903 relations: A Pub with No Beer, Abbott Government, Abdul Nacer Benbrika, Abel Tasman, Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1976, Aboriginal Land Rights Commission, Aboriginal title, Act of Parliament, Aden Ridgeway, Administration (government), Advance Australia Fair, Age of Enlightenment, Agrarianism, Agriculture in Australia, Agua Caliente Handicap, AHS Centaur, Air raids on Australia, 1942–43, Alan Frost, Alan Moorehead, Alan Renouf, Albany, Western Australia, Alessandro Malaspina, Alexander Dalrymple, Alfred Deakin, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Amphibious warfare, Analogy, Andrew Fisher, Anglican Church of Australia, Anglo-Japanese Alliance, Animism, Anne Henderson, Anti-Terrorism Act 2005, Anzac Day, ANZUS, Apartheid, Araucaria heterophylla, Armistice Day, Armour, Arnhem Land, Arthur Calwell, Arthur Phillip, Arthur Streeton, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Attack at Fromelles, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Attack on Sydney Harbour, ..., Attorney-General for Australia, Australasia, Australia, Australia Act 1986, Australia Council for the Arts, Australia Day, Australia in the Korean War, Australia–Korea Free Trade Agreement, Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology, Australian Alps, Australian and New Zealand Map Society, Australian Antarctic Territory, Australian archaeology, Australian Army, Australian Army Training Team Vietnam, Australian art, Australian Bicentenary, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Capital Territory, Australian Constitutional Convention 1998, Australian Corps, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Australian country music, Australian Democrats, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Australian federal election, 1940, Australian federal election, 1969, Australian federal election, 1974, Australian federal election, 1983, Australian federal election, 1993, Australian federal election, 1996, Australian federal election, 2013, Australian Film Commission, Australian flag debate, Australian frontier wars, Australian gold rushes, Australian Greens, Australian House of Representatives, Australian Human Rights Commission, Australian Labor Party, Australian Labor Party leadership spill, 2010, Australian Labor Party split of 1955, Australian labour movement, Australian literature, Australian megafauna, Australian National University, Australian Natives' Association, Australian New Wave, Australian Overland Telegraph Line, Australian Patriotic Association, Australian places with Dutch names, Australian referendum, 1967 (Aboriginals), Australian republic referendum, 1999, Australian Senate, Australian settlement, Australian women during World War II, Australian women in World War I, Autocracy, Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Axis naval activity in Australian waters, Axis powers, Balfour Declaration of 1926, Bali Nine, Balkan Campaign (World War II), Ballarat, Ballarat Reform League, Banjo Paterson, Barangaroo, Barry Humphries, Barry McKenzie, Batavia (ship), Batavia's Graveyard, Bathurst Island (Northern Territory), Bathurst, New South Wales, Battle between HMAS Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran, Battle of Amiens (1918), Battle of Beersheba (1917), Battle of Buna–Gona, Battle of Crete, Battle of Greece, Battle of Hamel, Battle of Kapyong, Battle of Midway, Battle of Milne Bay, Battle of Singapore, Battle of St Quentin Canal, Battle of the Coral Sea, Battle of the Somme, Bede Polding, Ben Chifley, Ben Hall (bushranger), Ben Pimlott, Bennelong, Bernard Montgomery, Bill Gammage, Bill of Rights 1689, Billy Hughes, Bismarck Archipelago, Black War, Blue Mountains (New South Wales), Blue-collar worker, Bob Carr, Bob Hawke, Bombing of Darwin, Boomerang, Borneo campaign (1945), Botany Bay, Breaker Morant (film), Brisbane River, Bristol Beaufighter, Bristol Beaufort, British Empire, British Expeditionary Force (World War I), British nuclear tests at Maralinga, British Protectorate, Bruce Smith (Australian politician), Bungaree, Burke and Wills expedition, Burma Railway, Bush ballad, Bushranger, C. J. Dennis, Cabinet of Australia, CAC Boomerang, Caledon Bay crisis, California Gold Rush, Cammeraygal, Canberra, Canonization, Cape Leeuwin, Cape York Peninsula, Capital districts and territories, Captain Thunderbolt, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Caroline Chisholm, Cartier Island, Castle Hill convict rebellion, Castlemaine, Victoria, Catherine Helen Spence, Catholic Church in Australia, Cathy Freeman, Cave of Altamira, Central Powers, Charles Kingsford Smith, Charles Perkins (Aboriginal activist), Charles Sturt, Chief Justice of New South Wales, Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, Chief Secretary of South Australia, Children Overboard affair, Chinese Civil War, Chips Rafferty, Chris Watson, Christianity in Australia, Church Mission Society, Church of England, Churchill war ministry, Cinema of Australia, Citizenship, City of Adelaide, City of Sydney, Clancy of the Overflow, Climate change, Clover Moore, Coalition (Australia), Cobb & Co, Cobourg Peninsula, Cold War, Colonial Office, Colony of New South Wales, Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1904, Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration, Commonwealth Liberal Party, Commonwealth of Nations, Communist Party of Australia, Communist Party of China, Condah, Coniston massacre, Conscription in Australia, Constitution of Australia, Constitutional monarchy, Convicts in Australia, Cooper Creek, Corio Bay, Country Liberal Party, Cowra, Creation myth, Cremation, CSIRO, Cultural icon, Dada, Dame Edna Everage, Dan Morgan (bushranger), Darling River, Darwin, Northern Territory, Dawn Fraser, Democratic Labor Party (historical), Democratic socialism, Denmark, Department of Justice (New South Wales), Diggings, Dingo, Dirk Hartog, Dominion, Don Bradman, Don Chipp, Donald Thomson, Dorothea Mackellar, Dorothy Tangney, Douglas MacArthur, Douglas Nicholls, Dreaming (Australian Aboriginal art), Dreamtime, Dutch East India Company, Dutch East Indies, Duyfken, E. J. Brady, East Timor, Economic history of Australia, Economy of Australia, Edith Cowan, Edmund Barton, Edmund Burke, Edmund Kennedy, Edmund Lockyer, Edward Duyker, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, Edward Hargraves, Edward Shann, Egalitarianism, Egon Kisch, Egypt, Eight-hour day, Elections in Australia, Elizabeth II, Elizabeth Macarthur, Elizabeth Macquarie, Emancipist, Emanuel Bowen, Empire of Japan, English law, Enid Lyons, Environmental movement in Australia, Eora, Eric Deeral, Erich Ludendorff, Ernest Giles, Ernest Scott, Erwin Rommel, Eureka Flag, Eureka Rebellion, European Communities Act 1972 (UK), European land exploration of Australia, European settlement of South Australia, Falkland Islands, Federalism in Australia, Federation of Australia, Fightback! (policy), Fiji, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Fire-stick farming, First Australian Imperial Force, First Battle of El Alamein, First Battle of Maryang San, First Fleet, Flinders Island, Forbes, New South Wales, Fort Dundas, François Péron, François Thijssen, France, Francis Greenway, Francisco Pelsaert, Frank Gardiner, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Franklin Dam controversy, Fraser Government, Frederick McCubbin, Free market, Free Trade Party, Freedom Ride (Australia), Gallipoli (1981 film), Gallipoli Campaign, Gavin Long, Geoffrey Blainey, Geoffrey Serle, Georg Forster, George Augustus Robinson, George Bass, George III of the United Kingdom, George V, German New Guinea, Gibson Desert, Gillard Government, Glenelg, South Australia, Glenrowan, Victoria, Global warming, Goods and services tax (Australia), Gough Whitlam, Government of New South Wales, Governor of New South Wales, Governor of South Australia, Governor of Tasmania, Governor-General of Australia, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, Great Depression, Great Depression in Australia, Great White Fleet, Gregory Blaxland, Gulf of Carpentaria, Gulf St Vincent, Gulf War, Gun laws in Australia, Gunning, New South Wales, Gustav III of Sweden, H. V. Evatt, Hamilton Hume, Harold Holt, Hartog Plate, Harvester case, Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Heidelberg School, Henrietta Dugdale, Henry Ayers, Henry Lawson, Henry Parkes, Henry Reynolds (historian), Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, High Court of Australia, Highwayman, History of Australia (1788–1850), History of Bougainville, History of Europe, History of monarchy in Australia, History of Oceania, History of rail transport in Australia, History of telegraphy in Australia, History of the Royal Australian Navy, History of the United States, History Teachers' Association of Victoria, History wars, HMAS Kuttabul (ship), HMS Investigator (1801), Holden, Holt Government, Homicide (Australian TV series), House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Howard Government, Hugh Edwards (journalist), Hume and Hovell expedition, Humphrey McQueen, Hung parliament, Hunter-gatherer, Hyacinth Tungutalum, Hydroelectricity, Immigration history of Australia, Immigration Restriction Act 1901, Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Preference, Indigenous Australian art, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous music of Australia, Individualism, Indonesia, Industrial award, International Force East Timor, Invasion of Poland, Iraq War, Irrigation in Australia, Isaack Gilsemans, Islands of Angry Ghosts, Jack Donahue, Jack Lang (Australian politician), Jackey Jackey, James Bremer, James Cook, James Matra, James Scullin, Janszoon voyage of 1605–06, Japan–Australia Economic Partnership Agreement, Jerilderie Letter, Jervis Bay Territory, Jim Cairns, Joan Blaeu, Joh Bjelke-Petersen, John Anderson (Australian politician), John Batman, John Beaglehole, John Call, John Callander, John Curtin, John Dedman, John Dunmore Lang, John Gilbert (bushranger), John Gorton, John Hindmarsh, John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, John Howard, John Howard (prison reformer), John Kerr (governor-general), John Lavarack, John Macarthur (wool pioneer), John McDouall Stuart, John Monash, John O'Grady (writer), John Peter Russell, John Plunkett, John Stuart Mill, Johnny O'Keefe, Joint Sitting of the Australian Parliament of 1974, Joseph Banks, Joseph Cook, Joseph Lyons, Julia Gillard, Julian Tenison-Woods, Jurisprudential reception, Kakadu National Park, Kangaroo Island, Kata Tjuta, Keith Windschuttle, Ken Myer, Ken Wyatt, Kent Music Report, Kevin Rudd, Keynesian economics, King George Sound (Western Australia), Kings Canyon (Northern Territory), Kokoda Track campaign, Korean War, Kristina Keneally, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, Kyoto Protocol, Labour council, Lachlan Macquarie, Lake Alexandrina (South Australia), Lake Mungo remains, Landslide victory, Lascaux, Laurence Muir, League of Nations, League of Nations mandate, Leslie Morshead, Letters patent, Liberal Party of Australia, List of conflicts in Australia, List of massacres of Indigenous Australians, List of Old West gunfighters, List of towns and cities in Australia by year of settlement, Little Children are Sacred, Loan Council, Loans affair, Lord Haw-Haw, Louis Aleno de St Aloüarn, Loyalism, Luís Vaz de Torres, Ludwig Leichhardt, Lutheranism, Lyndon B. Johnson, Mabo v Queensland (No 2), Macquarie Island, Macquarie River, Magistrate, Magna Carta, Makassan contact with Australia, Malayan Emergency, Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, Malcolm Fraser, Malcolm Turnbull, Mandarin Chinese, Manning Clark, Manus Island, Mao Zedong, Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain, Marie Bashir, Maritime Southeast Asia, Mark Twain, Mary Gilmore, Mary MacKillop, Mateship, Matthew Flinders, Medicare (Australia), Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Melbourne, Melbourne Cup, Melchisédech Thévenot, Melville Island (Australia), Menzies Government (1949–66), Merino, Midget submarine, Migration Act 1958, Mike Dash, Miles Franklin, Military history of Australia, Miner, Miner's Right, Misogyny Speech, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Monarchy of Australia, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Motion of Reconciliation, Mount Blaxland (New South Wales), Mount Gambier (volcano), Mount Kosciuszko, Murray River, Murray–Darling basin, Murrumbidgee River, Musquito, My Country, Myall Creek massacre, National Broadband Network, National Museum of Australia, National Party of Australia, National Trust of Australia, Nationalist Party (Australia), Native Title Act 1993, Native Title Amendment Act 1998, Nauru, Naval Communication Station Harold E. Holt, Nazi Germany, Ned Kelly, Nellie Melba, Neville Bonner, New Guinea, New Guinea campaign, New Hebrides, New Holland (Australia), New South Wales, New South Wales Corps, New South Wales Legislative Council, New Zealand, Nicolas Baudin, Nobel Prize in Literature, Noel Pearson, Nonja Peters, Nootka Crisis, Norfolk Island, Norman Lindsay, North African Campaign, North Korea, Northern Territory, Northern Territory National Emergency Response, Norway, Nui Dat, Occupation of Japan, Old Melbourne Gaol, Olympic flame, Operation Compass, Operation Sovereign Borders, Otto Niemeyer, Ottoman Empire, Outlaw, Pacific Solution, Paddington, New South Wales, Panzer, Papua New Guinea, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Parliament House, Canberra, Parliament of Australia, Parliament of South Australia, Parliamentary system, Parramatta, Patrick Francis Moran, Patrick White, Paul Keating, Paul Kelly (journalist), Paweł Strzelecki, Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, Pemulwuy, Penal colony, Penal transportation, Pentagon Papers, Perth, Peter Costello, Peter Finch, Peter Greste, Peter Slipper, Petrov Affair, Phar Lap, Philip Game, Philip III of Spain, Phillip Playford, Picnic at Hanging Rock (film), Pieter de Carpentier, Pieter Nuyts, Pintupi Nine, Polynesia, Pope Benedict XVI, Port Arthur massacre (Australia), Port Jackson, Port Moresby, Port Phillip, Port Phillip District, Post-war immigration to Australia, Premier of New South Wales, President of Indonesia, President of the United Nations General Assembly, Preventive detention, Prime Minister of Australia, Prohibition, Protectionist Party, Protector of Aborigines, Qantas, Queen Victoria, Queensland, Quentin Bryce, Rabbits in Australia, Rail transport in Australia, Redfern Park Speech, Referendum, Reg Ansett, Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands, Representative democracy, Republic Advisory Committee, Republicanism in Australia, Resident Commissioner, Responsible government, Rex Connor, Rhodesia, Richard Bourke, Richard Johnson (chaplain), Roads & Traffic Authority, Robbery, Robert Menzies, Robin Boyd (architect), Rock and roll, Rock music in Australia, Rosemary Follett, Ross McMullin, Royal assent, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Commission, Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia, Royal Navy, Rudd Government (2013), Rum Rebellion, Rupert Bunny, Rupert Gerritsen, Russel Ward, Russian Revolution, Sacred, Samuel Griffith, Samuel Marsden, Sandakan Death Marches, Sandy Stone (character), Scott Cane, Scottish Gaelic, Second Australian Imperial Force, Second Battle of El Alamein, Second Boer War, Second Fleet (Australia), Secret ballot, September 11 attacks, Sheep shearer, Sheffield Shield, Shipwrecks of Western Australia, Siege of Tobruk, Singapore Naval Base, Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet, Sir Les Patterson, Sisters of Charity of Australia, Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart, Sisters of the Good Samaritan, Skippy the Bush Kangaroo, Slim Dusty, Snowy Mountains Scheme, Social liberalism, Soldier settlement (Australia), Sorrento, Victoria, South