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Index Historiography

Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. [1]

473 relations: A Study of History, A. L. Morton, Academic history, Age of Enlightenment, Al-Waqidi, Alexander the Great, Alfred the Great, Allan Nevins, Alternate history, Alun Munslow, American National Biography, American urban history, Anabasis (Xenophon), Anachronism, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Annales school, Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales, Annals, Antiquarian, Apostolic Age, Archival research, Area studies, Aristocracy, Arnaldo Momigliano, Arnold J. Toynbee, Art history, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr., Arthur Marwick, Atlantic history, Austria-Hungary, Auxiliary sciences of history, Babylonia, Ban Gu, Bede, Berossus, Bible, Bielefeld School, Biographical evaluation, Book of Documents, Brian Pearce, Bulletin of Latin American Research, Business history, C. L. R. James, C. Vann Woodward, Caesar Baronius, Canadian Historical Review, ..., Capitalism, Carl L. Becker, Cato the Elder, Chaldea, Charlemagne, Charles A. Beard, Chinese classics, Chinese historiography, Christian theology, Christianity, Christopher Hill (historian), Chronicle, Chronology, Church history, Church History (Eusebius), Cicero, City-state, Civil liberties, Classical antiquity, Classics, Clinton Rossiter, Cliometrics, Commentaries on the Laws of England, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Common Era, Communism, Communist Party of Great Britain, Comparative history, Conference on Latin American History, Confucius, Constantine the Great and Christianity, Constitution, Constitutional monarchy, Cultural history, Daniel J. Boorstin, Daniel Woolf, Dark Ages (historiography), David Cannadine, David Hackett Fischer, David Hume, David M. Potter, David Montgomery (historian), Demosthenes, Development of the New Testament canon, Diadochi, Dialectical materialism, Dictionary of American Biography, Dictionary of National Biography, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Diplomatic history, Donald A. Ritchie, Duke University Press, Dynastic cycle, E. H. Carr, E. P. Thompson, Early centers of Christianity, Early Christianity, Early Middle Ages, Early modern period, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Ecclesiology, Economic history, Economy, Edmund Morgan (historian), Edward Gibbon, Empire, Encyclopédie, England, English Civil War, Environmental history, Eric Hobsbawm, Eric Van Young, Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations, Ethnohistory, Ethnohistory (journal), Eurocentrism, Eusebius, Faber and Faber, Fabian Society, Feminist history, Fernand Braudel, Feudalism, Film studies, Four Books and Five Classics, François Chevalier, Francesco Guicciardini, Francis Bacon, Free will, French language, French Revolution, Friedrich Engels, Frontier Thesis, Gender & History, Gender history, Gender studies, Genealogy, Geoffrey Elton, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Georges Duby, Gerda Lerner, Germanic peoples, Gertrude Himmelfarb, Gim Busik, Glorious Revolution, Goryeo, Great Britain, Greco-Roman world, Greek historiography, Gregory of Tours, Hacienda, Hadith studies, Han dynasty, Handbook of Latin American Studies, Harvard University Press, Harvey J. Graff, Hellanicus of Lesbos, Hellenistic period, Henry Hallam, Herbert Butterfield, Herbert Gutman, Herodotus, Hippias, Hippolyte Taine, Historian, Historical materialism, Historical method, Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles, Historical revisionism, Historicism, Histories (Herodotus), Historiographer Royal, Historiographer Royal (England), Historiographer Royal (Scotland), Historiography and nationalism, Historiography in the Soviet Union, Historiography of Alexander the Great, Historiography of Argentina, Historiography of Canada, Historiography of early Christianity, Historiography of early Islam, Historiography of Germany, Historiography of Japan, Historiography of Korea, Historiography of science, Historiography of Scotland, Historiography of Switzerland, Historiography of the Battle of France, Historiography of the British Empire, Historiography of the causes of World War I, Historiography of the Cold War, Historiography of the Crusades, Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Historiography of the French Revolution, Historiography of the United Kingdom, Historiography of the United States, Historiography of World War II, Historische Zeitschrift, Historisk Tidsskrift (Denmark), Historisk Tidsskrift (Norway), History and Theory, History of ideas, History of Latin America, History of medicine, History of religion, History of science, History of the British Isles, History of the Mediterranean region, History Workshop Journal, House of Stuart, Howard K. Beale, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hwarang Segi, Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Khaldun, Injong of Goryeo, Intellectual history, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jack Granatstein, Jacob Burckhardt, James Mackintosh, James W. Loewen, Jerome, Joanna Southcott, John Lukacs, John Stuart Mill, John Tosh, Journal of Family History, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Journal of Latin American Studies, Journal of Social History, Journal of the History of Ideas, Journal of World History, Jules Michelet, Julius Caesar, Karl Marx, Keith Jenkins, Kim Dae-mun, Korean nationalist historiography, Kwartalnik Historyczny, L'Année Sociologique, Labor history (discipline), Late antiquity, Latin America, Latin American Research Review, Latin American Studies Association, Latin literature, Lawrence Stone, Leonardo Bruni, Leopold von Ranke, Leslie Stephen, Liberal democracy, Lies My Teacher Told Me, List of historians, List of historians by area of study, List of history journals, Livy, Local history, Longue durée, Louis Hartz, Lucien Febvre, Lucy Dawidowicz, Luddite, Luke–Acts, Marc Bloch, Marc Ferro, Market economy, Marxism, Marxist historiography, Mary Ritter Beard, Maurice Halbwachs, Max Weber, Melvyn P. Leffler, Merle Curti, Mesopotamia, Metanarrative, Methodology, Michael Holroyd, Microhistory, Middle Ages, Military history, Morality, Mughal Empire, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muqaddimah, Murdo J. MacLeod, Muslim, Narrative, Narrative history, Nation state, National memory, Nationalization of history, Naturalism (literature), New Left, New Philology, Newberry Library, Nihon Shoki, Noble savage, Numismatics, Official history, Ons Heemecht, Oral history, Orthodoxy, Oxford University Press, Palaeography, Palgrave Macmillan, Past & Present (journal), Pat Hudson, Patrick Manning (professor), Paul de Rapin, People's history, Peter Burke (historian), Peter Gay, Peter Novick, Philip II of Spain, Philippic, Philo of Byblos, Philosophes, Philosophy of history, Plutarch, Polis, Political history, Polybius, Popular history, Positivism, Postcolonialism, Postmodernism, Presentism (literary and historical analysis), Primary source, Primitive communism, Prince Toneri, Private property, Prosopography, Protestantism, Prussia, Pseudohistory, Public history, Quantitative history, R. G. Collingwood, R. H. Tawney, Ranajit Guha, Raphael Samuel, Records of the Grand Historian, Reform Act 1832, Renaissance, Representative democracy, Revue historique, Rhetorical device, Richard Hofstadter, Richard J. Evans, Rikkokushi, Rikshistoriograf, Robert Boyle, Roman Empire, Roman historiography, Romantic nationalism, Romanticism, Sahabah, Samguk sagi, Sanchuniathon, Scandia (journal), Scientific progress, Second Bank of the United States, Secondary source, Secularity, Seleucid Empire, Shared historical authority, Sigfried Giedion, Signs (journal), Silla, Sima Qian, Slavery, Social class, Social history, Social science, Social Science History, Social Science History Association, Socialism, Sociology, Source criticism, Southern Historical Association, Spring and Autumn Annals, State (polity), State church of the Roman Empire, Stephen Haber, Strabo, Strasbourg, Subaltern Studies, Suetonius, Svenska Historiska Föreningen, Syncretism, Tacitus, Technology and Culture, Teleology, Tertiary source, Tessa Morris-Suzuki, The Age of Louis XIV, The American Historical Review, The Americas (journal), The arts, The Catholic Historical Review, The Condition of the Working Class in England, The English Historical Review, The French Revolution: A History, The Hispanic American Historical Review, The History of England (Hume), The History of England from the Accession of James the Second, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The Journal of African American History, The Journal of African History, The Journal of American History, The Journal of Economic History, The Making of the English Working Class, The Peasant War in Germany, The Public Historian, The Rise of the West, The Slavonic and East European Review, Theocracy, Theology, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Thomas Carlyle, Thucydides, Topos, Transhistoricity, Trojan War, United Kingdom, Universal history, University of Göttingen, University of Michigan, University of North Carolina Press, University of Pennsylvania Press, Urban history, Urwah ibn Zubayr, Vassal, Vernon Louis Parrington, Victorian Studies, Voltaire, Wahb ibn Munabbih, Warring States period, Western culture, Western Europe, What Is History?, Whig history, William and Mary Quarterly, William Appleman Williams, William Blackstone, William H. McNeill (historian), William Harvey, William Rose Benét, William Stubbs, Winston Churchill, Women's history, Women's History Review, Working class, World history, Xenophon, Zhan Guo Ce, Zuo Qiuming, Zuo zhuan. Expand index (423 more) »

