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History of China

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The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol. [1]

656 relations: Academia Sinica, Administrative divisions of China, Admiral, Age of Discovery, Along the River During the Qingming Festival, An Lushan Rebellion, Ancient Chinese coinage, Ancient Linzi, Anji Bridge, Anyang, Aral Sea, Arthur F. Wright, Arthur W. Hummel Sr., Asia, Ayuwang Pagoda, Śarīra, Baiyue, Bamboo Annals, Ban Chao, Banknote, Banpo, Battle of Bạch Đằng (938), Battle of Caishi, Battle of Gaoliang River, Battle of Lake Poyang, Battle of Langfang, Battle of Liaoluo Bay, Battle of Mingtiao, Battle of Muye, Battle of Peking (1900), Battle of Shancaowan, Battle of Tangdao, Battle of the Taku Forts (1900), Battle of Tientsin, Battle of Tunmen, Battle of Yamen, BBC News, Beijing, Beisi Pagoda, Beiyang Fleet, Benjamin A. 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Academia Sinica

Academia Sinica (Han characters: 中央研究院, literally "central research academy"; abbreviated AS), headquartered in Nangang District, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan.

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Administrative divisions of China

Due to China's large population and area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times.

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Admiral

Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.

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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

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Along the River During the Qingming Festival

Along the River During the Qingming Festival, also known by its Chinese name as the Qingming Shanghe Tu, is a painting by the Song dynasty artist Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145).

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An Lushan Rebellion

The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.

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Ancient Chinese coinage

Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins.

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Ancient Linzi

Linzi, originally called Yingqiu, was the capital of the ancient Chinese state of Qi during the Zhou Dynasty.

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Anji Bridge

The Anji Bridge is the world's oldest open-spandrel segmental arch bridge of stone construction.

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Anyang

Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, China.

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Aral Sea

The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.

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Arthur F. Wright

Arthur Frederick Wright (December 3, 1913 – August 11, 1976) was an American academic, sinologist, editor and professor of history at Yale University.

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Arthur W. Hummel Sr.

Arthur William Hummel Sr. (March 6, 1884March 10, 1975) was an American Christian missionary to China, head of the Asian Division of the Library of Congress, noted Sinologist, and editor of Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, a biographical dictionary.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Ayuwang Pagoda

The Ayuwang or Ashoka Pagoda is a stupa in Dai County in northeast Xinzhou Prefecture in northern Shanxi, China.

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Śarīra

Śarīra is a generic term referring to Buddhist relics, although in common usage it usually refers to pearl or crystal-like bead-shaped objects that are purportedly found among the cremated ashes of Buddhist spiritual masters.

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Baiyue

The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.

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Bamboo Annals

The Bamboo Annals, also known as the Ji Tomb Annals, is a chronicle of ancient China.

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Ban Chao

Ban Chao (32–102 CE), courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty.

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Banknote

A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Banpo

Banpo (Bànpō) is an archaeological site discovered in 1953 and located in the Yellow River Valley just east of Xi'an, China.

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Battle of Bạch Đằng (938)

At the Battle of Bạch Đằng River in 938 the rebel Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyền, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam.

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Battle of Caishi

The Battle of Caishi (Battle of Ts'ai-shih) was a major naval engagement of the Jin–Song Wars of China that took place on November 26–27, 1161.

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Battle of Gaoliang River

The Battle of Gaoliang River was fought in 979 between the Liao Dynasty and Song Dynasty in what is today the city of Beijing.

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Battle of Lake Poyang

The battle of Lake Poyang (鄱陽湖之戰) was a naval conflict which took place 30 August – 4 October 1363 between the rebel forces of Zhu Yuanzhang and Chen Youliang during the Red Turban Rebellion which led to the fall of the Yuan dynasty.

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Battle of Langfang

The Battle of Langfang was a battle in the Seymour Expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, in June 1900, involving Chinese imperial troops, the Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves and Boxers ambushing and defeating the Eight-Nation Alliance expeditionary army on its way to Beijing, pushing the Alliance forces to retreat back to Tientsin (Tianjin).