Australia Act 1834, South Australian Company, South Australian Film Corporation, South Australian Register, South Korea, South Pacific Mandate, South Sea Islanders, South Vietnam, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, Southern Cross (aircraft), Sovereign wealth fund, Spanish flu, Special Broadcasting Service, Squatting (pastoral), St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Stanley Bruce, State religion, Station (Australian agriculture), Statute of Westminster 1931, Steele Rudd, Stevedore, Stolen Generations, Stone Age, Stuart Macintyre, Suez Crisis, Suffolk Regiment, Suharto, Sunday Too Far Away, Swan River Colony, Sydney, Sydney Cove, Sydney Cricket Ground, Sydney Harbour Bridge, Sydney Opera House, Syria–Lebanon Campaign, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Tahiti, Taiwan, Tampa affair, Tasmania, Tasmanian devil, Tasmanian nativehen, Ted Theodore, Telegraphy, Telstra, Tenterfield Oration, Terra Australis, Terra nullius, Territorial evolution of Australia, Territory of New Guinea, Territory of Papua, Tet Offensive, The Australian Women's Weekly, The Blitz, The Bulletin, The bush, The Crown, The Mercury (Hobart), The Midlands, The Monthly, The New Criterion, The Rats of Tobruk, The Story of the Kelly Gang, The Sydney Institute, The Sydney Morning Herald, Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia, They're a Weird Mob, Third Fleet (Australia), Thomas Blamey, Thomas Brisbane, Thomas Mitchell (explorer), Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, Thylacine, Timeline of Australian history, Toba catastrophe theory, Tobruk, Tokyo, Tom Roberts, Toongabbie, Torres Strait, Totem, Trade union, Trades hall, Trams in Melbourne, Transit of Venus, Treaty of Tordesillas, Treaty of Versailles, Trepanging, Tropic of Capricorn, Truganini, Turnbull Government, Turramurra, Uluru, United Australia Party, United Kingdom, United Nations Security Council, United Nations trust territories, United States Navy, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Universal suffrage, University of Sydney, University of Western Australia, Uralla, New South Wales, Van Diemen's Land, Vance Palmer, Vergulde Draeck, Victoria (Australia), Victoria Police, Victorian gold rush, Victorian Trades Hall, Vietnamese people, Vietnamization, Vincent Lingiari, Wall Street Crash of 1929, Walter Baldwin Spencer, Waltzing Matilda, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Watkin Tench, Wave Hill walk-off, Wendy Lewis, Wendy Lowenstein, Western Australia, Western Front (World War I), Westpac, Whaling in Australia, Wheatbelt (Western Australia), Whig history, White Australia policy, Whitehall Evening Post, Whitlam Government, Wik Peoples v Queensland, Wild One (Johnny O'Keefe song), Willem de Vlamingh, Willem Janszoon, William Birdwood, William Bligh, William Bolts, William Dampier, William Edward Hanley Stanner, William Gosse (explorer), William Hovell, William Lane, William Lawson (explorer), William McMahon, William Pitt the Younger, William Redfern, William Wentworth, Windradyne, Windsor, New South Wales, Winston Churchill, Women in Australia, Women's suffrage, Woodrow Wilson, Wool, Woollahra, New South Wales, WorkChoices, Workplace Relations Act 1996, World war, Yagan, Yass, New South Wales, Yolngu, Zuytdorp, 1890 Australian maritime dispute, 1891 Australian shearers' strike, 1923 Victorian police strike, 1926 Imperial Conference, 1932 New South Wales constitutional crisis, 1937 Imperial Conference, 1938 British Empire Games, 1956 Summer Olympics, 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, 1st Australian Task Force, 2000 Summer Olympics, 2000 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, 2002 Bali bombings, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, 2006 East Timorese crisis, 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2014 G20 Brisbane summit, 20th parallel south, 40th (the 2nd Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot, 9th Division (Australia). Expand index (853 more) » « Shrink index
"A Pub With No Beer" is the title of a humorous country song made famous by country singers Slim Dusty (in Australia and the United States) and Bobbejaan Schoepen (in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Austria).
The Abbott Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 28th Prime Minister Tony Abbott.
Abdul Nacer Benbrika (عبد الناصر بن بريكة) (born in Algeria about 1960), also known as Abu Bakr (Arabic: أبو بكر), is a convicted criminal and Muslim cleric of the Sunni Islam faith, currently serving an Australian custodial sentence of fifteen years, with a non-parole period of twelve years for intentionally being the leader and a member of a terrorist organisation.
Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
The Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act provides the basis upon which Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory can claim rights to land based on traditional occupation.
The Aboriginal Land Rights Commission, also known as the Woodward Royal Commission, existed 1973 to 1974 with the purpose to inquire into appropriate ways to recognise Aboriginal land rights in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Aboriginal title is a common law doctrine that the land rights of indigenous peoples to customary tenure persist after the assumption of sovereignty under settler colonialism.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
Aden Derek Ridgeway (born 18 September 1962), Australian politician, was a member of the Australian Senate for New South Wales, from 1999 to 2005, representing the Australian Democrats.
The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction.
"Advance Australia Fair" is the national anthem of Australia.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.
Australia is a major agricultural producer and exporter, with over 325,300 employed in Agriculture, forestry and fishing as of February 2015.
The Agua Caliente Handicap is a defunct thoroughbred horse race that was once the premier event at Agua Caliente Racetrack in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, and the richest race in North America.
Australian Hospital Ship (AHS) Centaur was a hospital ship which was attacked and sunk by a Japanese submarine off the coast of Queensland, Australia, on 14 May 1943.
Between February 1942 and November 1943, during the Pacific War, the Australian mainland, domestic airspace, offshore islands and coastal shipping were attacked at least 97 times by aircraft from the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force.
Alan J. Frost, (born 29 March 1943) is an Australian academic based at La Trobe University.
Alan McCrae Moorehead (22 July 1910 – 29 September 1983) was a war correspondent and author of popular histories, most notably two books on the nineteenth-century exploration of the Nile, The White Nile (1960) and The Blue Nile (1962).
Alan Phillip Renouf OBE (21 March 1919 – 26 May 2008) was a prominent Australian government official during the 1970s.
Albany is a port city in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 418 km SE of Perth, the state capital.
Alessandro Malaspina (November 5, 1754 – April 9, 1810) was an Italian explorer who spent most of his life as a Spanish naval officer.
Alexander Dalrymple FRS (24 July 1737 – 19 June 1808) was a Scottish geographer and the first Hydrographer of the British Admiralty.
Alfred Deakin (3 August 18567 October 1919) was an Australian politician who served as the second Prime Minister of Australia, in office for three separate terms – 1903 to 1904, 1905 to 1908, and 1909 to 1910.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Andrew Fisher (29 August 186222 October 1928) was an Australian politician who served three separate terms as Prime Minister of Australia – from 1908 to 1909, from 1910 to 1913, and from 1914 to 1915.
The Anglican Church of Australia is a Christian church in Australia and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The first was signed in London at Lansdowne House, on 30 January 1902, by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London).
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anne Elizabeth Henderson (née Keppel; born 1949) is an Australian writer, Deputy Director of The Sydney Institute, editor of The Sydney Papers and co-editor of The Sydney Institute Quarterly.
The Anti-Terrorism Act 2005 The actual act is a counter-terrorism law passed by the Australian Parliament on 6 December 2005 intended to hamper the activities of any potential terrorists in the country.
Anzac Day is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served".
The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the 1951, collective security non-binding agreement between Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States, to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific Ocean region, although today the treaty is taken to relate to conflicts worldwide.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Araucaria heterophylla (synonym A. excelsa) is a vascular plant in the ancient and now disjointly distributed conifer family Araucariaceae.
Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at Compiègne, France, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
Arnhem Land is one of the five regions of the Northern Territory of Australia.
Arthur Augustus Calwell KCSG (28 August 1896 – 8 July 1973) was an Australian politician who served as the leader of the Labor Party from 1960 to 1967.
Admiral Arthur Phillip (11 October 1738 – 31 August 1814) was a Royal Navy officer and the first Governor of New South Wales who founded the British penal colony that later became the city of Sydney, Australia.
Sir Arthur Ernest Streeton (8 April 1867 – 1 September 1943) was an Australian landscape painter and leading member of the Heidelberg School, also known as Australian Impressionism.
The Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands is an uninhabited external territory of Australia consisting of four low-lying tropical islands in two separate reefs, and the 12 nautical mile territorial sea generated by the islands.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
The Attack at Fromelles (Battle of Fromelles, Battle of Fleurbaix or Schlacht von Fromelles) 19–20 July 1916, was a British military operation on the Western Front during the First World War, subsidiary to the Battle of the Somme.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
In late May and early June 1942, during World War II, submarines belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy made a series of attacks on the cities of Sydney and Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia.
The Attorney-General for AustraliaThe title is officially "Attorney-General".
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australia Act 1986 is the short title of each of a pair of separate but related pieces of legislation: one an Act of the Commonwealth (i.e. federal) Parliament of Australia, the other an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Australia Council for the Arts, informally known as the Australia Council, is the official arts council or arts funding body of the Government of Australia.
Australia Day is the official national day of Australia.
The military history of Australia during the Korean War was very eventful.
The Korea Australia Free Trade Agreement (also called the KAFTA) is a bilateral agreement seeking to reduce trade and investment barriers between Australia and South Korea.
Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology (also known as Dreamtime or Dreaming stories, songlines, or Aboriginal oral literature) are the stories traditionally performed by Aboriginal peoples within each of the language groups across Australia.
The Australian Alps, an interim Australian bioregion, data is the highest mountain range in Australia.
The Australian and New Zealand Map Society (ANZMapS), a society incorporated in Victoria, Australia, is a group of map producers, users and curators, which acts as a medium of communication for all those interested in maps.
The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is a part of Antarctica administered by the Australian Antarctic Division, an agency of the federal Department of the Environment and Energy.
Australian archaeology is a large sub-field in the discipline of archaeology.
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force.
The Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV) was a specialist unit of military advisors of the Australian Army that operated during the Vietnam War.
Australian art is any art made in Australia or about Australia, from prehistoric times to the present.
The bicentenary of Australia was celebrated in 1988.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
The Australian Capital Territory (ACT; known as the Federal Capital Territory until 1938) is Australia's federal district, located in the south-east of the country and enclaved within the state of New South Wales.
The Australian Constitutional Convention 1998 was a Constitutional Convention which gathered at the Old Parliament House, Canberra from 2–13 February 1998.
The Australian Corps was a World War I army corps that contained all five Australian infantry divisions serving on the Western Front.
The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) is the largest peak body representing workers in Australia.
Australian country music is a part of the music of Australia.
The Australian Democrats is an Australian political party in existence since 1977.
The Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB or AuDB) is a national co-operative enterprise founded and maintained by the Australian National University (ANU) to produce authoritative biographical articles on eminent people in Australia's history.
Federal elections were held in Australia on 21 September 1940.
Federal elections were held in Australia on 25 October 1969.
Federal elections were held in Australia on 18 May 1974.
Federal elections were held in Australia on 5 March 1983.
The 1993 Australian federal election was held to determine the members of the 37th Parliament of Australia.
The 1996 Australian federal election was held to determine the members of the 38th Parliament of Australia.
A federal election to determine the members of the 44th Parliament of Australia took place on 7 September 2013.
The Australian Film Commission (AFC) was an Australian government agency with a mandate to promote the creation and distribution of films in Australia as well as to preserve the country's film history.
The Australian flag debate is a periodic question over whether the Australian flag should be changed, particularly to remove the Union Jack from the canton, but also to possibly introduce a completely new design without the Southern Cross.
The Australian frontier wars is a term applied by some historians to violent conflicts between Indigenous Australians and white settlers during the British colonisation of Australia.
During the Australian gold rushes, significant numbers of workers (both from other areas within Australia and from overseas) relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered.
The Australian Greens (commonly known as The Greens) is a green political party in Australia.
The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two Houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.
The Australian Human Rights Commission is a national human rights institution, established in 1986 as the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission and renamed in 2008.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
The Australian Labor Party leadership spill, 2010 occurred on 24 June 2010.
The Australian Labor Party split of 1955 was a split within the Australian Labor Party along ethnocultural lines and about the position towards communism.