A Study of History

A Study of History is a 12-volume universal history by the British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, published in 1934–61.

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A. L. Morton

(Arthur) Leslie Morton (4 July 1903 – 23 October 1987) was an English Marxist historian.

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Academic history

An academic history can be a large, multivolume work such as the Cambridge Modern History, written collaboratively under some central editorial control.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn ‘Omar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami (Arabic أبو عبد الله محمد بن عمر بن واقد الاسلمي) (c. 130 – 207 AH; c. 747 – 823 AD) was a historian commonly referred to as al-Waqidi (Arabic: الواقدي).

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

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Allan Nevins

Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 – March 5, 1971) was an American historian and journalist, known for his extensive work on the history of the Civil War and his biographies of such figures as Grover Cleveland, Hamilton Fish, Henry Ford, and John D. Rockefeller, as well as his public service.

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Alternate history

Alternate history or alternative history (Commonwealth English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently.

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Alun Munslow

Alun Munslow (born 1947) is a British historian known for his deconstructionist and postmodernist approach to historiography.

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American National Biography

The American National Biography (ANB) is a 24-volume biographical encyclopedia set that contains about 17,400 entries and 20 million words, first published in 1999 by Oxford University Press under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies.

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American urban history

American urban history is the study of cities of the United States.

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Anabasis (Xenophon)

Anabasis (Ἀνάβασις, (literally an "expedition up from")) is the most famous work, published in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon.

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An anachronism (from the Greek ἀνά ana, "against" and χρόνος khronos, "time") is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, or customs from different periods of time.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.

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Annales school

The Annales school is a group of historians associated with a style of historiography developed by French historians in the 20th century to stress long-term social history.

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Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales


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Annals (annāles, from annus, "year") are a concise historical record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by year, although the term is also used loosely for any historical record.

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An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.

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Apostolic Age

The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally regarded as the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Great Commission of the Apostles by the risen Jesus in Jerusalem around 33 AD until the death of the last Apostle, believed to be John the Apostle in Anatolia c. 100.

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Archival research

Archival research is a type of primary research which involves seeking out and extracting evidence from original archival records.

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Area studies

Area studies (also: regional studies) are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions.

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Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

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Arnaldo Momigliano

Arnaldo Dante Momigliano, KBE (5 September 1908 – 1 September 1987) was an Italian historian known for his work in historiography, characterised by Donald Kagan as "the world's leading student of the writing of history in the ancient world".

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Arnold J. Toynbee

Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.

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Art history

Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.

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Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.

Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.

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Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr.

Arthur Meier Schlesinger Sr. (February 27, 1888 – October 30, 1965) was an American historian who taught at Harvard University, pioneering social history and urban history.

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Arthur Marwick

Arthur John Brereton Marwick (29 February 1936 – 27 September 2006) was a professor in history.

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Atlantic history

Atlantic history is a specialty field in history that studies of the Atlantic World in the early modern period.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Auxiliary sciences of history

Auxiliary (or ancillary) sciences of history are scholarly disciplines which help evaluate and use historical sources and are seen as auxiliary for historical research.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Ban Gu

Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories.

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Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.

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Berossus or Berosus (name possibly derived from script, "Bel is his shepherd"; Βήρωσσος) was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek language, and who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Bielefeld School

The Bielefeld School is a group of German historians based originally at Bielefeld University who promote social history and political history using quantification and the methods of political science and sociology.