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Battle of Liaoluo Bay

The Battle of Liaoluo Bay took place in 1633 off the coast of Fujian, China.

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Battle of Mingtiao

The Battle of Mingtiao was a legendary battle between the Xia dynasty and the Shang dynasty, resulting in a Shang victory which created the circumstances for the elevation of the Duke of Shang to the throne of China.

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Battle of Muye

The Battle of Muye or Mu was a battle fought in ancient China between the Zhou dynasty and Shang dynasty.

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Battle of Peking (1900)

The Battle of Peking, or historically the Relief of Peking, was the battle on 14–15 August 1900, in which a multi-national force, led by Britain, relieved the siege of foreign legations in Peking (now Beijing) during the Boxer Rebellion.

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Battle of Shancaowan

The Battle of Shancaowan, also known as Battle of Veniaga Island (Portuguese:Batalha da Ilha da Veniaga) was a naval battle between the Ming dynasty coast guard and a Portuguese fleet led by Martim Afonso de Mello that occurred in 1522.

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Battle of Tangdao

The Battle of Tangdao (唐岛之战) was a naval engagement that took place in 1161 between the Jurchen Jin and the Southern Song Dynasty of China on the East China Sea.

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Battle of the Taku Forts (1900)

The Battle of Taku or Dagu Forts was a battle during the Boxer Rebellion between the Chinese military and allied Western and Japanese naval forces.

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Battle of Tientsin

The Battle of Tientsin, or the Relief of Tientsin, occurred on July 13–14, 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion in Northern China.

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Battle of Tunmen

The Battle of Tunmen or Tamão was a naval battle in which the Ming imperial navy defeated a Portuguese fleet led by Diogo Calvo in 1521.

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Battle of Yamen

The naval Battle of Yamen (also known as the Naval Battle of Mount Ya) took place on 19 March 1279 and is considered to be the last stand of the Song dynasty against the invading Mongol Yuan dynasty.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Beisi Pagoda

The Beisi Pagoda (Suzhou Wu: Poh zy thaeh) or North Temple Pagoda is a Chinese pagoda located at Bao'en Temple in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

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Beiyang Fleet

The Beiyang Fleet (Pei-yang Fleet;, alternatively Northern Seas Fleet) was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty.

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Benjamin A. Elman

Benjamin A. Elman (born 1946) is Gordon Wu '58 Professor of Chinese Studies, Princeton University.

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Bhikkhu

A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.

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Bi (jade)

The bi is a type of circular ancient Chinese jade artifact.

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Bian Jingzhao

Bian Jingzhao, styled Wenjin (文进), was a famed Chinese painter in the early Ming Dynasty. His birth and death years are unknown. He was a native of Longxi in Gansu Province 中国古代书画鑑定组: Page 8. and was active 1426-1435.Barnhart: Page 203. Image:Bian Jingzhao-Snow Plum and Twin Cranes.jpg|Snow Plum and Twin Cranes Image:Bian Jingzhao-Birds Flocking at Flowers and Bamboo.jpg|Birds Flocking at Flowers and Bamboo Image:Bian Wenjin, Three Friends and a Hundred Birds.jpg|Three Friends and One Hundred Birds Image:Bian Jingzhao and Wang Fu-Bamboo and Cranes Twin Clarity.jpg|Bamboo and Cranes - Twin Clarity.

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Bodhisattva

In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.

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Boxer Protocol

The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion at the hands of the Eight-Power Expeditionary Force.

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Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.

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Burning of books and burying of scholars

The burning of books and burying of scholars refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 212 BCE by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty of ancient China.

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Cai Lun

Cai Lun (CE 48– 121), courtesy name Jingzhong (敬仲), was a Chinese eunuch, inventor, and politician of the Han dynasty.

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Calligraphy

Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.

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Cao Cao

Cao Cao (– 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty.

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Cao Wei

Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Cataphract

A cataphract was a form of armored heavy cavalry used in ancient warfare by a number of peoples in Europe, East Asia, Middle East and North africa.

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Cavalry

Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Asian Survey

Central Asian Survey is an academic journal first published in 1982 concerning Caucasus and Central Asian studies.

