late 8th centuries, in what is now the more westerly parts of South West England.
The Dumnonii or Dumnones were a British tribe who inhabited Dumnonia, the area now known as Devon and Cornwall (and some areas of present-day Dorset and Somerset) in the further parts of the South West peninsula of Britain, from at least the Iron Age up to the early Saxon period.
An ealdorman (from Old English ealdorman, lit. "elder man"; plural: "ealdormen") was a high-ranking royal official and prior magistrate of an Anglo-Saxon shire or group of shires from about the ninth century to the time of King Cnut.
An earl is a member of the nobility.
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Yorkshire, is a ceremonial county in the North of England.
East Suffolk, along with West Suffolk, was created in 1888 as an administrative county of England.
East Sussex is a county in South East England.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Elmet (Elfed) was an area of what later became the West Riding of Yorkshire, and an independent Brittonic kingdom between about the 5th century and early 7th century.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English county histories, in other words historical and topographical (or "chorographical") works concerned with individual ancient counties of England before their reorganisation, were produced by antiquarians from the late 16th century onwards.
The English Democrats is an English nationalist political party in England. In its 2016 manifesto, the party proposed a devolved English Parliament, instead of its 2014 suggestion that England should become an independent country. It presents itself as an English equivalent to the Scottish National Party, though the Scottish National Party is generally considered to be a centre-left party, whereas the English Democrats are on the right of the political spectrum. The English Democrats have welcomed defectors from the far-right British National Party into leadership roles and former members of the party have criticised informal links with other far-right organisations, though party leader Robin Tilbrook has stated that party members are expected to pledge their opposition to racism. The party has had limited electoral success and has been regarded by some as a fringe party. At the English local elections in June 2009, the party's candidate Peter Davies won the mayoral election for the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster. However, he announced his resignation from the party on 5 February 2013.
English Maelor (Maelor Saesneg) comprises one half of the Maelor region located on the Wales-England border, considered to be the area east of the River Dee.
Eric Jack Pickles, Baron Pickles, PC (born 20 April 1952) is a British Conservative Party politician who was the Member of Parliament for Brentwood and Ongar from the 1992 general election to the 2017 general election and was the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government until May 2015.
Essex is a county in the East of England.
Exeter is a cathedral city in Devon, England, with a population of 129,800 (mid-2016 EST).
The Flag Institute is an educational charity headquartered in London, UK.
The Flag of County Durham is the flag of the historic county of Durham.
The Lancashire flag is the flag of the historic county of Lancashire.
Flintshire (Sir y Fflint), also known as the County of Flint, is one of Wales' thirteen historic counties, and a former administrative county (and a vice-county).
The Friends of Real Lancashire (FORL) are a pressure group affiliated to the Association of British Counties calling for the wider recognition of the historic boundaries of Lancashire in England.
Furness is a peninsula and region of Cumbria in northwestern England.
General Register Office (GRO) is the name given to the civil registry in England and Wales, Scotland, many other Commonwealth nations and Ireland.
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, England, of which it is the county town.
Gloucestershire (formerly abbreviated as Gloucs. in print but now often as Glos.) is a county in South West England.
Grampound in Cornwall, was a borough constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1821.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Greater London is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London, as well as a county for the purposes of the lieutenancies.
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2,782,100.
Greenwich is an area of south east London, England, located east-southeast of Charing Cross.
Halesowen (originally called Hale Manor) was a medieval parish in the West Midlands of England.
Hallamshire (or Hallam) is the historical name for an area of South Yorkshire, England, in the current city of Sheffield.
Hampshire (abbreviated Hants) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom.
Harmondsworth is a village in the London Borough of Hillingdon with a short border to the south onto London Heathrow Airport.
The Harrying of the North was a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror in the winter of 1069–70 to subjugate northern England.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven petty kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.
Herefordshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, governed by Herefordshire Council.
Hertfordshire (often abbreviated Herts) is a county in southern England, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south.
Hexhamshire was a county of Northern England.
The hide was an English unit of land measurement originally intended to represent the amount of land sufficient to support a household.
A high sheriff is a ceremonial officer for each shrieval county of England and Wales and Northern Ireland or the chief sheriff of a number of paid sheriffs in U.S. states who outranks and commands the others in their court-related functions.