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Biographical evaluation

Biographical evaluation (`Ilm al-Rijāl), literally meaning 'Knowledge of Men' but more commonly understood as the Science of Narration, refers to a discipline of Islamic religious studies within hadith terminology in which the narrators of hadith are evaluated.

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Book of Documents

The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.

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Brian Pearce

Brian Leonard Pearce (8 May 1915 – 25 November 2008) was a British Marxist political activist, historian, and translator.

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Bulletin of Latin American Research

Bulletin of Latin American Research is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on Latin American studies, including Latin America, the Caribbean, inter-American relations, and the Latin American diaspora.

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Business history

Business history deals with the history of business organizations, methods, government regulation, labor relations, and impact on society.

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C. L. R. James

Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901 – 31 May 1989), who sometimes wrote under the pen-name J. R. Johnson, was an Afro-Trinidadian historian, journalist and socialist.

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C. Vann Woodward

Comer Vann Woodward (November 13, 1908 – December 17, 1999) was a Pulitzer-prize winning American historian focusing primarily on the American South and race relations.

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Caesar Baronius

Cesare Baronio (also known as Caesar Baronius; 30 August 1538 – 30 June 1607) was an Italian cardinal and ecclesiastical historian of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Canadian Historical Review

The Canadian Historical Review (CHR) is a scholarly journal in Canada, founded in 1920 and published by the University of Toronto Press.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Carl L. Becker

Carl Lotus Becker (September 7, 1873 – April 10, 1945) was an American historian.

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Cato the Elder

Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.

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Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles A. Beard

Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 – September 1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century.

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Chinese classics

Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".

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Chinese historiography

Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.

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Christian theology

Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christopher Hill (historian)

John Edward Christopher Hill (6 February 1912 – 23 February 2003) was an English Marxist historian and academic, specialising in 17th-century English history.

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A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.

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Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.

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Church history

Church history or ecclesiastical history as an academic discipline studies the history of Christianity and the way the Christian Church has developed since its inception.

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Church History (Eusebius)

The Church History (Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.

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Clinton Rossiter

Clinton Lawrence Rossiter III (September 18, 1917 – July 11, 1970) was an American historian and political scientist who taught at Cornell University from 1947 to 1970.

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Cliometrics, sometimes called new economic history, or econometric history, is the systematic application of economic theory, econometric techniques, and other formal or mathematical methods to the study of history (especially social and economic history).

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Commentaries on the Laws of England

The Commentaries on the Laws of England are an influential 18th-century treatise on the common law of England by Sir William Blackstone, originally published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford, 1765–1769.

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Commentarii de Bello Gallico

Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Communist Party of Great Britain

The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a British communist party which was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.

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Comparative history

Comparative history is the comparison of different societies which existed during the same time period or shared similar cultural conditions.

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Conference on Latin American History

Conference on Latin American History, (CLAH), founded in 1926, is the professional organization of Latin American historians affiliated with the American Historical Association.

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Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Constantine the Great and Christianity

During the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (AD 306–337), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire.

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A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Cultural history

Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience.

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Daniel J. Boorstin

Daniel Joseph Boorstin (October 1, 1914 – February 28, 2004) was an American historian at the University of Chicago who wrote on many topics in American and world history.

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Daniel Woolf

Daniel Robert Woolf (born 5 December 1958) is a British/Canadian historian.

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Dark Ages (historiography)

The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.

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David Cannadine

Sir David Cannadine (born 7 September 1950) is a British author and historian, who specialises in modern history and the history of business and philanthropy.

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David Hackett Fischer

David Hackett Fischer (born December 2, 1935) is University Professor and Earl Warren Professor of History at Brandeis University.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David M. Potter

David Morris Potter (December 6, 1910 in Augusta, Georgia – February 18, 1971) was an American historian of the South.

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David Montgomery (historian)

David Montgomery (December 1, 1927 – December 2, 2011) was a Farnam Professor of History at Yale University.

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Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.

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Development of the New Testament canon

The canon of the New Testament is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

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The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.

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Dialectical materialism

Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

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Dictionary of American Biography

The Dictionary of American Biography was published in New York City by Charles Scribner's Sons under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS).

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Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.

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Dionysius of Halicarnassus

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.

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Diplomatic history

Diplomatic history deals with the history of international relations between states.

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Donald A. Ritchie

Donald A. Ritchie (born December 23, 1945) is Historian Emeritus of the United States Senate.

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Duke University Press

Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.

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Dynastic cycle

Dynastic cycle is an important political theory in Chinese history.

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E. H. Carr

Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr (28 June 1892 – 3 November 1982) was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography.

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E. P. Thompson

Edward Palmer Thompson (3 February 1924 – 28 August 1993), usually cited as E. P.

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Early centers of Christianity

Early Christianity (generally considered the time period from its origin to the First Council of Nicaea in 325) spread from the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Roman Empire and beyond.

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Early Christianity

Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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Ecclesiastical History of the English People

The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.

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In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.

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Economic history

Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.

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An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Edmund Morgan (historian)

Edmund Sears Morgan (January 17, 1916 – July 8, 2013) was an American historian and an eminent authority on early American history.

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Edward Gibbon

Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.

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An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".

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Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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Environmental history

Environmental history is the study of human interaction with the natural world over time, emphasising the active role nature plays in influencing human affairs and vice versa.

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Eric Hobsbawm

Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm (9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism.

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Eric Van Young

Eric Van Young, Distinguished Professor of History at University of California, San Diego, is an American historian of Mexico who has published extensively on socioeconomic and political history of the colonial era and the nineteenth century.

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Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations

Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations ("Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations") is a work by the French writer, historian, and philosopher Voltaire, published for the first time in 1756.

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Ethnohistory is the study of cultures and indigenous peoples' customs by examining historical records as well as other sources of information on their lives and history.

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Ethnohistory (journal)

Ethnohistory is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1954 and published quarterly by Duke University Press on behalf of the American Society for Ethnohistory.

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Eurocentrism (also Western-centrism) is a worldview centered on and biased towards Western civilization.

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Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.

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Faber and Faber

Faber and Faber Limited, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the United Kingdom.

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Fabian Society

The Fabian Society is a British socialist organization whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow.

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Feminist history

Feminist history refers to the re-reading of history from a female perspective.

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Fernand Braudel

Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.

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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Film studies

Film studies is an academic discipline that deals with various theoretical, historical, and critical approaches to films.