The Australian labour movement has its origins in the early 19th century and includes both trade unions and political activity.
Australian literature is the written or literary work produced in the area or by the people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding colonies.
Australian megafauna comprises a number of large animal species in Australia, often defined as species with body mass estimates of greater than or equal to or greater than 130% of the body mass of their closest living relatives.
The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.
The Australian Natives' Association (ANA) was a mutual society founded in Melbourne, Australia in April 1871 as the Victorian Natives' Association.
The Australian New Wave (also known as the Australian Film Revival, Australian Film Renaissance, or New Australian Cinema) was an era of resurgence in worldwide popularity of Australian cinema, particularly in the United States.
The Australian Overland Telegraph Line was a 3200 km telegraph line that connected Darwin with Port Augusta in South Australia.
The Australian Patriotic Association is considered the first political party in Australia.
Of an estimated 200 place names the Dutch bestowed on Australian localities in the 17th century as a result of the Dutch voyages of exploration along the western, northern and southern Australian coasts, only about 35 can still be found on current maps.
The Australian referendum of 27 May 1967, called by the Holt Government, approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to Indigenous Australians.
The Australian republic referendum held on 6 November 1999 was a two-question referendum to amend the Constitution of Australia.
The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
The Australian settlement is a term that has been used to describe a set of nation-building policies adopted in Australia at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Australian women during World War II played a larger role than they had during World War I.
The role of Australian women in World War I was focused mainly upon their involvement in the provision of nursing services.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The Autonomous Region of Bougainville, previously known as the North Solomons Province, is an autonomous region in Papua New Guinea.
Although Australia was remote from the main battlefronts, there was considerable Axis naval activity in Australian waters during the Second World War.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Balfour Declaration of 1926, issued by the 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London, was named after Lord President of the Council (and former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Arthur Balfour.
The Bali Nine is the name given to a group of nine Australians convicted for attempting to smuggle of heroin out of Indonesia in April 2005.
The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940.
Ballarat is a city located on the Yarrowee River in the Central Highlands of Victoria, Australia.
The Ballarat Reform League came into being in October 1853 and was officially constituted on 11 November 1854 at a mass meeting of miners in Ballarat, Victoria to protest against the Victorian government's mining policy and administration of the goldfields.
Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson, (17 February 18645 February 1941) was an Australian bush poet, journalist and author.
Barangaroo was the second wife of Bennelong, who was interlocutor between the Aboriginal people and the early British colonists in New South Wales.
John Barry Humphries, AO, CBE (born 17 February 1934) is an Australian comedian, actor, satirist, artist, and author.
Barry McKenzie (full name: Barrington Bradman Bing McKenzie)Rebecca Coyle and Michael Hannan:, La Trobe University, 2005 is a fictional character created in 1964 by the Australian comedian Barry Humphries (but suggested by Peter Cook) for a comic strip, written by Humphries and drawn by New Zealand artist Nicholas Garland in the British satirical magazine Private Eye.
Batavia was a ship of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
Batavia's Graveyard: The True Story of the Mad Heretic Who Led History's Bloodiest Mutiny (2002) is a book by Welsh author Mike Dash about the Dutch ship ''Batavia'', shipwrecked in 1629 on a small island in the Houtman Abrolhos atoll off the western shore of Australia.
Bathurst Island is one of the Tiwi Islands in the Northern Territory off the northern coast of Australia along with Melville Island.
Bathurst is a regional city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia.
The battle between the Australian light cruiser and the German auxiliary cruiser was a single ship action that occurred on 19 November 1941, off the coast of Western Australia.
The Battle of Amiens, also known as the Third Battle of Picardy (3ème Bataille de Picardie), was the opening phase of the Allied offensive which began on 8 August 1918, later known as the Hundred Days Offensive, that ultimately led to the end of the First World War.
The Battle of Beersheba (Birüssebi Muharebesi, Schlacht von Birüssebi)The several battles fought for the Gaza to Beersheba line between 31 October and 7 November were all assigned the title Third Battle of Gaza, although they took place many miles apart, and were fought by different corps.
The Battle of Buna–Gona was part of the New Guinea campaign in the Pacific Theatre during World War II.
The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete.
The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Allied Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in April 1941 during World War II.
The Battle of Hamel (4 July 1918) was a successful attack by Australian Army and US Army infantry, supported by British tanks, against German positions in and around the town of Le Hamel, in northern France, during World War I. The attack was planned and commanded by Lieutenant General John Monash, commander of the Australian Corps and Australian Imperial Force.
The Battle of Kapyong (가평전투, 22–25 April 1951), also known as the Battle of Jiaping, was fought during the Korean War between United Nations (UN) forces—primarily Australian, Canadian and New Zealand—and the Chinese communist People's Volunteer Army.
The Battle of Midway was a decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II which occurred between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea.
The Battle of Milne Bay (25 August – 7 September 1942), also known as Operation RE or the Battle of Rabi (ラビの戦い) by the Japanese, was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
The Battle of St Quentin Canal was a pivotal battle of World War I that began on 29 September 1918 and involved British, Australian and American forces operating as part of the British Fourth Army under the overall command of General Sir Henry Rawlinson.
The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought from 4 to 8 May 1942, was a major naval battle between the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and naval and air forces from the United States and Australia, taking place in the Pacific Theatre of World War II.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
John Bede Polding, OSB (18 October 1794 in Liverpool, England16 March 1877 in Sydney, Australia) was the first Roman Catholic Bishop and then Archbishop of Sydney, Australia.
Joseph Benedict Chifley (22 September 1885 – 13 June 1951) was an Australian politician who served as the 16th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1945 to 1949.
Ben Hall (9 May 1837 – 5 May 1865) was an Australian bushranger.
Benjamin John Pimlott FBA (4 July 1945 – 10 April 2004), known as Ben Pimlott, was a British historian of the post-war period in Britain.
Woollarawarre Bennelong (c. 1764 – 3 January 1813) (also: "Baneelon") was a senior man of the Eora, an Aboriginal (Koori) people of the Port Jackson area, at the time of the first British settlement in Australia, in 1788.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
William Leonard "Bill" Gammage (born 1942) is an Australian academic historian, Adjunct Professor and Senior Research Fellow at the Humanities Research Centre of the Australian National University (ANU).
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
William Morris Hughes, (25 September 186228 October 1952) was an Australian politician who served as the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1915 to 1923.
The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean and is part of the Islands Region of Papua New Guinea.
The Black War was the period of violent conflict between British colonists and Aboriginal Australians in Tasmania from the mid-1820s to 1832.
The Blue Mountains are a mountainous region and a mountain range located in New South Wales, Australia.
In the United States and (at least some) other English-speaking countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor.
Robert John Carr (born 28 September 1947) is a former Australian politician who served as Premier of New South Wales from 1995 to 2005, as the leader of the Labor Party.
Robert James Lee Hawke, (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian politician who was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1983 to 1991.
The Bombing of Darwin, also known as the Battle of Darwin, on 19 February 1942 was the largest single attack ever mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
A boomerang is a thrown tool, typically constructed as a flat airfoil, that is designed to spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of its flight.
The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area during World War II.
Botany Bay, an open oceanic embayment, is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, south of the Sydney central business district.
Breaker Morant is a 1980 Australian war and trial film directed by Bruce Beresford, who also co-wrote the screenplay which was based on Kenneth G. Ross' 1978 play of the same name.
The Brisbane River (indigenous name Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay.
The Bristol Type 156 Beaufighter (often referred to simply as the "Beau") is a multi-role aircraft developed during the Second World War by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in the United Kingdom.
The Bristol Beaufort (manufacturer designation Type 152) was a British twin-engined torpedo bomber designed by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, and developed from experience gained designing and building the earlier Blenheim light bomber.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War.
British nuclear tests at Maralinga occurred between 1956 and 1963 at the Maralinga site, part of the Woomera Prohibited Area in South Australia and about 800 kilometres north-west of Adelaide.
British Protectorates were territories in which the British Crown exercised sovereign jurisdiction.
Arthur Bruce Smith KC (28 June 1851 – 14 August 1937) was a long serving Australian politician and leading political opponent of the White Australia policy.
Bungaree, or Boongaree, (1775 – 24 November 1830) was an Aboriginal Australian from the Kuringgai people of the Broken Bay area, who was known as an explorer, entertainer, and Aboriginal community leader.
The Burke and Wills expedition was an Australian exploration expedition in 1860–61 of 19 men, led by Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills, with the objective of crossing Australia from Melbourne in the south, to the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north, a distance of around 3,250 kilometres (approximately 2,000 miles).
The Burma Railway, also known as the Death Railway, the Siam–Burma Railway, the Thai–Burma Railway and similar names, was a railway between Ban Pong, Thailand, and Thanbyuzayat, Burma, built by the Empire of Japan in 1943 to support its forces in the Burma campaign of World War II.
The bush ballad, bush song or bush poem is a style of poetry and folk music that depicts the life, character and scenery of the Australian bush.
Bushrangers were originally escaped convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who had the survival skills necessary to use the Australian bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities.
Clarence Michael James Stanislaus Dennis, better known as C. J. Dennis, (7 September 1876 – 22 June 1938) was an Australian poet known for his humorous poems, especially "The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke", published in the early 20th century.
The Cabinet of Australia is the Australian Government's council of senior Ministers of the Crown, responsible to Parliament.
The CAC Boomerang is a fighter aircraft designed and manufactured in Australia by the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation between 1942 and 1945.
The Caledon Bay crisis refers to a series of killings at Caledon Bay in the Northern Territory of Australia during 1932–34.
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.
The Cammeraygal, variously spelled as Cam-mer-ray-gal, Gamaraigal, Kameraigal, Cameragal and several other variations, are an indigenous Australian group of people who were united by a common language, strong ties of kinship and survived as skilled hunter–fisher–gatherers in family groups or clans that inhabited the Lower North Shore of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
Cape Leeuwin is the most south-westerly mainland point of the Australian continent, in the state of Western Australia.
Cape York Peninsula is a large remote peninsula located in Far North Queensland, Australia.
A capital district, capital region or capital territory is normally a specially designated administrative division where a country's seat of government is located.
Frederick Wordsworth Ward (1835 – 25 May 1870), better known by the self-styled pseudonym of Captain Thunderbolt, was an Australian bushranger renowned for escaping from Cockatoo Island, and also for his reputation as the "gentleman bushranger" and his lengthy survival, being the longest roaming bushranger in Australian history.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Caroline Chisholm (30 May 1808 – 25 March 1877) was a progressive 19th-century English humanitarian known mostly for her involvement with female immigrant welfare in Australia.
Cartier Island is an uninhabited and unvegetated sand cay in a platform reef in the Timor Sea north of Australia and south of Indonesia.
The Castle Hill rebellion of 1804 was a rebellion by convicts against colonial authority of the British colony of New South Wales in the Castle Hill area, in Sydney.
Castlemaine is a small city in Victoria, Australia, in the goldfields region of Victoria about 120 kilometres northwest by road from Melbourne and about 40 kilometres from the major provincial centre of Bendigo.
Catherine Helen Spence (31 October 1825 – 3 April 1910) was a Scottish-born Australian author, teacher, journalist, politician, leading suffragist, and Georgist.
The Catholic Church in Australia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual and administrative leadership of the Holy See.
Catherine Astrid Salome "Cathy" Freeman, (born 16 February 1973) is an Australian former sprinter, who specialised in the 400 metres event.
The Cave of Altamira (Cueva de Altamira) located near the historic town Santillana del Mar in Cantabria, Spain, is renowned for its numerous parietal cave paintings featuring charcoal drawings and polychrome paintings of contemporary local fauna and human hands, created during the Upper Paleolithic.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Sir Charles Edward Kingsford Smith, MC, AFC (9 February 1897 – 8 November 1935), often called by his nickname Smithy, was an early Australian aviator.
Charles Nelson Perkins, AO, commonly known as Charlie Perkins (16 June 1936 – 19 October 2000), was an Australian Aboriginal activist, soccer player and administrator.
Captain Charles Napier Sturt (28 April 1795 – 16 June 1869) was a British explorer of Australia, and part of the European exploration of Australia.
The Chief Justice of New South Wales is the senior judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales and the highest-ranking judicial officer in the Australian state of New South Wales.
The Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory is the head of government of the Australian Capital Territory.
The Chief Secretary of South Australia (since 1856) or Colonial Secretary of South Australia (1836–1856) was a key role in the governance of the Colony of South Australia (1836–1900) and State of South Australia (from 1901) until it was abolished in 1982.
The Children Overboard affair was an Australian political controversy involving public allegations by Howard Government ministers in October 2001, in the lead-up to a federal election, that seafaring asylum seekers had thrown children overboard in a presumed ploy to secure rescue and passage to Australia.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chips Rafferty MBE (26 March 190927 May 1971) was an Australian actor.
John Christian Watson (born John Christian Tanck; 9 April 186718 November 1941), commonly known as Chris Watson, was an Australian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of Australia.
Christianity is the largest Australian religion according to the national census.
The Church Mission Society (CMS), formerly in Britain and currently in Australia and New Zealand known as the Church Missionary Society, is a mission society working with the Anglican Communion and Protestant Christians around the world.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Churchill war ministry was a Conservative-led coalition government in the United Kingdom that lasted for most of the Second World War.
The Australian film industry has its beginnings with the 1906 production of The Story of the Kelly Gang, the earliest feature film ever made.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
The City of Adelaide is a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia.
The City of Sydney is the local government area covering the Sydney central business district and surrounding inner city suburbs of the greater metropolitan area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
"Clancy of the Overflow" is a poem by Banjo Paterson, first published in The Bulletin, an Australian news magazine, on 21 December 1889.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Clover Margaret Moore (née Collins, 22 October 1945) is an Australian politician.