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Chang'an

Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.

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Changqing District

Changqing District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, covering part of the southwestern suburbs.

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Changsha

Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.

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Changshan

A is a traditional Chinese dress (or robe, long jacket or tunic) worn by men.

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Chanyuan Treaty

The Chanyuan Treaty in 1004-1005 was the pivotal point in the relations between the Northern Song (960-1127) and the Liao Dynasties (916-1125).

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Chao (currency)

The chao was the official banknote of the Yuan dynasty in China.

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Charles Higham (archaeologist)

Charles Frank Wandesforde Higham (born 1939) is a British-born New Zealand archaeologist most noted for his work in Southeast Asia.

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Chen dynasty

The Chen dynasty (557-589), also known as the Southern Chen dynasty, was the fourth and last of the Southern Dynasties in China, eventually destroyed by the Sui dynasty.

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Chengdu

Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.

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Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China proper

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.

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China Seas

The China Seas consist of a series of marginal seas in the Western Pacific Ocean, around China.

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Chinese armour

Armour in China was predominantly lamellar from the Warring States period (481 BC - 221 BC) forward, prior to which animal parts such as rhinoceros hide, leather, and turtle shells were used for protection.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese Civil War

The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Chinese culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.

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Chinese domination of Vietnam

The Chinese domination of Vietnam (Bắc thuộc, 北屬, "Belonging to the North (China)") began in 111 BC, and is usually considered to have ended in 938 AD.

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Chinese dragon

Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large.

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Chinese economic reform

The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.

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Chinese emperors family tree

This a list of articles containing Chinese emperors family trees.

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Chinese emperors family tree (early)

This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the foundation of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC (by Qin Shihuangdi), till the end of the Sixteen Kingdoms period, in the first half of the fifth century AD.

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Chinese emperors family tree (late)

This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the Mongol conquest of 1279 to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

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Chinese emperors family tree (middle)

The following is a family tree of Chinese emperors (420-1279), from the Northern and Southern dynasties period, of first half of the fifth century AD, until the conquest of China by the Mongols under Kublai Khan, and the sequel end of the Southern Song dynasty in 1279.

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Chinese exploration

Chinese exploration includes exploratory Chinese travels abroad, on land and by sea, from the 2nd century BC until the 15th century.

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Chinese historiography

Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.

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Chinese History: A New Manual

Chinese History: A New Manual, written by Endymion Wilkinson, is an encyclopedic guide to Sinology and Chinese history.

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Chinese literature

The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.

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Chinese mythology

Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.

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Chinese philosophy

Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.

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Chinese ritual bronzes

Sets of ritual bronzes (in chinese: 中国青铜器) are the most impressive surviving objects from the Chinese Bronze Age.

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Chinese sovereign

The Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China.

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Chinese Soviet Republic

The Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR), also known as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, is often referred to in historical sources as the Jiangxi Soviet (after its largest component territory, the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet).

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Cho-yun Hsu

Cho-yun Hsu (born July 10, 1930) is a Chinese American historian.

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Chongzhen Emperor

The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.

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Chu–Han Contention

The Chu–Han Contention (206–202 BC) was an interregnum between the Qin dynasty and the Han dynasty in Chinese history.

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Civilization

A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Cloud Platform at Juyong Pass

The Cloud Platform at Juyongguan is a mid-14th-century architectural feature situated in the Guangou Valley at the Juyongguan Pass of the Great Wall of China, in the Changping District of Beijing Municipality, about northwest of central Beijing.

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Coin

A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.

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Collective farming

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.

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Compass

A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).

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Confucianism

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Confucius

Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Conquest dynasty

A conquest dynasty in the history of imperial China refers to a dynasty established by non-Han peoples that ruled parts or all of the China proper, such as the Mongol Yuan dynasty and the Manchu Qing dynasty.

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Consort kin

The consort kin is the Chinese kin of, or a group related to an empress dowager or a spouse of a Chinese dynastic ruler or a warlord.

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Constitution of the People's Republic of China

The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law within the People's Republic of China.

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Cradle of civilization

The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.