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Four Books and Five Classics

The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.

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François Chevalier

François Chevalier (27 May 1914 – 6 May 2012) was a distinguished French historian of Latin America.

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Francesco Guicciardini

Francesco Guicciardini (6 March 1483 – 22 May 1540) was an Italian historian and statesman.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.

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Frontier Thesis

The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 that American democracy was formed by the American frontier.

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Gender & History

Gender & History is an international academic journal.

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Gender history

Gender history is a sub-field of history and gender studies, which looks at the past from the perspective of gender.

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Gender studies

Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.

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Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

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Geoffrey Elton

Sir Geoffrey Rudolph Elton (born Gottfried Rudolf Otto Ehrenberg; 17 August 1921 – 4 December 1994) was a German-born British political and constitutional historian, specialising in the Tudor period.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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Georges Duby

Georges Duby (7 October 1919 – 3 December 1996) was a French historian who specialised in the social and economic history of the Middle Ages.

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Gerda Lerner

Gerda Hedwig Lerner (née Kronstein; April 30, 1920 – January 2, 2013) was an Austrian-born American historian and author.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Gertrude Himmelfarb

Gertrude Himmelfarb (born August 8, 1922), also known as Bea Kristol, is an American historian.

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Gim Busik

Kim Busik (1075–1151) was a statesman, general, Confucian scholar and writer during Korea's Goryeo period.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Greek historiography

Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history.

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Gregory of Tours

Saint Gregory of Tours (30 November c. 538 – 17 November 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum (Ten Books of Histories), better known as the Historia Francorum (History of the Franks), a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of St. Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.

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An hacienda (or; or), in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa.

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Hadith studies

Hadith studies (علم الحديث ʻilm al-ḥadīth "knowledge of hadith", also science of hadith, or science of hadith criticism) consist of several religious disciplines used in the study and evaluation of the Islamic hadith — i.e. the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Muslim scholars.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Handbook of Latin American Studies

Handbook of Latin American Studies is an annotated guide to publications in Latin American studies by topic and region, published since 1936.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Harvey J. Graff

Harvey J. Graff (born June 19, 1949) is a comparative social historian as well as a professor of English and History at Ohio State University.

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Hellanicus of Lesbos

Hellanicus (or Hellanikos) of Lesbos (Greek: Ἑλλάνικος ὁ Λέσβιος, Ἑllánikos ὁ Lésvios), also called Hellanicus of Mytilene (Greek: Ἑλλάνικος ὁ Μυτιληναῖος, Ἑllánikos ὁ Mutilēnaῖos) was an ancient Greek logographer who flourished during the latter half of the 5th century BC.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Henry Hallam

Henry Hallam FRS FRSE FSA (9 July 1777 – 21 January 1859) was an English historian.

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Herbert Butterfield

Sir Herbert Butterfield (7 October 1900 – 20 July 1979) was Regius Professor of History and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.

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Herbert Gutman

Herbert G. Gutman (1928 – July 21, 1985) was an American professor of history at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, where he wrote on slavery and labor history.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hippias of Elis (Ἱππίας ὁ Ἠλεῖος; late 5th century BC) was a Greek sophist, and a contemporary of Socrates.

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Hippolyte Taine

Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (21 April 1828 – 5 March 1893) was a French critic and historian.

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A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.

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Historical materialism

Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.

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Historical method

Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, including the evidence of archaeology, to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past.

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Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles

The historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles, the principal historical source for the Apostolic Age, is of interest for biblical scholars and historians of Early Christianity as part of the debate over the historicity of the Bible.

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Historical revisionism

In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.

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Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.

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Histories (Herodotus)

The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.

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Historiographer Royal

Historiographer Royal is the title of an appointment as official chronicler or historian of a court or monarch.

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Historiographer Royal (England)

In England the office of Historiographer Royal, a historian under the official patronage of the royal court, was created in 1660 with an annual salary of £200 and a butt of sack.

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Historiographer Royal (Scotland)

The Historiographer Royal is a member of the Royal household of Scotland.

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Historiography and nationalism

Historiography is the study of how history is written.

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Historiography in the Soviet Union

Soviet historiography is the methodology of history studies by historians in the Soviet Union (USSR).

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Historiography of Alexander the Great

There are numerous surviving ancient Greek and Latin sources on Alexander the Great, king of Macedon, as well as some oriental texts.

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Historiography of Argentina

The Historiography of Argentina is composed of the works of the authors that have written about the History of Argentina.

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Historiography of Canada

The historiography of Canada deals with the manner in which historians have depicted analyzed and debated the History of Canada.

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Historiography of early Christianity

Historians have used a variety of sources and methods in exploring and describing the history of early Christianity, commonly known as Christianity before the First Council of Nicaea in 325.

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Historiography of early Islam

The historiography of early Islam refers to the study of the early history of Islam during the 7th century, from Muhammad's first revelations in AD 610 until the disintegration of the Rashidun Caliphate in AD 661, and arguably throughout the 8th century and the duration of the Umayyad Caliphate, terminating in the incipient Islamic Golden Age around the beginning of the 9th century.

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Historiography of Germany

The historiography of Germany deals with the manner in which historians have depicted, analyzed and debated the History of Germany.

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Historiography of Japan

The historiography of Japan (日本史学史) is the study of methods and hypotheses formulated in the study and literature of the history of Japan.

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Historiography of Korea

Korean nationalist historiography is the way of writing Korean history.

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Historiography of science

The historiography of science is the study of the history and methodology of the sub-discipline of history, known as the history of science, including its disciplinary aspects and practices (methods, theories, schools) and to the study of its own historical development ("History of History of Science", i.e., the history of the discipline called History of Science).

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Historiography of Scotland

The historiography of Scotland refers to the sources and critical methods used by scholars to come to an understanding of the history of Scotland.

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Historiography of Switzerland

The historiography of Switzerland is the study of the history of Switzerland.

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Historiography of the Battle of France

The Historiography of the Battle of France describes how the German victory over French and British forces in the Battle of France had been explained by historians and others.

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Historiography of the British Empire

The historiography of the British Empire refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to develop a history of Britain's empire.

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Historiography of the causes of World War I

Historians writing about the origins of World War I have differed over the relative emphasis they place upon the factors involved.