The Coalition (or Liberal–National Coalition) is an alliance of centre-right political parties that forms one of the two major groupings in Australian federal politics.
Cobb & Co was the name used by many successful sometimes quite independent Australian coaching businesses.
The Cobourg Peninsula is located 350 km east of Darwin in the Northern Territory, Australia.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire.
The colony of New South Wales was a colony of the British Empire from 1788 to 1901, when it became a State in the federal Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901.
The Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1904 was a law passed by the Parliament of Australia in 1904.
The Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration was an Australian court that existed from 1904 to 1956.
The Commonwealth Liberal Party (CLP, also known as the Deakin–Cook Party, The Fusion, or the Deakinite Liberal Party) was a political movement active in Australia from 1909 to 1917, shortly after Federation.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Communist Party of Australia (CPA) was founded in 1920 and dissolved in 1991.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Condah is a small town in south west Victoria, Australia and is located on the Henty Highway north of Heywood.
The Coniston massacre, which took place from 14 August to 18 October 1928 near the Coniston cattle station in Northern Territory, Australia, was the last known officially sanctioned massacre of Indigenous Australians and one of the last events of the Australian Frontier Wars.
Conscription in Australia, or mandatory military service also known as national service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood.
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Between 1788 and 1868, about 162,000 convicts were transported by the British government to various penal colonies in Australia.
The Cooper Creek (formerly Cooper's Creek) is one of the most famous rivers in Australia because it was the site of the death of the explorers Burke and Wills in 1861.
Corio Bay is one of numerous bays in the southwest corner of Australia's Port Phillip, and is the bay on which abuts the City of Geelong.
The Country Liberal Party (CLP), officially the Country Liberals (Northern Territory), is a conservative political party in Australia founded in 1974, which operates solely in the Northern Territory.
Cowra is a town in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.
A cultural icon is an artifact that is identified by members of a culture as representative of that culture.
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris.
Dame Edna Everage is a character created and performed by Australian comedian Barry Humphries, known for her lilac-coloured or "wisteria hue" hair and cat eye glasses or "face furniture", her favourite flower, the gladiolus ("gladdies") and her boisterous greeting: "Hello, Possums!" As Dame Edna, Humphries has written several books including an autobiography, My Gorgeous Life, appeared in several films and hosted several television shows (on which Humphries has also appeared as himself and other alter-egos).
Dan Morgan (30 April 1830 – 9 April 1865), born John Fuller, was an Australian bushranger.
The Darling River is the third longest river in Australia, measuring from its source in northern New South Wales to its confluence with the Murray River at Wentworth, New South Wales.
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia.
Dawn Fraser, (born 4 September 1937) is an Australian freestyle champion swimmer and former politician.
The Democratic Labor Party (DLP) was an Australian political party.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The New South Wales Department of Justice, a department of the New South Wales Government, is responsible for the administration and development of a just and equitable legal system of courts, tribunals, laws and other mechanisms that further the principles of justice in New South Wales.
The Diggings was a colloquial term for the gold rush locations in Australia and the United States beginning in the 1850s.
The dingo (Canis familiaris or Canis familiaris dingo or Canis lupus dingo or Canis dingo) is a type of feral dog native to Australia.
Dirk Hartog (baptized 30 October 1580, Amsterdam – buried 11 October 1621, Amsterdam) was a 17th-century Dutch sailor and explorer.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Sir Donald George Bradman, AC (27 August 1908 – 25 February 2001), often referred to as "The Don", was an Australian international cricketer, widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of all time.
Donald Leslie Chipp, AO (21 August 192528 August 2006) was an Australian politician who was the first leader of the Australian Democrats.
Donald Finlay Fergusson Thomson, OBE (26 June 1901 – 12 May 1970) was an Australian anthropologist and ornithologist who was largely responsible for turning the Caledon Bay crisis into a "decisive moment in the history of Aboriginal-European relations".
Isobel Marion Dorothea Mackellar (better known as Dorothea Mackellar), OBE (1 July 1885 – 14 January 1968) was an Australian poet and fiction writer.
Dame Dorothy Margaret Tangney DBE (13 March 19071 June 1985) was an Australian politician and the first woman member of the Australian Senate.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
Sir Douglas Ralph Nicholls, (9 December 19064 June 1988) was a prominent Aboriginal Australian from the Yorta Yorta people.
In Australian Aboriginal art, a Dreaming is a totemistic design or artwork, which can be owned by a tribal group or individual.
Dreamtime (also dream time, dream-time) is a term devised by early anthropologists to refer to a religio-cultural worldview attributed to Australian Aboriginal beliefs.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
Duyfken (Little Dove), also spelled Duifken or Duijfken, was a small ship built in the Dutch Republic.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
The economic history of Australia traces the economic history of Australia since European settlement in 1788.
The economy of Australia is one of the largest mixed-market economies in the world, with a GDP of A$1.69 trillion as of 2017.
Edith Dircksey Cowan OBE (née Brown; 2 August 18619 June 1932) was an Australian social reformer who worked for the rights and welfare of women and children.
Sir Edmund "Toby" Barton, (18 January 18497 January 1920) was an Australian politician and judge who served as the first Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1901 to 1903.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Edmund Lockyer, (21 January 1784 – 10 June 1860) was a British soldier and explorer of Australia.
Edward Duyker (born 21 March 1955) is an Australian historian, biographer and author born in Melbourne.
Edward Gibbon Wakefield (20 March 1796 – 16 May 1862) is considered a key figure in the early colonisation of South Australia and New Zealand.
Edward Hammond Hargraves (7 October 1816 – 29 October 1891) was a gold prospector who claimed to have found gold in Australia in 1851, starting an Australian gold rush.
Edward Owen Giblin Shann (30 April 1884 – 23 May 1935, often written as E. O. G. Shann) was an Australian economist.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Egon Erwin Kisch (29 April 1885, Prague – 31 March 1948, Prague) was an Austrian and Czechoslovak writer and journalist, who wrote in German.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses.
Elections in Australia take place periodically to elect the legislature of the Commonwealth of Australia, as well as for each Australian state and territory.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Elizabeth Macarthur (14 August 1766 – 9 February 1850) was an Anglo-Australian pastoralist and merchant, and wife of John Macarthur.
Elizabeth Macquarie (1778–1835) was the second wife of Lachlan Macquarie, who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821.
An emancipist was a convict sentenced and transported under the convict system to Australia, who had been given a conditional or absolute pardon.
Emanuel Bowen (1694?–1767) was an English map engraver, who worked for George II of England and Louis XV of France as a geographer.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Dame Enid Muriel Lyons (née Burnell; 9 July 1897 – 2 September 1981) was an Australian politician who was the first woman elected to the House of Representatives and the first woman to serve in federal cabinet.
Beginning as a conservation movement, the environmental movement in Australia was the first in the world to become a political movement.
The Eora are an indigenous Australian people of New South Wales.
Eric Deeral (23 August 1932 – 5 September 2012) was an Australian politician who was the second Australian Aboriginal person elected to an Australian parliament and the first to a state parliament.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
William Ernest Powell Giles (20 July 1835 – 13 November 1897), best known as Ernest Giles, was an Australian explorer who led five major expeditions in central Australia.
Sir Ernest Scott (21 June 1867 – 6 December 1939) was an Australian historian and professor of history at the University of Melbourne from 1913 to 1936.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
The Eureka Flag is a flag design which features dark blue field (2:3.08 ratio); a horizontal stripe wide and a vertical line crossing it of wide; and 5 eight pointed stars, the central star being tall (point to point) and the other stars tall, representing the Crux Australis constellation.
The Eureka Rebellion was a rebellion in 1854, instigated by gold miners in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, who revolted against the colonial authority of the United Kingdom.
The European Communities Act 1972 (c. 68) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC (or "Common Market"), Euratom, and the (now defunct) Coal & Steel Community.
European land exploration of Australia deals with the opening up of the interior of Australia to European settlement which occurred gradually throughout the colonial period, 1788–1900.
The British colony of South Australia took shape between the formation of the South Australian Land Company in 1831 and the commencement of the Legislative Assembly in 1842.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
Federalism was adopted, as a constitutional principle, in Australia on 1 January 1901 – the date upon which the six self-governing Australian Colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia federated, formally constituting the Commonwealth of Australia.
The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia.
Fightback! was a 650-page economic policy package document proposed by John Hewson, federal leader of the Liberal Party of Australia and Leader of the Opposition from 1990 to 1994.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Fire-stick farming was the practice of Indigenous Australians who regularly used fire to burn vegetation to facilitate hunting and to change the composition of plant and animal species in an area.
The First Australian Imperial Force (1st AIF) was the main expeditionary force of the Australian Army during World War I. It was formed on 15 August 1914, following Britain's declaration of war on Germany, initially with a strength of one infantry division and one light horse brigade.
The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought in Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika, which included the Afrika Korps) (Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel) and Allied (British Imperial and Commonwealth) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army (General Claude Auchinleck).
The First Battle of Maryang San (3–8 October 1951), also known as the Defensive Battle of Maliangshan, was fought during the Korean War between United Nations (UN) forces—primarily Australian and British—and the Chinese communist People's Volunteer Army.
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia.
Flinders Island, the largest island in the Furneaux Group, is a island located in the Bass Strait, northeast of the island of Tasmania.
Forbes is a town in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia, located on the Newell Highway between Parkes and West Wyalong.
Fort Dundas was a short lived British settlement on Melville Island between 1824 and 1828 in what is now the Northern Territory of Australia.
François Auguste Péron (22 August 1775 – 14 December 1810) was a French naturalist and explorer.
François Thijssen or Frans Thijsz (died 13 October 1638?) was a Dutch explorer who explored the southern coast of Australia.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Howard Greenway (20 November 1777 – September 1837) was an English-born architect who was transported to Australia as a convict for the crime of forgery.
Francisco Pelsaert (first name also spelled as "François", surname also spelled as "Pelsart") (c. 1595 – September 1630) was a Dutch merchant who worked for the Dutch East Indies Company, who became most famous as the commander of the ship Batavia, which ran aground in the Houtman Abrolhos off the coast of Western Australia in June 1629.
Frank Gardiner (1830 – c. 1903?) was an Australian bushranger.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Franklin Dam or Gordon-below-Franklin Dam project was a proposed dam on the Gordon River in Tasmania, Australia, that was never constructed.
The Fraser Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser.
Frederick McCubbin (25 February 1855 – 20 December 1917) was an Australian artist and prominent member of the Heidelberg School art movement, also known as Australian Impressionism.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
The Free Trade Party which was officially known as the Australian Free Trade and Liberal Association, also referred to as the Revenue Tariff Party in some states, was an Australian political party, formally organised in 1887 in New South Wales, in time for the 1887 colony election, which the party won.
The Freedom Ride of 1965 was a significant event in the history of civil rights for Indigenous Australians.
Gallipoli is a 1981 Australian war drama film directed by Peter Weir and produced by Patricia Lovell and Robert Stigwood, starring Mel Gibson and Mark Lee, about several rural Western Australian young men who enlist in the Australian Army during the First World War.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
Gavin Merrick Long (31 May 1901 – 10 October 1968) was an Australian journalist and military historian.
Geoffrey Norman Blainey (born 11 March 1930) is an Australian historian, academic, philanthropist and commentator with a wide international audience.
Alan Geoffrey Serle (10 March 1922 – 27 April 1998), known as Geoff, was an Australian historian, who is best known for his books on the colony of Victoria; The Golden Age (1963) and The Rush to be Rich (1971) and his biographies of John Monash, John Curtin and Robin Boyd.
Johann Georg Adam Forster (November 27, 1754Many sources, including the biography by Thomas Saine, give Forster's birth date as November 26; according to Enzensberger, Ulrich (1996) Ein Leben in Scherben, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag,, the baptism registry of St Peter in Danzig lists November 27 as the date of birth and December 5 as the date of baptism. – January 10, 1794) was a German naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary.
George Augustus Robinson (22 March 1791 – 18 October 1866) was a builder and untrained preacher.
George Bass (30 January 1771 – after 5 February 1803) was a British naval surgeon and explorer of Australia.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) was the first part of the German colonial empire.
The Gibson Desert, an interim Australian bioregion, is a large desert that covers a large dry area in the state of Western Australia and is still largely in an almost "pristine" state.
The Gillard Government was the Government of Australia led by the 27th Prime Minister of Australia, Julia Gillard, of the Australian Labor Party.
Glenelg is a beach-side suburb of the South Australian capital of Adelaide.
Glenrowan is a small town located in the Wangaratta local government area of Victoria, Australia.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The goods and services tax (GST) in Australia is a value added tax of 10% on most goods and services sales, with some exemptions (such as for certain food, healthcare and housing items) and concessions (including qualifying long term accommodation which is taxed at an effective rate of 5.5%).
Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
The Government of New South Wales, also referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales.
The Governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales.
The Governor of South Australia is the representative in the Australian state of South Australia of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia.
The Governor of Tasmania is the representative in the Australian state of Tasmania of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia.
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (Gouverneur-generaal van Nederlands Indië) represented Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and Dutch recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1945.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Australia suffered badly during the period of the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Great White Fleet was the popular nickname for the powerful United States Navy battle fleet that completed a journey around the globe from 16 December 1907, to 22 February 1909, by order of United States President Theodore Roosevelt.
Gregory Blaxland (17 June 1778 – 1 January 1853) was an English pioneer farmer and explorer in Australia, noted especially for initiating and co-leading the first successful crossing of the Blue Mountains by European settlers.
The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and New Guinea).
Gulf St Vincent is a large inlet of water on the southern coast of Australia, in the state of South Australia.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gun laws in Australia are mainly the jurisdiction of Australian states and territories, with the importation of guns regulated by the federal government.