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Crossbow

A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.

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Cultural Revolution

The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.

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Dadiwan culture

The Dadiwan culture (ca. 7900–7200 BP) was a Neolithic culture located primarily in the eastern portion of Gansu and Shaanxi provinces in modern China.

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Damaidi

Damaidi (literally: Big wheat field), is the location of 3,172 sets of early Chinese petroglyphs, carved into the cliffs which feature 8,453 individual figures.

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Dao County

Dao County is a county in Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Yongzhou prefecture-level City.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.

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Di (Five Barbarians)

The Di (Old Chinese: *tˁij) were an ancient ethnic group that lived in western China, and are best known as one of the non-Han Chinese peoples that overran northern China during the Jin Dynasty (265–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms period.

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Ding (vessel)

Ding (鼎) were prehistoric and ancient Chinese cauldrons, standing upon legs with a lid and two facing handles.

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Dinghai District

() is a district of Zhoushan City made of 128 islands in Zhejiang province, China.

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Division of the Mongol Empire

The division of the Mongol Empire began when Möngke Khan died in 1259 in the siege of Diaoyu castle with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to the Toluid Civil War.

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Domestication of the horse

A number of hypotheses exist on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse.

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Du Fu

Du Fu (Wade–Giles: Tu Fu;; 712 – 770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty.

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Dujiangyan

The Dujiangyan is an ancient irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan, China.

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Duke of Zhou

Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (11th Century BC), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou, was a member of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu.

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Dungan Revolt (1862–77)

The Dungan Revolt (1862–77) or Tongzhi Hui Revolt (Xiao'erjing: توْجِ حُوِ بِيًا/لُوًا, Тунҗы Хуэй Бян/Луан) or Hui (Muslim) Minorities War was a mainly ethnic and religious war fought in 19th-century western China, mostly during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor (r. 1861–75) of the Qing dynasty.

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Dunhuang

Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.

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Dunhuang Star Chart

The Dunhuang map or Dunhuang Star map is one of the first known graphical representations of stars from ancient Chinese astronomy, dated to the Tang Dynasty (618–907).

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Dutch Formosa

The island of Taiwan, before World War II and until 1970s also commonly known as Formosa, was partly under colonial Dutch rule from 1624 to 1662.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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East China Sea

The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China.

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Eastern Wei

The Eastern Wei followed the disintegration of the Northern Wei, and ruled northern China from 534 to 550. As with Northern Wei, the ruling family of Eastern Wei were members of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei. In 534 Gao Huan, the potentate of the eastern half of what was Northern Wei territory following the disintegration of the Northern Wei dynasty installed Yuan Shanjian a descendant of the Northern Wei as ruler of Eastern Wei. Yuan Shanjian was a puppet ruler as the real power lay in the hands of Gao Huan. Several military campaigns were launched against the neighboring Western Wei in an attempt to reunify the territory once held by the Northern Wei, however these campaigns were not successful, and in 547 Gao Huan died. His sons Gao Cheng and Gao Yang were able to pursue his policy of controlling the emperor, but in 550 Gao Yang deposed Yuan Shanjian and founded his own dynasty, the Northern Qi.

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Eastern Wu

Wu (222–280), commonly known as Dong Wu (Eastern Wu) or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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Economic history of China

The economic history of China is covered in the following articles.

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Economy of the Song dynasty

For over three centuries during the Song dynasty (960–1279) China experienced sustained growth in per capita income and population, structural change in the economy, and increased pace of technological innovation.

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Eight Banners

The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.

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Eight-Nation Alliance

The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.

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Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute

Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute are a series of Chinese songs and poems about the life of Han Dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE) poet Cai Wenji, the songs were composed by Liu Shang, a poet of the middle Tang Dynasty.

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Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period

Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644–1912) (ECCP) is a biographical dictionary published in 1943 by the United States Government Printing Office, edited by Arthur W. Hummel, Sr., then head of the Orientalia Division of the Library of Congress.

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Emperor Gaozu of Han

Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.

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Emperor Gaozu of Tang

Emperor Gaozu of Tang (8 April 566 – 25 June 635), born Li Yuan, courtesy name Shude, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626.