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Historiography of the Cold War

As soon as the term "Cold War" was popularized to refer to postwar tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, interpreting the course and origins of the conflict became a source of heated controversy among historians, political scientists and journalists.

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Historiography of the Crusades

The historiography of the crusades has been a controversial topic since at least the Protestant Reformation.

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Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire

The causes and mechanisms of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

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Historiography of the French Revolution

The historiography of the French Revolution stretches back over two hundred years, as commentators and historians have sought to answer questions regarding the origins of the Revolution, and its meaning and effects.

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Historiography of the United Kingdom

The Historiography of the United Kingdom includes the historical and archival research and writing on the history of the United Kingdom, Great Britain, England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

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Historiography of the United States

The historiography of the United States refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to study the history of the United States.

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Historiography of World War II

The Historiography of World War II is the study of how historians portray the causes, conduct, and outcomes of World War II.

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Historische Zeitschrift

Historische Zeitschrift, founded in 1859 by Heinrich von Sybel is considered to be the first and for a time the foremost historical journal.

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Historisk Tidsskrift (Denmark)

Historisk Tidsskrift is a Danish history journal established in 1840.

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Historisk Tidsskrift (Norway)

Historisk Tidsskrift is a Norwegian history journal.

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History and Theory

History and Theory is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of Wesleyan University.

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History of ideas

The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time.

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History of Latin America

The term "Latin America" primarily refers to the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries in the New World.

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History of medicine

The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.

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History of religion

The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious experiences and ideas.

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History of science

The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.

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History of the British Isles

The history of the British Isles has witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Ireland, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the smaller adjacent islands, which together make up the British Isles.

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History of the Mediterranean region

The Mediterranean Sea was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe.

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History Workshop Journal

The History Workshop Journal was launched in 1976 by Raphael Samuel and others involved in the History Workshop movement.

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House of Stuart

The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.

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Howard K. Beale

Howard Kennedy Beale (April 8, 1899 – December 27, 1959) was an American historian.

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Hugh Trevor-Roper

Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany.

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Hungarian Revolution of 1956

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.

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Hwarang Segi

Hwarang segi (lit. Annals of Hwarang or Generations of the Hwarang) was a historical record of the Hwarang (lit. flower boys) of the Silla kingdom in ancient Korea.

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Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani

Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī or Ibn Ḥajar (ابن حجر العسقلاني, full name: Shihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī) (18 February 1372 – 2 February 1449), was a medieval Shafiite Sunni Muslim scholar of Islam "whose life work constitutes the final summation of the science of hadith." represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith, also known as Shaykh al Islam.

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Ibn Hisham

Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari (أبو محمد عبدالمالك بن هشام), or Ibn Hisham, edited the biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq.

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Ibn Ishaq

Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār (according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار بن خيار, or simply ibn Isḥaq, ابن إسحاق, meaning "the son of Isaac"; died 767 or 761) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer.

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Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.

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Injong of Goryeo

Injong of Goryeo (29 October 1109 – 10 April 1146) (r. 1122–1146) was the 17th monarch of the Korean Goryeo dynasty.

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Intellectual history

Intellectual history refers to the historiography of ideas and thinkers.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Jack Granatstein

Jack Lawrence Granatstein, (born May 21, 1939) is a Canadian historian who specializes in political and military history.

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Jacob Burckhardt

Carl Jacob Christoph Burckhardt (May 25, 1818 – August 8, 1897) was a Swiss historian of art and culture and an influential figure in the historiography of both fields.

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James Mackintosh

Sir James Mackintosh FRS FRSE (24 October 1765 – 30 May 1832) was a Scottish jurist, Whig politician and historian.

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James W. Loewen

James William Loewen (born February 6, 1942) is an American sociologist, historian, and author, best known for his 1995 book, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, which was republished in 2008.

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Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.

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Joanna Southcott

Joanna Southcott (or Southcote) (April 1750 – 27 December 1814), was a self-described religious prophetess.

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John Lukacs

John Adalbert Lukacs (Hungarian: Lukács János Albert; born 31 January 1924) is a Hungarian-born American historian who has written more than thirty books, including Five Days in London, May 1940 and A New Republic.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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John Tosh

John A. Tosh is a British historian and Professor of History at Roehampton University.

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Journal of Family History

Journal of Family History is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the fields of History and Anthropology.

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Journal of Interdisciplinary History

The Journal of Interdisciplinary History is a peer-reviewed academic journal published four times a year by the MIT Press.

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Journal of Latin American Studies

The Journal of Latin American Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.

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Journal of Social History

The Journal of Social History, was founded in 1967 and has been edited since then by Peter Stearns.

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Journal of the History of Ideas

The Journal of the History of Ideas is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering intellectual history and the history of ideas, including the histories of philosophy, literature and the arts, natural and social sciences, religion, and political thought.

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Journal of World History

The Journal of World History is a peer-reviewed academic journal that presents historical analysis from a global point of view, focusing especially on forces that cross the boundaries of cultures and civilizations, including large-scale population movements, economic fluctuations, transfers of technology, the spread of infectious diseases, long-distance trade, and the spread of religious faiths, ideas, and values.

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Jules Michelet

Jules Michelet (21 August 1798 – 9 February 1874) was a French historian.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Keith Jenkins

Keith Jenkins (1943) is a British historiographer.

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Kim Dae-mun

Kim Dae-mun (fl. early 8th century) was a Silla historian.

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Korean nationalist historiography

Korean nationalist historiography is a way of writing Korean history that centers on the Korean minjok, an ethnically or racially defined Korean nation.

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Kwartalnik Historyczny

Kwartalnik Historyczny is a Polish history journal.

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L'Année Sociologique

L'Année Sociologique is an academic journal of sociology established in 1898 by Émile Durkheim, who also served as its editor.

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Labor history (discipline)

Labor history or labour history is a sub-discipline of social history which specialises on the history of the working classes and the labor movement.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Latin American Research Review

The Latin American Research Review is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on Latin America and the Caribbean.

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Latin American Studies Association

The Latin American Studies Association (LASA) is the largest association for scholars of Latin American studies.

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Latin literature

Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.

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Lawrence Stone

Lawrence Stone (4 December 1919 – 16 June 1999) was an English historian of early modern Britain.