This is a list of High Sheriffs of Middlesex.
The historic counties of Wales are sub-divisions of Wales.
Kent is a traditional county in South East England with long-established human occupation.
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The house of correction was a type of establishment built after the passing of the Elizabethan Poor Law (1601), places where those who were "unwilling to work", including vagrants and beggars, were set to work.
Hullshire, or the County of Hull, was a county of England from 1440 to 1889.
Humberside was a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county in Northern England from 1 April 1974 until 1 April 1996.
A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region.
The Hundreds of Cheshire, as with other Hundreds in England were the geographic divisions of Cheshire for administrative, military and judicial purposes.
Huntingdon and Peterborough was a short-lived administrative and geographical county in East Anglia in the United Kingdom.
Huntingdonshire (abbreviated Hunts) is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire, as well as a historic county of England.
The Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales is a substantial topographical dictionary first published between 1870 and 1872, edited by the Reverend John Marius Wilson.
Islandshire was an area of Northumberland, England, comprising Lindisfarne or Holy Island, plus five parishes on the mainland.
The Isle of Ely is a historic region around the city of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England.
A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
The Parts of Kesteven are a traditional subdivision of Lincolnshire, England.
The Kingdom of the East Angles (Ēast Engla Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Anglorum), today known as the Kingdom of East Anglia, was a small independent kingdom of the Angles comprising what are now the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and perhaps the eastern part of the Fens.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The kingdom of the East Saxons (Ēast Seaxna Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Saxonum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Essex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
The Kingdom of the Kentish (Cantaware Rīce; Regnum Cantuariorum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Kent, was an early medieval kingdom in what is now South East England.
The Kingdom of Lindsey or Linnuis (Lindesege) was a lesser Anglo-Saxon kingdom, which was absorbed into Northumbria in the 7th century.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain.
The kingdom of the South Saxons (Suþseaxna rice), today referred to as the Kingdom of Sussex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Knights of the shire (milites comitatus) was the formal title for members of parliament (MPs) representing a county constituency in the British House of Commons, from its origins in the medieval Parliament of England until the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 ended the practice of each county (or shire) forming a single constituency.
Kogan Page is an independent publishing company founded in 1967 and headquartered in London, with branches in Philadelphia and New Delhi.
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
Lancashire County Council is the upper-tier local authority for the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire, England.
A lathe (Old English lǽð, Latin lestus) formed an administrative country subdivision of the county of Kent, in England, from the Anglo-Saxon period until it fell out of use in the early twentieth century.
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nghymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.
Leicestershire (abbreviation Leics.) is a landlocked county in the English Midlands.
A liberty was an English unit originating in the Middle Ages, traditionally defined as an area in which regalian right was revoked and where the land was held by a mesne lord (i.e. an area in which rights reserved to the king had been devolved into private hands).
Lichfield is a cathedral city and civil parish in Staffordshire, England.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
The Parts of Lindsey are a traditional division of Lincolnshire, England, covering the northern part of the county.
This is a list of the ancient counties of England (excluding Monmouthshire) as recorded by the 1891 census, ordered by their area.
This is a list of historic counties of England by area as at the 1831 census.
County days in the United Kingdom are relatively recent observances, formed to celebrate the cultural heritage of a particular British county.
Until 1844, many of the counties in England and Wales had exclaves or detached parts, entirely surrounded by other counties.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. c.41) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which established county councils and county borough councils in England and Wales.
The Local Government Act 1933 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that consolidated and revised existing legislation that regulated local government in England (except the County of London) and Wales.
The Local Government Act 1972 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974.
The Local Government Commission for England was the body responsible for reviewing the structure of local government in England from 1992 to 2002.
The pattern of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London postal district is the area in England of to which mail addressed to the LONDON post town is delivered.
A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
The Lord-Lieutenant is the British monarch's personal representative in each county of the United Kingdom.
The M postcode area, also known as the Manchester postcode area, is a group of postcode districts in Greater Manchester, England.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
A Marcher Lord was a noble appointed by the King of England to guard the border (known as the Welsh Marches) between England and Wales.
Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
Merseyside is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1.38 million.
The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level administrative division of England.
The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.
The Middle Saxons or Middel Seaxe were a people whose territory later became, with somewhat contracted boundaries, the county of Middlesex, England.