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Emperor Guangwu of Han

Emperor Guangwu (born Liu Xiu; 15 January 5 BC – 29 March 57), courtesy name Wenshu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty).

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Emperor Jing of Han

Emperor Jing of Han (188 BC – 9 March 141 BC), personal name Liu Qi (劉啟), was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty from 157 to 141 BC.

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Emperor Ming of Han

Emperor Ming of Han, (Wade-Giles: Han Ming-ti), (15 June 28 – 5 September 75) was the second emperor of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

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Emperor of China

The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.

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Emperor Taizong of Song

Emperor Taizong of Song (20 November 939 – 8 May 997), personal name Zhao Jiong, was the second emperor of the Song dynasty in China.

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Emperor Taizong of Tang

Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 598 10July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.

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Emperor Taizu of Song

Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976) personal name Zhao Kuangyin, courtesy name Yuanlang, was the founder and first emperor of the Song dynasty in China.

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Emperor Wen of Han

Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC – 6 July 157 BC) was the fifth emperor of the Han Dynasty of ancient China.

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Emperor Wen of Sui

Emperor Wen of Sui (隋文帝; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (楊堅), Xianbei name Puliuru Jian (普六茹堅), nickname Nryana, was the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD).

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Emperor Wu of Han

Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.

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Emperor Xuanzong of Tang

Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty.

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Emperor Yingzong of Ming

Zhu Qizhen (29 November 1427 – 23 February 1464) was the sixth and eighth emperor of the Ming dynasty.

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Emperor Yuan of Jin

Emperor Yuan of Jin (276 – 3 January 323), personal name Sima Rui (司馬睿), courtesy name Jingwen (景文), was an emperor of the Jin Dynasty and the first of the Eastern Jin.

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Emperor Zhang of Han

Emperor Zhang of Han (57 – 9 April 88) was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty from 75 to 88.

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Empress Dowager Cixi

Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.

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Endymion Wilkinson

Endymion Porter Wilkinson (born May 15, 1941) is an English diplomat, Sinologist, historian of China, and authority on East Asian affairs.

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Equal-field system

The equal-field system or land-equalization system was a historical system of land ownership and distribution in China used from the Six Dynasties to mid-Tang dynasty.

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Erligang culture

The Erligang culture is a Bronze Age urban civilization and archaeological culture in China that existed from approximately 1510 to 1460 BC.

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Erlitou culture

The Erlitou culture was an early Bronze Age urban society and archaeological culture that existed in the Yellow River valley from approximately 1900 to 1500 BC.

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Esen Taishi

Esen Taishi (d. 1455) was a powerful Oirat Taishi and de facto ruler of the Northern Yuan in 15th century Mongolia.

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Ethnic groups in Chinese history

Ethnic groups in Chinese history refer to various or presumed ethnicities of significance to the history of China, gathered through the study of Classical Chinese literature, Chinese and non-Chinese literary sources and inscriptions, historical linguistics, and archaeological research.

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Eunuch

The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.

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Failed state

A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly (see also fragile state and state collapse).

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Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors

This is a family tree of Chinese kings before the establishment of the title emperor (皇帝) by Shi Huangdi.

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Fenghuang

Fenghuang are mythological birds of East Asia that reign over all other birds.

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Fenghuang County

Fenghuang County is a county of Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture.

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Ferrous metallurgy

Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Firearm

A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.

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First Opium War

The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.

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First Sino-Japanese War

The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.

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Five Barbarians

The Five Barbarians or Wu Hu, is a Chinese historical exonym for ancient non-Han Chinese peoples who immigrated to northern China in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and then overthrew the Western Jin Dynasty and established their own kingdoms in the 4th–5th centuries.

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Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China.

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Five-year plans of China

China's Five-Year Plans are a series of social and economic development initiatives.

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Forbidden City

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.

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Foreign relations of imperial China

Imperial China had a long tradition of foreign relations.

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Fortifications of Xi'an

The fortifications of Xi'an, also known as Xi'an City Wall, in Xi'an, an ancient capital of China, represent one of the oldest, largest and best preserved Chinese city walls.