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Leonardo Bruni

Leonardo Bruni (or Leonardo Aretino) (c. 1370 – March 9, 1444) was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance.

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Leopold von Ranke

Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.

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Leslie Stephen

Sir Leslie Stephen (28 November 1832 – 22 February 1904) was an English author, critic, historian, biographer, and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell.

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Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

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Lies My Teacher Told Me

Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong is a 1995 book by James W. Loewen, a sociologist.

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List of historians

This is a list of historians.

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List of historians by area of study

This is a list of historians categorized by their area of study.

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List of history journals

This list of history journals presents representative academic journals pertaining to the field of history and historiography.

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Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.

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Local history

Local history is the study of history in a geographically local context and it often concentrates on the local community.

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Longue durée

The longue durée (the long term) is an expression used by the French Annales School of historical writing to designate their approach to the study of history.

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Louis Hartz

Louis Hartz (April 8, 1919 – January 20, 1986) was an American political scientist and influential liberal proponent of the idea of American exceptionalism.

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Lucien Febvre

Lucien Febvre (22 July 1878 – 11 September 1956) was a French historian best known for the role he played in establishing the Annales School of history.

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Lucy Dawidowicz

Lucy Schildkret Dawidowicz (June 16, 1915 – December 5, 1990) was an American historian and writer.

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The Luddites were a radical group of English textile workers and weavers in the 19th century who destroyed weaving machinery as a form of protest.

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Luke–Acts is the name usually given by biblical scholars to the composite work of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament.

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Marc Bloch

Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (6 July 1886 – 16 June 1944) was a French historian who cofounded the highly influential Annales School of French social history.

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Marc Ferro

Marc Ferro (born 24 December 1924 in Paris) is a French historian.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Marxist historiography

Marxist historiography, or historical materialist historiography, is a school of historiography influenced by Marxism.

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Mary Ritter Beard

Mary Ritter Beard (August 5, 1876 – August 14, 1958) was an American historian and archivist, who played an important role in the women's suffrage movement and was a lifelong advocate of social justice through educational and activist roles in both the labor and woman's rights movements.

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Maurice Halbwachs

Maurice Halbwachs (11 March 1877 – 16 March 1945) was a French philosopher and sociologist known for developing the concept of collective memory.

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Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

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Melvyn P. Leffler

Melvyn Paul Leffler (born May 31, 1945 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American historian and educator, currently Edward Stettinius Professor of History at the University of Virginia.

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Merle Curti

Merle Eugene Curti (September 15, 1897 – March 9, 1996) was a leading American historian, who taught many graduate students at Columbia University and the University of Wisconsin, and was a leader in developing the fields of social history and intellectual history.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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A metanarrative (also meta-narrative and grand narrative; métarécit) in critical theory and particularly in postmodernism is a narrative about narratives of historical meaning, experience, or knowledge, which offers a society legitimation through the anticipated completion of a (as yet unrealized) master idea.

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Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

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Michael Holroyd

Sir Michael de Courcy Fraser Holroyd CBE FRHistS FRSL (born 27 August 1935) is an English biographer.

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Microhistory is the intensive historical investigation of a well-defined smaller unit of research (most often a single event, the community of a village, or an individual).

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Military history

Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muhammad al-Bukhari

Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).

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The Muqaddimah, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (مقدّمة ابن خلدون) or Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomena (Προλεγόμενα), is a book written by the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history.

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Murdo J. MacLeod

Murdo J. MacLeod is a Scottish historian of Latin America, publishing extensively on the history of colonial-era Central America, the Caribbean, and the Atlantic world.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.

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Narrative history

Narrative history is the practice of writing history in a story-based form.

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Nation state

A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.

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National memory

National memory is a form of collective memory defined by shared experiences and culture.

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Nationalization of history

Nationalization of history is the term used in historiography to describe the process of separation of "one's own" history from the common universal history, by way of perceiving, understanding and treating the past that results with construction of history as history of a nation.

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Naturalism (literature)

The term naturalism was coined by Émile Zola, who defines it as a literary movement which emphasizes observation and the scientific method in the fictional portrayal of reality.

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New Left

The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world who campaigned for a broad range of social issues such as civil and political rights, feminism, gay rights, abortion rights, gender roles and drug policy reforms.

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New Philology

New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology that uses colonial-era native language texts written by Indians to construct history from the indigenous point of view.

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Newberry Library

The Newberry Library is an independent research library, specializing in the humanities and located on Washington Square in Chicago, Illinois.

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Nihon Shoki

The, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history.

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Noble savage

A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.

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Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.

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Official history

An official history is a work of history which is sponsored, authorised or endorsed by its subject.

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Ons Heemecht

Ons Heemecht (is the national anthem of Luxembourg. The title in Luxembourgish translates as Our Homeland. Michel Lentz wrote the words in 1859, and they were set to music by Jean Antoine Zinnen in 1864. The song was first performed in public in Ettelbruck, a town at the confluence of the Alzette and Sauer rivers (both of which are mentioned in the song) on 5 June 1864. The first and the last stanza of Ons Heemecht were adopted as Luxembourg's national anthem in 1895. It was added as one of the official 'national emblems' (emblèmes nationaux), alongside the national flag, national coat of arms, and the Grand Duke's Official Birthday, on 17 June 1993. Ons Heemecht is the national anthem, the royal anthem or more accurately the grand ducal anthem, is De Wilhelmus. The music of ' 'De Wilhelmus has its origin in Het Wilhelmus, the national anthem of the Netherlands.

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Oral history

Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.

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Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Past & Present (journal)

Past & Present is a British historical academic journal, which was a leading force in the development of social history.

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Pat Hudson

Pat Hudson was born in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria.

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Patrick Manning (professor)

Patrick Manning (born June 10, 1941) is the Andrew W. Mellon Professor of World History, Emeritus, at the University of Pittsburgh.

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Paul de Rapin

Paul de Rapin (25 March 1661 – 25 April 1725), sieur of Thoyras (and therefore styled Thoyras de Rapin), was a French historian writing under English patronage.

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People's history

A people's history, or history from below, is a type of historical narrative which attempts to account for historical events from the perspective of common people rather than leaders.