Middlesex (abbreviation: Middx) is an historic county in south-east England.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Monmouth (Trefynwy meaning "town on the Monnow") is the historic county town of Monmouthshire, Wales.
Monmouthshire, also known as the County of Monmouth (Sir Fynwy), is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county.
Morecambe Bay is a large estuary in northwest England, just to the south of the Lake District National Park.
Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk, approximately 65 miles (105 kilometres) north of London.
A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England that is not a metropolitan county.
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England.
Norhamshire was an exclave of County Durham in England.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions (ridings) of the English county of Yorkshire, alongside the East and West Ridings.
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county (or shire county) and larger ceremonial county in England.
Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants.), archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a county in the East Midlands of England.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
Nottinghamshire (pronounced or; abbreviated Notts) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Ordnance Survey (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.
Ossulstone is an obsolete subdivision (hundred) covering 26.4% of – and the most metropolitan part – of the historic county of Middlesex, England.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from Oxonium, the Latin name for Oxford) is a county in South East England.
A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
The Parts of Holland is a historical subdivision used in south-east Lincolnshire, England from 1889 to 1974.
The three parts of the English county of Lincolnshire are or were divisions of the second-largest county in England.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 183,631 in 2011.
Poole is a large coastal town and seaport in the county of Dorset, on the south coast of England.
The postal counties of the United Kingdom, now known as former postal counties, were postal subdivisions in routine use by the Royal Mail until 1996.
The Postal Services Commission, known as Postcomm, was a non-ministerial department of the Government of the United Kingdom charged with overseeing the quality and universal service of post in the United Kingdom.
The Postcode Address File (PAF) is a database that contains all known "Delivery Points" and postcodes in the United Kingdom.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
The Prison Act 1877 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to alter the way in which British prisons were operated.
Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration.
The courts of quarter sessions or quarter sessions were local courts traditionally held at four set times each year in the Kingdom of England (including Wales) from 1388 until 1707, then in 18th-century Great Britain, in the later United Kingdom, and in other dominions of the British Empire.
A rape is a traditional territorial sub-division of the county of Sussex in England, formerly used for various administrative purposes.
Reader's Digest is an American general-interest family magazine, published ten times a year.
Reading is a large, historically important minster town in Berkshire, England, of which it is the county town.
Originally in Anglo-Saxon England the reeve was a senior official with local responsibilities under the Crown, e.g., as the chief magistrate of a town or district.
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
The Representation of the People Act 1918 was an Act of Parliament passed to reform the electoral system in Great Britain and Ireland.
The Representation of the People Act 1948 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that altered the law relating to parliamentary and local elections.
A riding is an administrative jurisdiction or electoral district, particularly in several current or former Commonwealth countries.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
The River Avon is an English river in the south west of the country.
The River Mersey is a river in the North West of England.
The River Ribble runs through North Yorkshire and Lancashire in Northern England.
The River Tees is in northern England.
Robert of Gloucester (fl. c. 1260 – c. 1300) wrote a chronicle of British, English, and Norman history sometime in the mid- or late-thirteenth century.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Historical Society (abbr. RHistS; founded 1868) is a learned society of the United Kingdom which advances scholarly studies of history.
Royal Mail plc (Post Brenhinol; a' Phuist Rìoghail) is a postal service and courier company in the United Kingdom, originally established in 1516.
Royston is a town and civil parish in the District of North Hertfordshire and county of Hertfordshire in England.
Rutland is a landlocked county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire.
Scandinavian York (also referred to as Jórvík) or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria (modern day Yorkshire) during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, used to refer to the city (York) controlled by these kings.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government, or informally Communities Secretary is a Cabinet position heading the UK's Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, previously known as the Department for Communities and Local Government from 2006 to 2018.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
Two Sheriffs are elected annually for the City of London by the Liverymen of the City Livery Companies.
A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and some other English speaking countries.
Shire Books are published by Bloomsbury Publishing, a book publishing company based in London, England, and formerly by Shire Publications Ltd.
Shire Court or Shire Moot was an Anglo-Saxon institution dating back to the earliest days of English society.
The counties or shires of Scotland (Siorrachdan na h-Alba) are geographic subdivisions of Scotland established in the Middle Ages.