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Four Heavenly Kings

The Four Heavenly Kings are four Buddhist gods, each of whom watches over one cardinal direction of the world.

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Four occupations

The four occupations or "four categories of the people"Hansson, pp.

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Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam

The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427 during which the country was invaded and ruled by the Chinese Ming dynasty.

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Freight transport

Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo.

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French Indochina

French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.

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Fubing system

The fubing system was a local militia system in China from 6th to 8th centuries AD, originating in Western Wei and subsequently utilized during the Sui and Tang dynasties.

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Fujian

Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

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Fuyan Cave

Fuyan Cave is a complex of limestone caves in Tangbei village, Lefutang town, Daoxian, Hunan province, south central China famous for the discovery of the oldest evidence for unambiguously fully modern humans outside Africa.

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Gang of Four

The Gang of Four was a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.

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Gansu

Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.

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Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory

Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory, also known as the Dengfeng Observatory, is a World Heritage Site in Duke of Zhou's shrine, Gaocheng Town, near Dengfeng in Henan province, China.

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Gaocheng District

Gaocheng is a district under the administration of Shijiazhuang in southwestern Hebei province, People's Republic of China, on the upper reaches of the Hutuo River (滹沱河).

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Gaselee Expedition

The Gaselee Expedition was a successful relief by a multi-national military force to march to Beijing and protect the diplomatic legations and foreign nationals in the city from attacks in 1900.

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Gaussian elimination

In linear algebra, Gaussian elimination (also known as row reduction) is an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations.

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Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

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Geography of Taiwan

Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.

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Giant Wild Goose Pagoda

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda, is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an, Shaanxi province, China.

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Gilding

Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.

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Gobi Desert

The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.

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Goguryeo–Sui War

The Goguryeo–Sui War were a series of invasions launched by the Sui dynasty of China against Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, between AD 598 and AD 614.

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Golden Sun Bird

The Golden Sun Bird is an ancient artifact, unearthed in 2001 from the Jinsha Ruins in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China.

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Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.

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Grand Secretariat

The Grand Secretariat was nominally a coordinating agency but de facto the highest institution in the imperial government of the Chinese Ming dynasty.

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Great Leap Forward

The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962.

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Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.

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Great Wall of Qi

The Great Wall of Qi is the oldest existing Great Wall in China.

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Gu Hongzhong

Gu Hongzhong (937–975) was a Chinese painter during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history. Gu was active until 960 CE University of Washington: A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization. Retrieved 27 August 2012. and was most likely a court painter for the Southern Tang Emperor Li Yu. His most well-known work is the Night Revels of Han Xizai (韓熙載夜宴圖). Gu's original no longer exists, but the painting survives as a 12th-century remake during the subsequent Song Dynasty (960–1279). The painting is housed in the Palace Museum in Beijing.

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Guang (vessel)

A guang or gong is a particular shape used in Chinese art for vessels, originally made as Chinese ritual bronzes in the Shang dynasty (c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC), and sometimes later in Chinese porcelain.

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Guangdong

Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.

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Guangdong Museum

The Guangdong Museum (Chinese: 广东省博物馆) is a general museum in Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

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Guangxi

Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.

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Guangxu Emperor

The Guangxu Emperor (14 August 187114 November 1908), personal name Zaitian (Manchu: dzai-tiyan), was the eleventh emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China.

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Guangzhou

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Guangzhou massacre

The Guangzhou Massacre was an attack on the foreign merchants in Guangzhou, China, by forces under Huang Chao, who was rebelling against the Tang Empire at the time.

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Gunpowder

Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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Haijin

The Haijin or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trading and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty and some of the Qing.

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Han campaigns against Minyue

The Han campaigns against Minyue were a series of three Han military campaigns dispatched against the Minyue state.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Han conquest of Dian

The Han conquest of Dian was a series of military campaigns and expeditions by the Chinese Han dynasty recorded in contemporary textual sources against the Kingdom of Dian in modern Yunnan.