Gunning is a town on the Old Hume Highway, between Goulburn and Yass in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, about 260 km south-west of Sydney and 75 km north of the national capital, Canberra.
Gustav III (– 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792.
Herbert Vere Evatt, (30 April 1894 – 2 November 1965), usually known as H. V. Evatt or Bert Evatt, and often as "Doc" Evatt on account of his Doctor of Laws (LLD) degree, was an Australian judge, lawyer, parliamentarian and writer. Evatt was a Justice of the High Court of Australia from 1930 to 1940; Attorney-General and Minister for External Affairs from 1941 to 1949; the third President of the United Nations General Assembly from 1948 to 1949, when he helped to draft the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Leader of the Australian Labor Party (and Leader of the Opposition) from 1951 to 1960; and Chief Justice of New South Wales from 1960 to 1962.
Hamilton Hume (19 June 1797 – 19 April 1873) was an early explorer of the present-day Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria.
Harold Edward Holt, (5 August 190817 December 1967), was an Australian politician who served as the 17th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1966 until his presumed drowning death in 1967.
Hartog Plate or Dirk Hartog's Plate is either of two plates, although primarily the first, which were left on Dirk Hartog Island during a period of European exploration of the western coast of Australia prior to European settlement there.
Ex parte H.V. McKay,Ex parte H.V. McKay.
The Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars (1790–1816) were a series of wars between the New South Wales Corps and the Indigenous clans of the Hawkesbury river and Nepean river in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The Territory of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsCIA World Factbook. Accessed 4 January 2009.
The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century.
Henrietta Augusta Dugdale, née Worrell (14 May 1827 – 17 June 1918) was a pioneer Australian who initiated the first female suffrage society in Australia.
Sir Henry Ayers GCMG (1 May 1821 – 11 June 1897) was the eighth Premier of South Australia, serving a record five times between 1863 and 1873.
Henry Archibald Hertzberg Lawson (17 June 1867 – 2 September 1922) was an Australian writer and bush poet.
Sir Henry Parkes, (27 May 1815 – 27 April 1896) was a colonial Australian politician and longest non-consecutive Premier of the Colony of New South Wales, the present-day state of New South Wales in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Henry Reynolds (born 1 March 1938) is an eminent Australian historian whose primary work has focused on the frontier conflict between European settlers in Australia and indigenous Australians.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.
A highwayman was a robber who stole from travellers.
The history of Australia from 1788–1850 covers the early colonial period of Australia's history, from the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney, New South Wales, who established the penal colony, the scientific exploration of the continent and later, establishment of other Australian colonies and the beginnings of representative democratic government.
Bougainville is a province of Papua New Guinea.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
Australia is a constitutional monarchy whose Sovereign also serves as Monarch of the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada and eleven other former dependencies of the United Kingdom including Papua New Guinea, which was formerly a dependency of Australia.
The History of Oceania includes the history of Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji and other Pacific island nations.
Australians generally assumed in the 1850s that railways would be built by the private sector.
Australia was a relatively early adopter of telegraph technology in the middle nineteenth century, despite its low population densities and the difficult conditions sometimes encountered in laying lines.
The history of the Royal Australian Navy traces the development of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) from the colonisation of Australia by the British in 1788.
The history of the United States began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC.
The History Teachers' Association of Victoria (HTAV) is a professional association representing and supporting teachers of history in Victoria, Australia.
The history wars in Australia are an ongoing public debate over the interpretation of the history of the British colonisation of Australia and development of contemporary Australian society (particularly with regard to the impact on Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders).
HMAS Kuttabul was a Royal Australian Navy depot ship, converted from a Sydney Ferries Limited ferry.
HMS Investigator was the mercantile Fram, launched in 1795, which the Royal Navy purchased in 1798 and renamed HMS Xenophon, and then in 1801 converted to a survey ship under the name HMS Investigator.
Holden, formally known as General Motors Holden, is an Australian automobile importer and a former automobile manufacturer with its headquarters in Port Melbourne, Victoria.
The Holt Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister Harold Holt.
Homicide (1964-1977) is an Australian television police procedural drama series made by production firm Crawford Productions for the Seven Network.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Howard Government refers to the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister John Howard between 11 March 1996 and 3 December 2007.
Hugh Edwards (born 1932) is a Western Australian author and marine photographer who has written numerous books on maritime, local and natural history and diving.
The Hume and Hovell expedition was one of the most important journeys of explorations undertaken in eastern Australia.
Humphrey Dennis McQueen (born 26 June 1942) is an Australian socialist historian and cultural commentator.
A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (commonly known as members or seats) in a parliament or other legislature.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hyacinth Gabriel Tungutalum (14 August 1946 – 7 April 2009) was an Australian politician and the first Indigenous Australian to be elected to a state or territory parliament.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
The immigration history of Australia began with the initial human migration to the continent around 80,000 years ago ago when the ancestors of Australian Aboriginals arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea.
The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which limited immigration to Australia and formed the basis of the White Australia policy which sought to exclude all non-Europeans from Australia.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
Imperial Preference was a proposed system of reciprocally-enacted tariffs or free trade agreements between the dominions and colonies of the British Empire.
Indigenous Australian art or Australian Aboriginal art is art made by the Indigenous peoples of Australia and in collaborations between Indigenous Australians and others.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
Australian Indigenous music includes the music of Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, who are collectively called Indigenous Australians.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In Australia, an industrial award is a ruling handed down by either the Fair Work Commission (or its predecessor) or by a state industrial relations commission which grants all wage earners in one industry or occupation the same minimum pay rates and conditions of employment such as leave entitlements, overtime and shift work, as well as other workplace related conditions.
The International Force East Timor (INTERFET) was a multinational non-United Nations peacemaking taskforce, organised and led by Australia in accordance with United Nations resolutions to address the humanitarian and security crisis that took place in East Timor from 1999–2000 until the arrival of UN peacekeepers.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Irrigation is a widespread practice required in many areas of Australia, the driest inhabited continent, to supplement low rainfall with water from other sources to assist in growing crops and pasture.
Isaack Gilsemans (ca. 1606, in Rotterdam – 1646, in Batavia, Dutch East Indies), was a Dutch merchant and artist.
Islands of Angry Ghosts is a 1966 book by Australian journalist and writer Hugh Edwards.
Jack Donahue (1804 – 1 September 1830) was a bushranger in Australia between 1825 and 1830.
John Thomas Lang (21 December 187627 September 1975), usually referred to as J. T. Lang during his career, and familiarly known as "Jack" and nicknamed "The Big Fella", was an Australian politician who twice served as the 23rd Premier of New South Wales from 1925 to 1927 and again from 1930 1932.
Jackey Jackey (a.k.a. Jacky Jacky) (1833–1854) is the name by which Galmahra(a.k.a. Galmarra), the Aboriginal Australian guide and companion to surveyor Edmund Kennedy was known.
Sir James John Gordon Bremer, KCB, KCH (26 September 1786 – 14 February 1850) was a British Royal Navy officer.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
James Mario Matra (174629 March 1806), sailor and diplomat, was an American-born midshipman on the voyage by James Cook to Botany Bay in 1770.
James Henry "Jim" Scullin (18 September 1876 – 28 January 1953) was an Australian Labor Party politician and the ninth Prime Minister of Australia.
Willem Janszoon made the first recorded European landing on the Australian continent in 1606, sailing from Bantam, Java, in the Duyfken.
The Japan–Australia Economic Partnership Agreement was concluded between Australia and Japan in November 2014 and took effect January 15, 2015.
The handwritten document known as the Jerilderie Letter was dictated by Australian bushranger Ned Kelly to fellow Kelly Gang member Joe Byrne in 1879.
The Jervis Bay Territory (abbreviated as JBT) is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia.
James Ford Cairns (4 October 191412 October 2003), Australian politician, was prominent in the Labor movement through the 1960s and 1970s, and was briefly Deputy Prime Minister in the Whitlam government.
Joan Blaeu (23 September 1596 – 21 December 1673) was a Dutch cartographer born in Alkmaar, the son of cartographer Willem Blaeu.
Sir Johannes Bjelke-Petersen, (13 January 191123 April 2005) was an Australian politician.
John Duncan Anderson (born 14 November 1956) is a former Australian politician.
John Batman (21 January 18016 May 1839) was an Australian grazier, entrepreneur and explorer.
John Cawte Beaglehole (13 June 1901 – 10 October 1971) was a New Zealand historian whose greatest scholastic achievement was the editing of James Cook's three journals of exploration, together with the writing of an acclaimed biography of Cook, published posthumously.
Sir John Call, 1st Baronet (30 June 1731 – 1 March 1801) was an English engineer and baronet.
John Callander (1722–1789) of Craigforth in Stirlingshire was a Scottish antiquary and plagiarist.
John Curtin (8 January 1885 – 5 July 1945) was an Australian politician who served as the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1941 to his death in 1945.
John Johnstone Dedman (2 June 1896 – 22 November 1973) was a Minister in the Australian Labor Party governments led by John Curtin and Ben Chifley.
John Dunmore Lang (25 August 1799 – 8 August 1878) was a Scottish-born Australian Presbyterian minister, writer, politician and activist.
Johnny Gilbert was an Australian bushranger shot dead by the police at the age of 23 near Binalong, New South Wales on 13 May 1865.
Sir John Grey Gorton (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002) was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1968 to 1971.
Rear-Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh KH RN (baptised 22 May 1785 – 29 July 1860) was a naval officer and the first Governor of South Australia, from 28 December 1836 to 16 July 1838.
John Adrian Louis Hope, 1st Marquess of Linlithgow, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, (25 September 1860 – 29 February 1908) was a British aristocrat and statesman who served as the first Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1901 to 1902.
John Winston Howard, (born 26 July 1939) is a former Australian politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1996 to 2007.
John Howard FRS (2 September 1726 – 20 January 1790) was a philanthropist and early English prison reformer.
Sir John Robert Kerr, (24 September 1914 – 24 March 1991) was the 18th Governor-General of Australia.
Lieutenant General Sir John Dudley Lavarack, (19 December 1885 – 4 December 1957) was an Australian soldier who was Governor of Queensland from 1 October 1946 to 4 December 1957, the first Australian-born governor of that state.
John Macarthur (1767 – 10 April 1834) was a British army officer, entrepreneur, politician, architect and pioneer of settlement in Australia.
John McDouall Stuart (7 September 18155 June 1866), often referred to as simply "McDouall Stuart", was a Scottish explorer and one of the most accomplished of all Australia's inland explorers.
General Sir John Monash, (27 June 1865 – 8 October 1931) was a civil engineer and an Australian military commander of the First World War.
John Patrick O'Grady, (9 October 1907 – 14 January 1981) was an Australian writer.
John Peter Russell (16 June 185830 April 1930) was an Australian impressionist painter.
John Hubert Plunkett (June 1802 – 9 May 1869) was Attorney-General of New South Wales, an appointed member of the Legislative Council 1836–41, 1843–56, 1857–58 and 1861–69; he was also elected as a member of the Legislative Assembly 1856–60.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Michael O'Keefe (19 January 1935 – 6 October 1978) was an Australian rock and roll singer whose career began in the 1950s.
A joint sitting of the Australian parliament was convened in 1974, in which members of the Senate and House of Representatives sat together as a single legislative body.
Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of the natural sciences.
Sir Joseph Cook, (7 December 1860 – 30 July 1947) was an Australian politician who served as Prime Minister of Australia from 1913 to 1914.
Joseph Aloysius Lyons (15 September 1879 – 7 April 1939) was the tenth Prime Minister of Australia, serving from January 1932 until his death.
Julia Eileen Gillard (born 29 September 1961) is a retired Australian politician who served as the 27th Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 2010 to 2013.
Julian Edmund Tenison-Woods (15 November 18327 October 1889) was a Catholic priest and geologist, active in Australia.
In the legal theory, reception is chiefly defined as the transfer of a legal phenomenon 'of a different legal culture', other area or other period of time 'to a new legal climate'.
Kakadu National Park is a protected area in the Northern Territory of Australia, 171 km southeast of Darwin.
Kangaroo Island is Australia's third-largest island, after Tasmania and Melville Island.
Kata Tjuṯa, (Pitjantjatjara:, lit. 'many heads'), also known as the Olgas, is a group of large, domed rock formations or bornhardts located about 360 km southwest of Alice Springs, in the southern part of the Northern Territory, central Australia.
Keith Windschuttle (born 1942) is an Australian writer, historian, and former ABC board member.
Kenneth Baillieu Myer (1 March 1921 – 30 July 1992) was an American-born Australian patron of the arts, humanities and sciences; diplomat, administrator, businessman and philanthropist.
Kenneth George Wyatt (born 4 August 1952) is a member of the Australian House of Representatives representing the electoral division of Hasluck in Western Australia for the Liberal Party of Australia.
The Kent Music Report was a weekly record chart of Australian music singles and albums which was compiled by music enthusiast David Kent from May 1974 through to 1988.
Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957) is a former Australian politician who was the 26th Prime Minister of Australia, serving from December 2007 to June 2010 and again from June to September 2013.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
King George Sound is the name of a sound on the south coast of Western Australia.
Kings Canyon is a canyon in the Northern Territory of Australia located at the western end of the George Gill Range about southwest of Alice Springs and about south of Darwin within the Watarrka National Park.
The Kokoda Track campaign or Kokoda Trail campaign was part of the Pacific War of World War II.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Kristina Kerscher Keneally (born 19 December 1968) is an Australian politician who has represented New South Wales in the Australian Senate for the Labor Party since 2018, having previously served as the 42nd Premier of New South Wales between 2009 and 2011.
The Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park is a protected national park that is located in New South Wales, Australia.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
A labour council, trades council or industrial council is an association of labour unions or union branches in a given area.
Major General Lachlan Macquarie, CB (Lachann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824) was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland.
Lake Alexandrina is a freshwater ephemeral lake located in the Fleurieu and Kangaroo Island and Murray Mallee regions of South Australia, adjacent to the coast of the Southern Ocean, about south-east of Adelaide.
The Lake Mungo remains are three prominent sets of Aboriginal Australian human remains: Lake Mungo 1 (also called Mungo Woman, LM1, and ANU-618), Lake Mungo 3 (also called Mungo Man, Lake Mungo III, and LM3), and Lake Mungo 2 (LM2).
A landslide victory is an electoral victory in a political system, when one candidate or party receives an overwhelming supermajority of the votes or seats in the elected body, thus utterly eliminating the opponents.
Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.
Sir Laurence Macdonald Muir, VRD, FSIA, FAIM (3 March 192521 April 2010) was an Australian philanthropist and businessman.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
Lieutenant General Sir Leslie James Morshead, (18 September 1889 – 26 September 1959) was an Australian soldier, teacher, businessman, and farmer, whose military career spanned both world wars.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP).
List of conflicts in Australia is a timeline of events that includes wars, battles, rebellions, skirmishes, massacres, riots, and other related events that have occurred in the country of Australia's current geographical area, both before and after federation.
Groups of Aboriginals were killed on occasions in retaliation between the start of the British colonisation of Australia in 1788 up to the 1920s.
This is a list of Old West gunfighters, referring to outlaws or lawmen, of the American frontier who gained fame or notoriety during the American Wild West or Old West.
This is a list of towns and cities in Australia by year of settlement.
Little Children are Sacred is the report of a Board of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse.
The Loan Council is an Australian Commonwealth-State ministerial council that coordinates public sector borrowing,Budget office: comprising the Commonwealth of Australia and the states and self-governing territories, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania the Australian Capital Territory, and the Northern Territory.
The Loans affair, also called the Khemlani affair, was a political scandal involving the Whitlam Government of Australia in 1975, in which it was accused of attempting to unconstitutionally borrow money from Middle Eastern countries through the agency of Pakistani banker Tirath Khemlani, bypassing standard procedures of the Australian Treasury.
Lord Haw-Haw was a nickname applied to the Irish-American William Joyce, who broadcast Nazi propaganda to Britain from Germany during the Second World War.
Louis Francois Marie Aleno de Saint Aloüarn (25 July 173827 October 1772) was a notable French mariner and explorer.
In general, loyalism is an individual's allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt.
Luís Vaz de Torres (Galician and Portuguese), or Luis Váez de Torres in the Spanish spelling (born c. 1565; fl. 1607), was a 16th- and 17th-century maritime explorer of a Spanish expedition noted for the first recorded European navigation of the strait which separates the continent of Australia from the island of New Guinea, and which now bears his name (Torres Strait).
Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Leichhardt, known as Ludwig Leichhardt, (23 October 1813 – c. 1848) was a German explorer and naturalist, most famous for his exploration of northern and central Australia.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Mabo v Queensland (No 2) (commonly known as Mabo).
Macquarie Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies in the southwest Pacific Ocean, about halfway between New Zealand and Antarctica, at 54° 30' S, 158° 57' E.
Macquarie River a watercourse that is part of the Macquarie–Barwon catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is one of the main inland rivers in New South Wales, Australia.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Makassan trepangers from the southwest corner of Sulawesi, Indonesia began visiting the coast of northern Australia sometime around the middle of the 1700s, first in the Kimberley region, and some decades later in Arnhem Land, to collect and process trepang (also known as sea cucumber), a marine invertebrate sea cucumber prized for its culinary value generally and for its medicinal properties in Chinese markets.
The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.
Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (MH17/MAS17) was a scheduled passenger flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur that was shot down on 17 July 2014 while flying over eastern Ukraine, killing all 283 passengers and 15 crew on board.
John Malcolm Fraser (21 May 1930 – 20 March 2015) was an Australian politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1975 to 1983 as leader of the Liberal Party.
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian politician serving as the 29th and current Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2015.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Charles Manning Hope Clark AC (3 March 1915 – 23 May 1991), an Australian historian, was the author of the best-known general history of Australia, his six-volume A History of Australia, published between 1962 and 1987.
Manus Island is part of Manus Province in northern Papua New Guinea and is the largest of the Admiralty Islands.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Margaret of Austria (25 December 1584 – 3 October 1611) was Queen consort of Spain and Portugal by her marriage to King Philip III and II.
Dame Marie Roslyn Bashir (born 1 December 1930) is the former and second longest-serving Governor of New South Wales.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Dame Mary Jean Gilmore DBE (née Cameron; 16 August 18653 December 1962) was an Australian writer and journalist known for her prolific contributions to Australian literature and the broader national discourse.
Mary Helen MacKillop RSJ (15 January 1842 – 8 August 1909) was an Australian nun who has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church, as St Mary of the Cross MacKillop.
Mateship is an Australian cultural idiom that embodies equality, loyalty and friendship, usually among men.
Captain Matthew Flinders (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was an English navigator and cartographer, who was the leader of the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent.
Medicare is the publicly funded universal health care system in Australia.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The Melbourne Cup is Australia's most prestigious annual Thoroughbred horse race.
Melchisédech (or Melchisédec) Thévenot (c. 1620 – 29 October 1692) was a French author, scientist, traveler, cartographer, orientalist, inventor, and diplomat.
Melville Island, known in the Tiwi language as Yermalner, is an island in the eastern Timor Sea, off the coast of the Northern Territory, Australia.
The Menzies Government (1949–1966) refers to the second period of federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister Robert Menzies.
The Merino is one of the most historically relevant and economically influential breeds of sheep, very prized for its wool.
A midget submarine (also called a mini submarine) is any submarine under 150 tons, typically operated by a crew of one or two but sometimes up to 6 or 9, with little or no on-board living accommodation.
The Migration Act 1958 is an act of the Parliament of Australia.
Mike Dash (born 1963) is a Welsh writer, historian and researcher.
Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin, known as Miles Franklin (14 October 187919 September 1954) was an Australian writer and feminist who is best known for her novel My Brilliant Career, published by Blackwoods of Edinburgh in 1901.
The military history of Australia spans the nation's 230-year modern history, from the early Australian frontier wars between Aboriginals and Europeans to the ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan in the early 21st century.
A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining.
The Miner's Right was introduced in 1855 in the colony of Victoria, replacing the Miner's Licence.
The Misogyny Speech was a parliamentary speech delivered by then Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard on 9 October 2012 in reaction to alleged sexism from opposition leader Tony Abbott.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The Motion of Reconciliation was a motion to the Australian Parliament introduced on 26 August 1999.
Mount Blaxland, actually a hill, is located about 25 kilometres south of Lithgow at longitude -33.548500061, latitude 150.117904663.
Mount Gambier (also known as Ereng Balam, meaning eagle hawk) is a maar complex in South Australia associated with the Newer Volcanics Province.
Mount Kosciuszko is Australia’s highest mountain, at 2,228 metres (7,310 ft) above sea level.
The Murray River (or River MurrayIn South Australia, the rendition "River Murray" is the most common, as is "River Darling" and "River Torrens".) (Ngarrindjeri: Millewa, Yorta Yorta: Tongala) is Australia's longest river, at in length.
The Murray–Darling basin is a large geographical area in the interior of southeastern Australia.
Murrumbidgee River, a major tributary of the Murray River within the Murray–Darling basin and the second longest river in Australia.
Musquito (c. 1780, Port Jackson – 25 February 1825, Hobart) (also rendered Mosquito, Musquetta, Bush Muschetta or Muskito) was an Indigenous Australian resistance leader, latterly based in Van Diemen's Land.
"My Country" is an iconic patriotic poem about Australia, written by Dorothea Mackellar (1885–1968) at the age of 19 while homesick in the United Kingdom.
The Myall Creek massacre near Gwydir River, in the central New South Wales district of Namoi, involved the killing of up to 30 unarmed indigenous Australians by ten Europeans and one African on 10 June 1838 at the Myall Creek near Bingara, Murchison County, in northern New South Wales.
The National Broadband Network (NBN) is an Australian national wholesale open-access data network project.
The National Museum of Australia preserves and interprets Australia's social history, exploring the key issues, people and events that have shaped the nation.
The National Party of Australia (also known as The Nationals or simply, The Nats) is an Australian political party.
The National Trust of Australia, officially the Australian Council of National Trusts (ACNT), is the Australian national peak body for community-based, non-government non-profit organisations committed to promoting and conserving Australia's indigenous, natural and historic heritage.
The Nationalist Party was an Australian political party.
The Native Title Act 1993 ("NTA") is a law passed by the Australian Parliament the purpose of which is "to provide a national system for the recognition and protection of native title and for its co-existence with the national land management system".
The Native Title Amendment Act 1998 (Cth), also commonly referred to as the "10 Point Plan" is an Australian native title law created by the John Howard led Liberal Government in response to the 1996 Wik Decision by the High Court of Australia.
Nauru (Naoero, or), officially the Republic of Nauru (Repubrikin Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific.
Naval Communication Station Harold E. Holt is located on the northwest coast of Australia, north of the town of Exmouth, Western Australia.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Edward "Ned" Kelly (December 1854 – 11 November 1880) was an Australian bushranger, outlaw, gang leader and convicted police murderer.
Dame Nellie Melba GBE (born Helen Porter Mitchell; 19 May 186123 February 1931) was an Australian operatic soprano.
Fred Thomas Bonner AO (28 March 19225 February 1999) was an Australian politician, and the first Indigenous Australian to become a member of the Parliament of Australia.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
The New Guinea campaign of the Pacific War lasted from January 1942 until the end of the war in August 1945.
New Hebrides, officially the New Hebrides Condominium (Condominium des Nouvelles-Hébrides, "Condominium of the New Hebrides") and named for the Hebrides Scottish archipelago, was the colonial name for the island group in the South Pacific Ocean that is now Vanuatu.
New Holland (Nieuw Holland; Nova Hollandia) is a historical European name for mainland Australia.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
The New South Wales Corps was formed in England in 1789 as a permanent regiment to relieve the New South Wales Marine Corps, who had accompanied the First Fleet to Australia.
The New South Wales Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of the Australian state of New South Wales.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nicolas Thomas Baudin (17 February 1754 – 16 September 1803) was a French explorer, cartographer, naturalist and hydrographer.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Noel Pearson (born 25 June 1965) is an Aboriginal Australian lawyer, academic, land rights activist and founder of the Cape York Institute for Policy and Leadership, an organisation promoting the economic and social development of Cape York.
Nonja Yvonne Huberta Maria Peters is a Western Australian author and academic of Dutch ancestry.
The Nootka Crisis also known as the Spanish Armamment was an international incident and political dispute between the Spanish Empire, the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the fledgling United States of America triggered by a series of events that took place during the summer of 1789 at Nootka Sound in present-day British Columbia, Canada.
Norfolk Island (Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen) is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about from Lord Howe Island.
Norman Alfred William Lindsay (22 February 1879 – 21 November 1969) was an Australian artist, etcher, sculptor, writer, editorial cartoonist, scale modeller, and an accomplished amateur boxer.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.
The Northern Territory National Emergency Response (also referred to as "the intervention") was a package of changes to welfare provision, law enforcement, land tenure and other measures, introduced by the Australian federal government under John Howard in 2007 to address allegations of rampant child sexual abuse and neglect in Northern Territory Aboriginal communities.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nui Dat (Núi Đất) is a former 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) base now part of Ba Ria city in Ba Ria–Vung Tau province, Vietnam.
The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth.
The Old Melbourne Gaol is a museum on Russell Street, in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
The Olympic flame is a symbol used in the Olympic movement.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.
Operation Sovereign Borders (OSB) is a border protection operation led by the Australian Defence Force and headed by Major General Andrew Bottrell, aimed at stopping maritime arrivals of asylum seekers to Australia.
Sir Otto Ernst Niemeyer (23 November 1883 – 6 February 1971) was a British banker and civil servant.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.
The Pacific Solution is the name given to the Government of Australia policy of transporting asylum seekers to detention centres on island nations in the Pacific Ocean, rather than allowing them to land on the Australian mainland.
Paddington is an inner-city eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
The word Panzer is a German word that means "armour" or specifically, "tank".
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
Parliament House is the meeting place of the Parliament of Australia, located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.
The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament; also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or just Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.
The Parliament of South Australia at Parliament House, Adelaide is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Parramatta is a prominent suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, west of the Sydney central business district on the banks of the Parramatta River.
Patrick Francis Moran (16 September 183016 August 1911) was the third Roman Catholic Archbishop of Sydney and the first Australian cardinal.
Patrick Victor Martindale White (28 May 191230 September 1990) was an Australian writer who, from 1935 to 1987, published 12 novels, three short-story collections and eight plays.
Paul John Keating (born 18 January 1944) is a former Australian politician who served as the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1991 to 1996 as leader of the Labor Party.
Paul John Kelly (born 11 October 1947) is a conservative Australian political journalist, author and television and radio commentator from Sydney.
Sir Paweł Edmund Strzelecki (24 June 17976 October 1873), also known as Paul Edmund de Strzelecki, was a Polish explorer and geologist who in 1845 also became a British subject.
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós (Pedro Fernández de Quirós) (1565–1614) was a Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain best known for his involvement with Spanish voyages of discovery in the Pacific Ocean, in particular the 1595–1596 voyage of Alvaro de Mendaña de Neira, and for leading a 1605–1606 expedition which crossed the Pacific in search of Terra Australis.