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Peter Burke (historian)

Ulick Peter Burke (born 1937 in Stanmore, England) is a British historian and professor.

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Peter Gay

Peter Gay (born Peter Joachim Fröhlich; June 20, 1923 – May 12, 2015) was a German-American historian, educator and author.

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Peter Novick

Peter Novick (July 26, 1934, Jersey City – February 17, 2012, Chicago) was an American historian, and Professor of History at the University of Chicago.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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A philippic is a fiery, damning speech, or tirade, delivered to condemn a particular political actor.

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Philo of Byblos

Philo of Byblos (Φίλων Βύβλιος, Phílōn Býblios; Philo Byblius; – 141), also known as Herennius Philon, was an antiquarian writer of grammatical, lexical and historical works in Greek.

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The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.

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Philosophy of history

Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.

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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.

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Political history

Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders.

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Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.

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Popular history

Popular history is a broad and somewhat ill-defined genre of historiography that takes a popular approach, aims at a wide readership, and usually emphasizes narrative, personality and vivid detail over scholarly analysis.

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Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.

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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Presentism (literary and historical analysis)

In literary and historical analysis, presentism is the anachronistic introduction of present-day ideas and perspectives into depictions or interpretations of the past.

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Primary source

In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.

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Primitive communism

Primitive communism is a concept originating from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who argued that hunter-gatherer societies were traditionally based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership.

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Prince Toneri

(January 28, 676 – December 6, 735) was a Japanese imperial prince in the Nara period.

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Private property

Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.

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In historical studies, prosopography is an investigation of the common characteristics of a historical group, whose individual biographies may be largely untraceable, by means of a collective study of their lives, in multiple career-line analysis.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record, often using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research.

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Public history

Public history is a broad range of activities undertaken by people with some training in the discipline of history who are generally working outside of specialized academic settings.

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Quantitative history

Quantitative history is an approach to historical research that makes use of quantitative, statistical and computer tools.

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R. G. Collingwood

Robin George Collingwood, FBA (22 February 1889 – 9 January 1943), was an English philosopher, historian and archaeologist.

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R. H. Tawney

Richard Henry "R.

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Ranajit Guha

Ranajit Guha (born Siddhakati, Backergunje, 23 May 1923) is a historian of South Asia who was greatly influential in the Subaltern Studies group, and was the editor of several of the group's early anthologies.

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Raphael Samuel

Raphael Elkan Samuel (26 December 19349 December 1996) was a British Marxist historian, described by Stuart Hall as "one of the most outstanding, original intellectuals of his generation".

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Records of the Grand Historian

The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.

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Reform Act 1832

The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Revue historique

The Revue historique is a French academic journal founded in 1876 by the Protestant Gabriel Monod and the Catholic Gustave Fagniez.

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Rhetorical device

In rhetoric, a rhetorical device, resource of language, or stylistic device is a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading them towards considering a topic from a different perspective, using sentences designed to encourage or provoke an emotional display of a given perspective or action.

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Richard Hofstadter

Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 – October 24, 1970) was an American historian and public intellectual of the mid-20th century.

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Richard J. Evans

Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.

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is a general term for Japan's six national histories chronicling the mythology and history of Japan from the earliest times to 887.

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The position of rikshistoriograf (Swedish, known in Latin as historiographus regni, i.e. Historiographer of the Realm or Royal Historiographer), existed in Sweden from the early 17th century until 1834.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman historiography

Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form.

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Romantic nationalism

Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Samguk sagi

Samguk sagi (삼국사기, 三國史記, History of the Three Kingdoms) is a historical record of the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla.

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Sanchuniathon (Σαγχουνιάθων; probably from SKNYTN, Sakun-yaton, " Sakon has given") is the purported Phoenician author of three lost works originally in the Phoenician language, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos, according to the Christian bishop Eusebius of Caesarea.

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Scandia (journal)

Scandia is an academic journal for history which has been published since 1928, when it was established by the Swedish historian Lauritz Weibull (1873-1960).

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Scientific progress

Scientific progress is the idea that science increases its problem-solving ability through the application of the scientific method.

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Second Bank of the United States

The Second Bank of the United States, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836.

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Secondary source

In scholarship, a secondary source"".

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Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Shared historical authority

Shared historical authority is a current trend in museums and historical institutions which aims to open the interpretation of history to the public.

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Sigfried Giedion

Sigfried Giedion (14 April 1888 in Prague – 10 April 1968 in Zürich) (sometimes misspelled Siegfried Giedion) was a Bohemian-born Swiss historian and critic of architecture.

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Signs (journal)

Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society is a peer-reviewed feminist academic journal.

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Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula.

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Sima Qian

Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Social class

A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

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Social history

Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Social Science History

Social Science History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal.

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Social Science History Association

The Social Science History Association, formed in 1976, brings together scholars from numerous disciplines interested in social history.

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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Source criticism

Source criticism (or information evaluation) is the process of evaluating an information source, i.e. a document, a person, a speech, a fingerprint, a photo, an observation, or anything used in order to obtain knowledge.

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Southern Historical Association

The Southern Historical Association (SHA) is an organization of historians focusing on the history of the Southern United States (commonly referred to as southern history).

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Spring and Autumn Annals

The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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State church of the Roman Empire

Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.

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Stephen Haber

Stephen H. Haber (born July 12, 1957) is a professor of political science and history known for his work on the political institutions and economic policies that promote innovation and improvements in living standards.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.

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Subaltern Studies

The Subaltern Studies Group (SSG) or Subaltern Studies Collective is a group of South Asian scholars interested in the postcolonial and post-imperial societies which started at the University of Sussex in 1979-80.

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Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.

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Svenska Historiska Föreningen

Svenska Historiska Föreningen is a Swedish historical society, founded in 1880.

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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Technology and Culture

Technology and Culture is a quarterly academic journal founded in 1959.

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Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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Tertiary source

A tertiary source is an index or textual consolidation of primary and secondary sources.

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Tessa Morris-Suzuki

Tessa Morris-Suzuki (born 29 October 1951 in England) is a historian of modern Japan and Korea.

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The Age of Louis XIV

The Age of Louis XIV ("Le Siècle de Louis XIV", also translated The Century of Louis XIV) is a historical work by the French historian, philosopher, and writer Voltaire, first published in 1751.