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Han conquest of Nanyue

The Han conquest of Nanyue was a military conflict between the Han empire and the Nanyue kingdom in modern Guangdong, Guangxi, and Northern Vietnam.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Han Xizai

Han Xizai (韓熙載) (902 – August 31, 970Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms,..), courtesy name Shuyan (叔言), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Wu and Southern Tang, who was known for his writing and calligraphy skills.

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Han–Xiongnu War

The Han–Xiongnu War,.

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Hanfu

Hanfu is a term associated with the Hanfu movement used to refer to the historical/traditional dress of the Han people.

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Hanging Temple

The Hanging Temple, also Hanging Monastery or Xuankong Temple is a temple built into a cliff (above the ground) near Mount Heng in Hunyuan County, Datong City, Shanxi Province, China.

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Hangzhou

Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.

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Hebei

Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Hegemony

Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.

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Hemudu culture

The Hemudu culture (5500 BC to 3300 BC) was a Neolithic culture that flourished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Yuyao, Zhejiang, China.

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Henan

Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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Historical capitals of China

There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China".

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History of canals in China

The history of canals in China connecting its major rivers and centers of agriculture and population extends from the legendary exploits of Yu the Great in his attempts control the flooding of the Yellow River to the present infrastructure projects of the People's Republic of China.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of East Asia

The History of East Asia covers the people inhabiting the eastern subregion of the Asian continent known as East Asia from prehistoric times to the present.

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History of gunpowder

Gunpowder is the first physical explosive.

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History of Hong Kong

The History of Hong Kong, a business port located off the southeast coast of Eurasia.

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History of Hong Kong (1800s–1930s)

Hong Kong (1800s–1930s) was a period largely dominated by the British Empire.

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History of Islam in China

The history of Islam in China began when four Ṣaḥābā—Sa‘d ibn Abī Waqqās (594–674), Ja'far ibn Abi Talib, and Jahsh preached in 616/17 and onwards in China after coming from Chittagong-Kamrup-Manipur route after sailing from Abyssinia in 615/16.

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History of Macau

Macau is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China.

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History of science and technology in China

Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.

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History of the Great Wall of China

The history of the Great Wall of China began when fortifications built by various states during the Spring and Autumn (771–476) and Warring States periods (475–221) were connected by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, to protect his newly founded Qin dynasty (221–206) against incursions by nomads from Inner Asia.

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Hong Taiji

Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.

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Hong Xiuquan

Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全) (1 January 1814 – 1 June 1864), born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun, was a Hakka Chinese leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty.

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Hongcun

Hongcun (lit. "Hong village") is a village in Yi County in the historical Huizhou region of southern Anhui Province, China, near the southwest slope of Mount Huangshan.

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Hongwu Emperor

The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.

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House of the Huangcheng Chancellor

The House of the Huangcheng Chancellor, also known by its Chinese name, Huangcheng Xiangfu, is a walled estate on Phoenix Hill (Fenghuangshan) comprising Huangcheng,.

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Hu Jintao

---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.

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Hu Yaobang

Hu Yaobang (20 November 1915 – 15 April 1989) was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China.

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Hua Guofeng

Hua Guofeng (born Su Zhu; 16 February 1921 – 20 August 2008) was a Chinese politician who served as Chairman of the Communist Party of China and Premier of the People's Republic of China.

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Huai River

The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.

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Huang Chao

Huang Chao (835 – July 13, 884) was a Chinese smuggler, soldier, and rebel, and is most well known for being the leader of a major rebellion that severely weakened the Tang dynasty.

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Huang–Lao

Huang–Lao or Huanglao was the most influential Chinese school of thought in the early 2nd-century BCE Han dynasty, having its origins in a broader political-philosophical drive looking for solutions to strengthen the feudal order as depicted in Zhou propaganda.

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Hunan

Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.

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Hundred Days' Reform

The Hundred Days' Reform was a failed 104-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement from 11 June to 22 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty China.

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Hundred Schools of Thought

The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.

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Hyperinflation

In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.

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Ibiblio

ibiblio (formerly SunSITE.unc.edu and MetaLab.unc.edu) is a "collection of collections," and hosts a diverse range of publicly available information and open source content, including software, music, literature, art, history, science, politics, and cultural studies.