Pemulwuy (also rendered as Pimbloy, Pemulvoy, Pemulwoy, Pemulwye, or sometimes by contemporary Europeans as Bimblewove or Bumbleway) (c. 1750 – 2 June 1802) was an Aboriginal Australian man born around 1750 in the area of Botany Bay in New South Wales.
A penal colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory.
Penal transportation or transportation refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.
The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia.
Peter Howard Costello, AC (born 14 August 1957), is a former Australian politician and lawyer who served as the Treasurer in the Australian Howard Government from 1996 to 2007.
Frederick George Peter Ingle Finch (28 September 191614 January 1977) was an English-Australian actor.
Peter Greste (born 1 December 1965) is a Latvian-Australian journalist and correspondent.
Peter Neil Slipper (born 14 February 1950) is a former member of the Australian House of Representatives who represented the Division of Fisher, Queensland, from 1984 to 1987 and then again from 1993 until 2013.
The Petrov Affair was a Cold War spy incident in Australia in April 1954, concerning Vladimir Petrov, Third Secretary of the Soviet embassy in Canberra.
Phar Lap (4 October 1926 – 5 April 1932) was a champion Thoroughbred racehorse whose achievements captured the Australian public's imagination during the early years of the Great Depression.
Air Vice-Marshal Sir Philip Woolcott Game, (30 March 1876 – 4 February 1961) was a British Royal Air Force commander, who later served as Governor of New South Wales and Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (London).
Philip III (Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain.
Phillip Elliott Playford AMMember of the Order of Australia.
Picnic at Hanging Rock is a 1975 Australian mystery drama film which was produced by Hal and Jim McElroy, directed by Peter Weir, and starred Vivean Gray, Dominic Guard, Anne-Louise Lambert, Helen Morse, and Rachel Roberts.
Pieter de Carpentier (19 February 1586 – 5 September 1659) was a Dutch, administrator of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) who served as Governor-General there from 1623 to 1627.
Pieter Nuyts or Nuijts (1598 – 11 December 1655) was a Dutch explorer, diplomat, and politician.
The Pintupi Nine were a group of nine Pintupi people who lived a traditional hunter-gatherer desert-dwelling life in Australia's Gibson Desert until 1984, when they made contact with their relatives near Kiwirrkurra.
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
The Port Arthur massacre of 28–29 April 1996 was a mass shooting in which 35 people were killed and 23 wounded in Port Arthur, Tasmania.
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
(Tok Pisin: Pot Mosbi), also referred to as Pom City or simply Moresby, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea and the largest city in the South Pacific outside of Australia and New Zealand.
Port Phillip (also commonly referred to as Port Phillip Bay or (locally) just The Bay), is a large bay in southern Victoria, Australia; it is the location of Melbourne.
The Port Phillip District was a historical administrative division of the Colony of New South Wales, which existed from September 1836 until 1 July 1851, when it was separated from New South Wales and became the Colony of Victoria.
Post-war immigration to Australia deals with migration to Australia since the end of World War II.
The Premier of New South Wales is the head of government in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
The President of the Republic of Indonesia (Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state and also head of government of the Republic of Indonesia.
The President of the United Nations General Assembly is a position voted for by representatives in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on a yearly basis.
Preventive detention is an imprisonment that is putatively justified for non-punitive purposes.
The Prime Minister of Australia (sometimes informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of Australia.
Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced.
The Protectionist Party was an Australian political party, formally organised from 1887 until 1909, with policies centred on protectionism.
The office of the Protector of Aborigines was established pursuant to a recommendation contained in the Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Aboriginal Tribes, (British settlements.) of the House of Commons.
Qantas Airways is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Dame Quentin Alice Louise Bryce (née Strachan; 23 December 1942) is an Australian academic who served as the 25th Governor-General of Australia from 2008 to 2014.
European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were introduced to Australia in the 18th century with the First Fleet and eventually became widespread.
Rail transport in Australia is a crucial aspect of the Australian transport network.
The Redfern Park Speech was made on 10 December 1992 by Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating at Redfern Park in Redfern, New South Wales.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Sir Reginald Myles Ansett KBE (13 February 1909 – 23 December 1981) was an Australian businessman and aviator.
The Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI), also known as Operation Helpem Fren and Operation Anode, was created in 2003 in response to a request for international aid by the Governor-General of Solomon Islands.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic Advisory Committee was a committee established by the then Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating in April 1993 to examine the constitutional and legal issues that would arise were Australia to become a republic.
Republicanism in Australia is a movement to change Australia's system of government from a constitutional monarchy to a republic.
Resident Commissioner is the title of several, quite different types of Commissioner in overseas possession or protectorate of the British Crown or of the United States.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
Reginald Francis Xavier "Rex" Connor (26 January 190722 August 1977) was Australian politician who served as a member of the House of Representatives from 1963 to his death, representing the Labor Party.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
General Sir Richard Bourke, KCB (4 May 1777 – 12 August 1855) was an Irish-born British Army officer who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1831 to 1837.
Richard Johnson (circa 1756 – 13 March 1827 in England) was the first Christian cleric in Australia.
The Roads & Traffic Authority (RTA) is a former Australian government agency in New South Wales that was responsible for major road infrastructure, licensing of drivers, and registration of motor vehicles.
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear.
Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, (20 December 189415 May 1978), was an Australian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966.
Robin Gerard Penleigh Boyd (3 January 1919 – 16 October 1971) was an Australian architect, writer, teacher and social commentator.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
Australian rock, also called Oz rock, is rock music from Australia.
Rosemary Follett (born 27 March 1948) is a former Australian politician who was the inaugural Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, serving in 1989 and again between 1991 and 1995.
Ross McMullin (born 1952) is an Australian historian who has written a number of books on political and social history, as well as several biographies.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force (ADF).
The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force.
A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.
The Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia (RFDS, informally known as The Flying Doctor) is one of the largest and most comprehensive aeromedical organisations in the world.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Second Rudd Government was the federal executive Government of Australia led by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd of the Australian Labor Party.
The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history.
Rupert Charles Wulsten Bunny (29 September 1864 – 25 May 1947) was an Australian painter, born in St Kilda, Victoria.
Rupert Gerritsen (1953–2013) was an Australian historian and a noted authority on Indigenous Australian prehistory.
Russel Braddock Ward AM (9 November 1914 – 13 August 1995) was an Australian historian best known as the author of The Australian Legend (1958), an examination of the development of the "Australian character".
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
Sir Samuel Walker Griffith (21 June 1845 – 9 August 1920) was an Australian judge and politician who served as the inaugural Chief Justice of Australia, in office from 1903 to 1919.
Samuel Marsden (25 June 1765 – 12 May 1838) was an English-born priest of the Church of England in Australia and a prominent member of the Church Missionary Society, believed to have introduced Christianity to New Zealand.
The Sandakan Death Marches were a series of forced marches in Borneo from Sandakan to Ranau which resulted in the deaths of 2,345 Allied prisoners of war held captive by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II in the Sandakan POW Camp.
Sandy Stone is a male character played by Australian comedian Barry Humphries.
Scott Cane is an Australian archaeologist and anthropologist.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Second Australian Imperial Force (Second, or 2nd, AIF) was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The Second Fleet is the name of the second fleet of ships sent with settlers, convicts and supplies to the colony at Sydney Cove in Port Jackson, Australia.
The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum is anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
A sheep shearer is a worker who uses (hand-powered)-blade or machine shears to remove wool from domestic sheep during crutching or shearing.
The Sheffield Shield is the domestic first-class cricket competition of Australia.
Over 1400 ships have been wrecked on the coast of Western Australia.
The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
Her Majesty's Naval Base, Singapore (also His Majesty's Naval Base, Singapore; HMNB Singapore), alternatively known as Singapore Naval Base, Sembawang Naval Base and HMS Sembawang, was situated in Sembawang at the northern tip of Singapore and was both a Royal Navy shore establishment and a cornerstone of British defence policy (the Singapore strategy) in the Far East between the World Wars.
Lieutenant-General Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet, KCH, PC (21 June 1784 – 19 September 1854) was Lieutenant Governor of British Honduras (1814–1822), Van Diemen's Land (now the State of Tasmania, part of Australia) (1823–1837) and Upper Canada (1838–1841).
Sir Leslie Colin "Les" Patterson (born 1 April 1942) is a fictional character created and portrayed by Australian comedian Barry Humphries.
The Sisters of Charity of Australia (formally the Religious Sisters of Charity, who use the postnominal initials of R.S.C.) is a congregation of Religious Sisters in the Catholic Church who have served the people of Australia since 1838.
The Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart, often called the "Josephites" or "Brown Joeys", were founded in Penola, South Australia, in 1866 by Mary MacKillop and the Rev. Julian Tenison Woods.
Thee Congregation of the Sisters of the Good Saman, colloquially known as the "Good Sams", is a Roman Catholic congregation of religious women commenced by Bede Polding, OSB, Australia’s first Catholic bishop, in Sydney in 1857.
Skippy the Bush Kangaroo (known commonly as Skippy) is an Australian television series created by Australian actor John McCallum, produced from 1967–1969 (airing from 1968–1970) about the adventures of a young boy and his highly intelligent pet kangaroo, and the various visitors to the fictional Waratah National Park in Duffys Forest, near Sydney.
Slim Dusty, AO MBE (born David Gordon Kirkpatrick; 13 June 1927 – 19 September 2003) was an Australian country music singer-songwriter, guitarist and producer.
The Snowy Mountains scheme or Snowy scheme is a hydroelectricity and irrigation complex in south-east Australia.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
Soldier settlement refers to the settlement of land throughout parts of Australia by returning discharged soldiers under schemes administered by the state governments after World Wars I and II.
Sorrento is a coastal township in Victoria, Australia, located on the shores of Port Phillip on the Mornington Peninsula, about one and a half hours by car south of Melbourne.
The South Australia Act 1834 (4 & 5 Will. IV c. 95) is the short title of an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom with the long title: It provided for the settlement of a province or multiple provinces on the lands between 132 degrees east and 141 degrees of east longitude, and between the Southern Ocean, and 26 degrees south latitude, including the islands adjacent to the coastline.
The South Australian Company was formed in London on 9 October 1835 by George Fife Angas and other wealthy British merchants to develop a new settlement in South Australia; its purpose was to build a new colony.
South Australian Film Corporation (SAFC) is a South Australian Government statutory corporation that was established in 1972.
The Register, originally the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, and later South Australian Register, was South Australia's first newspaper.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The South Pacific Mandate was a League of Nations mandate given to the Empire of Japan by the League of Nations following World War I. The South Pacific Mandate consisted of islands in the north Pacific Ocean that had been part of German New Guinea within the German colonial empire until they were occupied by Japan during World War I. Japan governed the islands under the mandate as part of the Japanese colonial empire until World War II, when the United States captured the islands.
In an Australian context, South Sea Islanders refers to Australian descendants of Pacific Islanders from more than 80 islands in the South Seasincluding the Melanesian archipelagoes of the Solomon Islands, New Caledonia and Vanuatuwho were kidnapped or recruited between the mid to late 19th century as labourers in the sugarcane fields of Queensland.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
Southern Cross is the name of the Fokker F.VIIb/3m trimotor monoplane that in 1928 was flown by Australian aviator Charles Kingsford Smith, Charles Ulm, Harry Lyon and James Warner in the first-ever trans-Pacific flight to Australia from the mainland United States, a distance of about.
A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) or sovereign investment fund is a state-owned investment fund that invests in real and financial assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, precious metals, or in alternative investments such as private equity fund or hedge funds.
The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.
The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio, online, and television network.
In Australian history, a squatter was typically a man, either a free settler or ex-convict, who occupied a large tract of Crown land in order to graze livestock.
St Vincent's Hospital is located in Darlinghurst, New South Wales, an inner suburb of Sydney.
Stanley Melbourne Bruce, 1st Viscount Bruce of Melbourne, (15 April 1883 – 25 August 1967) was the eighth Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1923 to 1929.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
In Australia, a station is a large landholding used for producing livestock, predominantly cattle or sheep, that need an extensive range of grazing land.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
Steele Rudd was the pseudonym of Arthur Hoey Davis (14 November 1868 – 11 October 1935) an Australian author, from Queensland best known for his novel On Our Selection.
A stevedore, longshoreman, or dockworker is a waterfront manual laborer who is involved in loading and unloading ships, trucks, trains or airplanes.
The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen Children) were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Stuart Forbes Macintyre (born 21 April 1947) is an Australian historian, and a former Dean of the Faculty of Arts at the University of Melbourne.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Suffolk Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army with a history dating back to 1685.
Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.
Sunday Too Far Away is a 1975 Australian drama film directed by Ken Hannam.
The Swan River Colony was a British colony established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour, one of several harbours in Port Jackson, on the coast of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG) is a sports stadium in Sydney, Australia.
The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a steel through arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail, vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business district (CBD) and the North Shore.
The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War.
Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko; February 4 or 12, 1746 – October 15, 1817) was a Polish-Lithuanian military engineer, statesman, and military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States.
Tahiti (previously also known as Otaheite (obsolete) is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean, and is divided into two parts: the bigger, northwestern part, Tahiti Nui, and the smaller, southeastern part, Tahiti Iti. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 189,517 inhabitants (2017 census), making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.7% of its total population. Tahiti is the economic, cultural and political centre of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity (sometimes referred to as an overseas country) of France. The capital of French Polynesia, Papeete, is located on the northwest coast of Tahiti. The only international airport in the region, Fa'a'ā International Airport, is on Tahiti near Papeete. Tahiti was originally settled by Polynesians between 300 and 800AD. They represent about 70% of the island's population, with the rest made up of Europeans, Chinese and those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France, and the inhabitants became French citizens. French is the only official language, although the Tahitian language (Reo Tahiti) is widely spoken.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
In August 2001, the Howard Government of Australia refused permission for the Norwegian freighter MV ''Tampa'', carrying 433 rescued refugees (predominantly Hazaras of Afghanistan from a distressed fishing vessel in international waters) and 5 crew to enter Australian waters.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial of the family Dasyuridae.