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The American Historical Review

The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.

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The Americas (journal)

The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Latin American History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering political, social, economic, intellectual, and religious history of the Americas.

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The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.

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The Catholic Historical Review

The Catholic Historical Review is the official organ of the American Catholic Historical Association.

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The Condition of the Working Class in England

The Condition of the Working Class in England (German: Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England) is an 1845 book by the German philosopher Friedrich Engels, a study of the industrial working class in Victorian England.

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The English Historical Review

The English Historical Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1886 and published by Oxford University Press (formerly Longman).

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The French Revolution: A History

The French Revolution: A History was written by the Scottish essayist, philosopher, and historian Thomas Carlyle.

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The Hispanic American Historical Review

The Hispanic American Historical Review is a quarterly, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal of Latin American history, the official publication of the Conference on Latin American History, the professional organization of Latin American historians.

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The History of England (Hume)

The History of England (1754–61) is David Hume's great work on the history of England, which he wrote in installments while he was librarian to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh.

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The History of England from the Accession of James the Second

The History of England from the Accession of James the Second (1848) is the full title of the five-volume work by Lord Macaulay (1800–1859) more generally known as The History of England.

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The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon.

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The Journal of African American History

The Journal of African American History, formerly The Journal of Negro History (1916–2001), is a quarterly academic journal covering African American life and history.

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The Journal of African History

The Journal of African History is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal.

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The Journal of American History

The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.

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The Journal of Economic History

The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.

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The Making of the English Working Class

The Making of the English Working Class is a work of English social history, written by E. P. Thompson, a 'New Left' historian.

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The Peasant War in Germany

The Peasant War in Germany (German: Der deutsche Bauernkrieg) by Friedrich Engels is a short account of the early 16th-century uprisings known as the German Peasants' War (1524–25).

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The Public Historian

The Public Historian is the official publication of the National Council on Public History.

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The Rise of the West

The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community is a book by University of Chicago historian William H. McNeill, first published in 1963 and enlarged with a retrospective preface in 1991.

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The Slavonic and East European Review

The Slavonic and East European Review, the journal of the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) at University College London, is an international peer-reviewed multidisciplinary academic journal in the fields of social sciences and humanities founded in 1922 by Bernard Pares, Robert William Seton-Watson and Harold Williams (SSEES) and dedicated to Slavonic and East European Studies published quarterly (January, April, July and October) by Maney Publishing for the Modern Humanities Research Association on behalf of SSEES.

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Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thomas Babington Macaulay

Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.

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Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.

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Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

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In mathematics, a topos (plural topoi or, or toposes) is a category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space (or more generally: on a site).

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Transhistoricity is the quality of holding throughout human history, not merely within the frame of reference of a particular form of society at a particular stage of historical development.

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Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Universal history

A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, coherent unit.

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University of Göttingen

The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of North Carolina Press

The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina.

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University of Pennsylvania Press

The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Urban history

Urban history is a field of history that examines the historical nature of cities and towns, and the process of urbanization.

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Urwah ibn Zubayr

'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam al-Asadi (عروة بن الزبير بن العوام الأسدي., died 713) was among the seven fuqaha (jurists) who formulated the fiqh of Medina in the time of the Tabi‘in and one of the Muslim historians.

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A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.

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Vernon Louis Parrington

Vernon Louis Parrington (August 3, 1871 – June 16, 1929) was an American literary historian and scholar.

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Victorian Studies

Victorian Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Indiana University Press.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Wahb ibn Munabbih

Wahb ibn Munabbih (وهب بن منبه) was a Yemenite Muslim traditionist of Dhimar (two days' journey from Sana'a) in Yemen; died at the age of ninety, in a year variously given by Arabic authorities as 725, 728, 732, and 737 C.E. He was a member of the abna', a Yemeni colony of Persian origin.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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What Is History?

What Is History? history is a study of historiography that was written by the English historian E. H. Carr.

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Whig history

Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.

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William and Mary Quarterly

The William and Mary Quarterly is a quarterly history journal published by the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture.

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William Appleman Williams

William Appleman "Bill" Williams (June 12, 1921 near Atlantic, Iowa – March 5, 1990 near Corvallis, Oregon) was one of the 20th century's most prominent revisionist historians of American diplomacy, and has been called "the favorite historian of the Middle American New Left".

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William Blackstone

Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.

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William H. McNeill (historian)

William Hardy McNeill (October 31, 1917 – July 8, 2016) was a historian and author, noted for his argument that contact and exchange among civilizations is what drives human history forward, first postulated in The Rise of the West (1963).

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William Harvey

William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.

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William Rose Benét

William Rose Benét (February 2, 1886 – May 4, 1950) was an American poet, writer, and editor.

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William Stubbs

William Stubbs (21 June 1825 – 22 April 1901) was an English historian and Anglican bishop.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Women's history

Women's history is the study of the role that women have played in history and the methods required to do so.

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Women's History Review

Women's History Review is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal of women's history published by Routledge.

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Working class

The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.

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World history

World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s.

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Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

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Zhan Guo Ce

The Zhan Guo Ce, also known in English as the Strategies of the Warring States, is an ancient Chinese text that contains anecdotes of political manipulation and warfare during the Warring States period (5th to 3rd centuries).

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Zuo Qiuming

Zuo Qiuming or Zuoqiu Ming (556 BC-451 BC) was a Chinese writer and contemporary of Confucius who lived in the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China.

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Zuo zhuan

The Zuo zhuan, generally translated The Zuo Tradition or The Commentary of Zuo, is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals'' (''Chunqiu'' 春秋).

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Accurancy of history, Critical history, Histiography, Historeography, Historical School, Historical Schools of Thought, Historical analysis, Historical context, Historical school, Historical schools of thought, Historiograph, Historiographer, Historiographers, Historiographic, Historiographical, Historiographical record, Historiographies, Historiography of Latin America, Historiography of the 19th century, Historiography of the 20th century, Historiography of the Enlightenment, Historiogrophy, Historiology, History and Historiography, History of historiography, History of history, History of history as an academic discipline, History textbooks, List of historiography journals, Metahistoriography, Metahistory (concept), Metahistory (historiography), Metahistory (history), Progressive historians, Progressive historiography, Schools of History, Schools of history.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historiography

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