Shropshire (alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian) is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south.
The term soke (in Old English: soc, connected ultimately with secan, "to seek"), at the time of the Norman conquest of England generally denoted "jurisdiction", but its vague usage makes it probably lack a single, precise definition.
The Soke of Peterborough is an historic area of England associated with the City and Diocese of Peterborough, but considered part of Northamptonshire.
Somerset (or archaically, Somersetshire) is a county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east and Devon to the south-west.
Somerton is a town and civil parish in the English county of Somerset.
South West England is one of nine official regions of England.
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England.
Stamford is a town on the River Welland in Lincolnshire, England, north of London on the A1.
Stockport is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, south-east of Manchester city centre, where the River Goyt and Tame merge to create the River Mersey.
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England.
Surrey is a county in South East England, and one of the home counties.
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.
Sussex Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Sussex in southern England (consisting of East Sussex, West Sussex and the city of Brighton and Hove).
Tamworth is a large market town in Staffordshire, England, northeast of Birmingham and northwest of London.
Teesdale is a dale, or valley, of the east side of the Pennines in County Durham, England.
Teesside is the conurbation in the north east of England around the urban centre of Middlesbrough that is primarily made up of the towns Billingham, Redcar, Stockton-on-Tees, Thornaby and surrounding settlements near the River Tees.
The Yorkshire Post is a daily broadsheet newspaper, published in Leeds in northern England.
A tithing or tything was a historic English legal, administrative or territorial unit, originally ten hides (and hence, one tenth of a hundred).
Todmorden (locally or) is a market town and civil parish in the Upper Calder Valley in Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
In England, a township (Latin: villa) is a local division or district of a large parish containing a village or small town usually having its own church.
Tyneside is a conurbation on the banks of the River Tyne in North East England which includes Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, Tynemouth, Wallsend, South Shields, and Jarrow.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
Uxbridge is a town in west London, England, and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon.
A vice-county (vice county or biological vice-county) is a geographical division of the British Isles used for the purposes of biological recording and other scientific data-gathering.
The Victoria History of the Counties of England, commonly known as the Victoria County History or the VCH, is an English history project which began in 1899 and was dedicated to Queen Victoria with the aim of creating an encyclopaedic history of each of the historic counties of England.
The Volunteer Force was a citizen army of part-time rifle, artillery and engineer corps, created as a popular movement throughout the British Empire in 1859.
The wards and electoral divisions in the United Kingdom are electoral districts at sub-national level represented by one or more councillors.
Warrington is a large town and unitary authority area in Cheshire, England, on the banks of the River Mersey, east of Liverpool, and west of Manchester.
Warwickshire (abbreviated Warks) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England.
The Welsh Marches (Y Mers) is an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
West Ham is an area of East London, located east of Charing Cross.
The West Midlands is a metropolitan county and city region in western-central England with a 2014 estimated population of 2,808,356, making it the second most populous county in England.
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England.
West Suffolk was an administrative county of England created in 1889 from part of the county of Suffolk.
West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove) to the east, Hampshire to the west and Surrey to the north, and to the south the English Channel.
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England.
Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland;R. Wilkinson The British Isles, Sheet The British Isles. even older spellings are Westmerland and Westmereland) is a historic county in north west England.
William of Malmesbury (Willelmus Malmesbiriensis) was the foremost English historian of the 12th century.
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.
Winchcombeshire was an ancient county in the South West of England, in the Anglo-Saxon period, with Winchcombe as its county town.
Worcester is a city in Worcestershire, England, southwest of Birmingham, west-northwest of London, north of Gloucester and northeast of Hereford.
Worcestershire (written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county in the West Midlands of England.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
The Yorkshire Ridings Society is a group affiliated to the Association of British Counties calling for the wider recognition of the historic borders of Yorkshire, and its traditional subdivisions, the North, East and West Ridings.
Structural changes to local government in England were effected on 1 April 2009, whereby a number of new unitary authorities were created in parts of the country which previously operated a 'two-tier' system of counties and districts.
Ancient counties of England, Historic Counties of England, Historic county of England, Historical Counties of England, History of Historic counties of England, Traditional Counties of England, Traditional counties of England, Traditional counties of england, Traditional county of England, Traditional english counties.