The Tasmanian nativehen (also Tasmanian native-hen or Tasmanian native hen) (Tribonyx mortierii) is a flightless rail and one of twelve species of birds endemic to the Australian island of Tasmania.
Edward Granville Theodore (29 December 1884 – 9 February 1950), nicknamed Red Ted, was an Australian politician who served as Premier of Queensland from 1919 to 1925, as leader of the state Labor Party.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Telstra Corporation Ltd. (known as Telstra) is Australia's largest telecommunications company which builds and operates telecommunications networks and markets voice, mobile, internet access, pay television and other products and services.
The Tenterfield Oration was a speech given by Sir Henry Parkes, Premier of the Colony of New South Wales at the Tenterfield School of Arts in rural New South Wales, Australia on 24 October 1889.
Terra Australis (Latin for South Land) is a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries.
Terra nullius (plural terrae nullius) is a Latin expression meaning "nobody's land", and is a principle sometimes used in international law to describe territory that may be acquired by a state's occupation of it.
The Commonwealth of Australia was formed on 1 January 1901, when the six British colonies of Australia were merged to form a single commonwealth within the British Empire.
The Territory of New Guinea was an Australian administered territory on the island of New Guinea from 1920 until 1975. In 1949, the Territory and the Territory of Papua were established in an administrative union by the name of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. That administrative union was renamed as Papua New Guinea in 1971. Notwithstanding that it was part of an administrative union, the Territory of New Guinea at all times retained a distinct legal status and identity until the advent of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea. The initial Australian mandate was based on the previous German New Guinea, which had been captured and occupied by Australian forces during World War I. Most of the Territory of New Guinea was occupied by Japan during World War II, between 1942 and 1945. During this time, Rabaul, on the island of New Britain, became a major Japanese base (see New Guinea campaign). After World War II, the territories of Papua and New Guinea were combined in an administrative union under the Papua New Guinea Provisional Administration Act (1945–46).
The Territory of Papua comprised the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea from 1883 to 1975.
The Tet Offensive (Sự kiện Tết Mậu Thân 1968), or officially called The General Offensive and Uprising of Tet Mau Than 1968 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Tết Mậu Thân 1968) by North Vietnam and the NLF (National Liberation Front), was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies.
The Australian Women's Weekly, sometimes known as simply The Weekly, is an Australian monthly women's magazine published by Bauer Media Group in Sydney.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The Bulletin was an Australian magazine first published in Sydney on 31 January 1880.
"The bush" is a term used for rural, undeveloped land or country areas in certain countries.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Mercury is a centre-right daily newspaper, published in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, by Davies Brothers Pty Ltd, part of News Corp Australia and News Corp.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The Monthly is an Australian national magazine of politics, society and the arts, which is published eleven times per year on a monthly basis except the December/January issue.
The New Criterion is a New York-based monthly literary magazine and journal of artistic and cultural criticism, edited by Roger Kimball (editor and publisher) and James Panero (executive editor).
The Rats of Tobruk was the name given to the soldiers of the garrison who held the Libyan port of Tobruk against the Afrika Corps, during the Siege of Tobruk in World War II.
The Story of the Kelly Gang is a 1906 Australian silent film that traces the exploits of 19th-century bushranger and outlaw Ned Kelly and his gang.
The Sydney Institute is a privately funded Australian current affairs forum founded in 1989.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The theory of Portuguese discovery of Australia claims that early Portuguese navigators were the first Europeans to sight Australia between 1521 and 1524, well before the arrival of Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606 on board the Duyfken who is generally considered to be the first European discoverer.
They're a Weird Mob is a popular Australian comic novel written by John O'Grady under the pseudonym "Nino Culotta", the name of the main character of the book.
The Third Fleet comprised 11 ships that set sail from the United Kingdom in February, March and April 1791, bound for the Sydney penal settlement, with more than 2,000 convicts aboard.
Field Marshal Sir Thomas Albert Blamey, (24 January 188427 May 1951) was an Australian general of the First and Second World Wars, and the only Australian to attain the rank of field marshal.
Major General Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, 1st Baronet, (23 July 1773 – 27 January 1860), was a British Army officer, administrator, and astronomer.
Lieutenant Colonel Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell (15 June 1792 – 5 October 1855), surveyor and explorer of south-eastern Australia, was born at Grangemouth in Stirlingshire, Scotland.
Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney PC (24 February 1733 – 30 June 1800), was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1754 to 1783 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Sydney.
The thylacine (or, also; Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.
This is a timeline of Australian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Australia and its predecessor states.
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Thomas William "Tom" Roberts (8 March 185614 September 1931) was a British-born Australian artist and a key member of the Heidelberg School, also known as Australian Impressionism.
Toongabbie is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
The Torres Strait is a strait which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea.
A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
A trades hall is a building where trade unions meet together, or work from cooperatively, as a local representative organisation, known as a labour council or trades hall council.
Trams are a major form of public transport in Melbourne, the capital city of the state of Victoria, Australia.
A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against (and hence obscuring a small portion of) the solar disk.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trepanging is the act of collection or harvesting of sea cucumbers, known in Indonesian, as "trepang".
The Tropic of Capricorn (or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice.
Truganini (c. 1812 – 8 May 1876) was an Aboriginal Tasmanian (Palawa).
The Turnbull Government is the federal executive government of Australia, led by the 29th Prime Minister of Australia, Malcolm Turnbull.
Turramurra is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
Uluru (Pitjantjatjara), also known as Ayers Rock and officially gazetted as "UluruAyers Rock", is a large sandstone rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory in central Australia.
The United Australia Party (UAP) was an Australian political party that was founded in 1931 and dissolved in 1945.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates, and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Sydney (informally, USyd or USYD) is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia.
The University of Western Australia (UWA) is a public research university in the Australian state of Western Australia.
Uralla is a town on the Northern Tablelands, New South Wales, Australia.
Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia.
Edward Vivian "Vance" Palmer (28 August 1885 – 15 July 1959) was an Australian novelist, dramatist, essayist and critic.
The Vergulde Draeck or Gilt Dragon was a 42-metre, 260-tonne 'Jacht' constructed in 1653 by the Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch East India Company or Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC).
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Victoria Police is the primary law enforcement agency of Victoria, Australia.
The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia approximately between 1851 and the late 1860s.
Victorian Trades Hall is the headquarters of the Victorian Trades Hall Council.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnamese forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops." Brought on by the Viet Cong's Tet Offensive, the policy referred to U.S. combat troops specifically in the ground combat role, but did not reject combat by the U.S. Air Force, as well as the support to South Vietnam, consistent with the policies of U.S. foreign military assistance organizations.
Vincent Lingiari AM (13 June 1908 – 21 January 1988), was an Aboriginal rights activist and was a member of the Gurindji people.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer (23 June 1860 – 14 July 1929), commonly referred to as W. Baldwin Spencer or Baldwin Spencer, was an English-Australian biologist and anthropologist.
"Waltzing Matilda" is Australia's best-known bush ballad, and has been described as the country's "unofficial national anthem".
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
Watkin Tench (6 October 1758 – 7 May 1833) was a British marine officer who is best known for publishing two books describing his experiences in the First Fleet, which established the first settlement in Australia in 1788.
Wave Hill walk-off or The Gurindji strike was a walk-off and strike by 200 Gurindji stockmen, house servants and their families in August 1966 at Wave Hill cattle station in Kalkarindji (formerly known as Wave Hill), Northern Territory.
Wendy Lewis (born 1962) is an Australian writer working in Sydney who has written a number of non-fiction books about Australian people, history and events.
Wendy Lowenstein (Katherin Wendy Robertson Lowenstein) 1927—2006 was "a pioneer in oral history", an Australian historian, author and teacher notable for her recording of people's everyday experiences and her advocacy of social activism.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Westpac Banking Corporation, more commonly known as Westpac, is an Australian bank and financial-services provider headquartered in Westpac Place, Sydney.
Whaling in Australian waters began in 1791 when the 11 ships in the Third Fleet of settlers to the colony of New South Wales landed their passengers and freight at Sydney Cove and five of those vessels then left Port Jackson to engage in whaling and seal hunting off the coast of Australia and New Zealand.
The Wheatbelt is one of the nine regions of Western Australia.
Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from emigrating into Australia.
The Whitehall Evening Post was a London newspaper, founded in 1718.
The Whitlam Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam.
Wik Peoples v The State of Queensland,.
"Wild One" or "Real Wild Child" is an Australian rock and roll song written by Johnny Greenan, Johnny O'Keefe, and Dave Owens.
Willem Hesselsz de Vlamingh (bapt. 28 November 1640 – 1698 or later) was a Dutch sea-captain who explored the central west coast of Australia (then "New Holland") in the late 17th century.
Willem Janszoon (1570–1630), sometimes abbreviated to Willem Jansz., was a Dutch navigator and colonial governor.
Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, (13 September 1865 – 17 May 1951) was a British Army officer.
Vice-Admiral William Bligh (9 September 1754 – 7 December 1817) was an officer of the British Royal Navy and a colonial administrator.
William Bolts (1739–1808) was a Dutch-born eighteenth-century merchant active in India.
William Dampier (baptised 5 September 1651; died March 1715) was an English explorer and navigator who became the first Englishman to explore parts of what is today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.
William Edward Hanley "Bill" Stanner CMG (24 November 19058 October 1981) was an Australian anthropologist who worked extensively with Indigenous Australians.
William Christie Gosse (11 December 1842–12 August 1881), was an Australian explorer, who was born in Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, England and migrated to Australia with his father Dr.
William Hilton Hovell (26 April 1786 – 9 November 1875) was an English explorer of Australia.
William Lane (6 September 1861 – 26 August 1917) was a radical journalist, advocate of Australian labour politics and a utopian.
William Lawson, MLC (2 June 1774 – 16 June 1850) was an English-born Australian explorer, land owner, grazier and politician who migrated to Sydney, New South Wales in 1800.
Sir William McMahon, (23 February 190831 March 1988), was an Australian politician who served as the 20th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1971 to 1972 as leader of the Liberal Party.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Redfern (1774 – 17 July 1833) was an English-raised surgeon in early colonial Australia who was transported to New South Wales as a convict for his role in the Mutiny on the Nore.
William Charles Wentworth (13 August 1790 – 20 March 1872) was an Australian explorer, journalist, politician and author, and one of the leading figures of early colonial New South Wales.
Windradyne (1800 – 1 March 1829) was an Aboriginal warrior and resistance leader of the Wiradjuri nation, in what is now central-western New South Wales, Australia; he was also known to the British settlers as Saturday.
Windsor is a town lying North-West of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Women in Australia refers to women's demographic and cultural presence in Australia.
Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
Woollahra is a suburb in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
WorkChoices was the name given to changes made to the federal industrial relations laws in Australia by the Howard Government in 2005, being amendments to the Workplace Relations Act 1996 by the Workplace Relations Amendment (Work Choices) Act 2005, that came into effect on 27 March 2006.
The Workplace Relations Act 1996 was a law regarding workplace conditions and rights passed by the Howard Government after it came into power in 1996.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
Yagan (c. 1795 – 11 July 1833) was an Indigenous Australian warrior from the Noongar people.
Yass is a town in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia in Yass Valley Council.
The Yolngu or Yolŋu are an aggregation of indigenous Australian people inhabiting north-eastern Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia.
The VOC Zuytdorp also Zuiddorp (meaning 'South Village' after Zuiddorpe a still existing village in the South of Zeeland, near the Belgian border) was an 18th-century trading ship of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, commonly abbreviated VOC).
The 1890 Australian maritime dispute was an industrial dispute that began on 15 August 1890 when the Mercantile Marine Officers' Association directed its members to give 24 hours' notice to their employers after negotiations broke down with the Steamship Owners' Association of Victoria over longstanding pay and conditions claims.
The 1891 shearers' strike is one of Australia's earliest and most important industrial disputes.
The 1923 Victorian Police strike occurred in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
The 1926 Imperial Conference was the seventh Imperial Conference bringing together the prime ministers of the dominions of the British Empire.
The 1932 dismissal of Premier Jack Lang by New South Wales Governor Philip Game was the first real constitutional crisis in Australia.
The 1937 Imperial Conference was held in London from 14 May to 24 June 1937, following the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth on 12 May.
The 1938 British Empire Games was the third British Empire Games, the Commonwealth Games being the modern-day equivalent.
The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in November–December 1956, apart from the equestrian events, which were held five months earlier in Stockholm, Sweden.
The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, also known simply as the Dismissal, has been described as the greatest political and constitutional crisis in Australian history.
The 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) was a brigade-sized formation which commanded Australian and New Zealand Army units deployed to South Vietnam between 1966 and 1972.
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The opening ceremony of the 2000 Summer Olympic games took place on Friday 15 September in Stadium Australia.
The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The 2006 East Timorese crisis began as a conflict between elements of the military of East Timor over discrimination within the military, and expanded to a coup attempt and general violence throughout the country, centred in the capital Dili.
The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 7 and 18 December.
The 2014 G20 Brisbane summit was the ninth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state.
The 20th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 20 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 40th (the 2nd Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1717 in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia.
The 9th Division was a division of the Australian Army that served during World War II.
Australia, prehistory, Australia/History, Australian Colonies, Australian History, Australian historian, Australian history, Australian history before 1901, Australian history since 1901, British Australia, British colonisation of Australia, British colonization of Australia, Colonial Australia, Colonies of Australia, Colony of Australia, History in Australia, History of Australia before 1901, History of Australia since 1901, History of australia.