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Imperial Chinese Tributary System

The Imperial Chinese Tributary System is a term created by John King Fairbank to describe "a set of ideas and practices developed and perpetuated by the rulers of China over many centuries".

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Imperial examination

The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.

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Incendiary device

Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Infobase Publishing

Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.

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Insurance

Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.

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Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)

The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.

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Japanese war crimes

War crimes of the Empire of Japan occurred in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.

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Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür

Jayaatu Khan (Mongolian: Заяат хаан, Jayaγatu qaγan, 1304–1332), born Tugh Temür, also known by the temple name Wenzong (Emperor Wenzong of Yuan, Chinese: 元文宗, 16 February 1304 – 2 September 1332), was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty.

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Jerry Norman (sinologist)

Jerry Lee Norman (July 16, 1936July 7, 2012) was an American sinologist and linguist known for his studies of Chinese dialects and historical phonology, particularly on the Min Chinese dialects, and of the Manchu language.

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Ji (polearm)

The ji was a Chinese polearm used in one form or another for over 3000 years, from at least as early as the Shang dynasty until the end of the Qing dynasty.

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Jiahu

Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.

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Jiahu symbols

Jiahu symbols refer to the 16 distinct markings on prehistoric artifacts found in Jiahu, a neolithic Peiligang culture site found in Henan, China, and excavated in 1999.

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Jiajing Emperor

The Jiajing Emperor (16September 150723January 1567) was the 12th emperor of the Chinese Ming dynasty who ruled from 1521 to 1567.

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Jiajing wokou raids

The Jiajing wokou raids (嘉靖大倭寇 or 嘉靖倭亂) caused extensive damage to the coast of China in the 16th century, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor (r. 1521–67) in the Ming dynasty.

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Jiang Zemin

Jiang Zemin (born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.

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Jiankang

Jiankang, or Jianye, as it was originally called, was the capital city of the Eastern Wu (229–265 and 266–280 CE), the Jin dynasty (317–420 CE) and the Southern Dynasties (420–552 and 557–589 CE).

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Jiaozi (currency)

Jiaozi was a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China.

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Jie people

The Jié (Middle Chinese) were members of a small tribe in North China in the 4th century.

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Jiedushi

The jiedushi were regional military governors in China during the Tang dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Jin dynasty (265–420)

The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.

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Jinan

Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.

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Jin–Song Wars

Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).

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Jingkang incident

The Jingkang Incident, also known as the Humiliation of Jingkang and the Disorders of the Jingkang Period took place in 1127 during the Jin–Song Wars when the forces of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty besieged and sacked Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng), the capital of the Han Chinese-led Song dynasty.

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John K. Fairbank

John King Fairbank (May 24, 1907 – September 14, 1991), was a prominent American historian of China.

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Joseon

The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.

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Joshua A. Fogel

Joshua A. Fogel (born 1950 in Brooklyn, New York; Chinese name: 傅佛果) is a Sinologist, historian, and translator who specializes in the history of modern China, especially on the cultural and political relations between China and Japan.

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Jue (vessel)

A jue is a shape of Chinese ritual bronze, a tripod vessel or goblet used to serve warm wine.

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Jun (country subdivision)

A jùn was a historical administrative division of China from the Zhou dynasty (c. 7th century BCE) until the early Tang (c. 7th century CE).

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Junk (ship)

Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today.

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Jurchen people

The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.

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Kaidu–Kublai war

The Kaidu–Kublai war was a war between Kaidu, the leader of the House of Ögedei and the de facto khan of the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, and Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty in China and his successor Temür Khan that lasted a few decades from 1268 to 1301.

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Kaifeng

Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.

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Kaiyuan Temple (Quanzhou)

Kaiyuan Temple is a Buddhist temple in West Street, Quanzhou, China, the largest in Fujian province with an area of.

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Kangxi Dictionary

The Kangxi Dictionary was the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Kangxi Emperor

The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.

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Khagan

Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).

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Khamag Mongol

Khamag Mongol (Хамаг монгол, lit. "Whole Mongol") was a major Mongolic tribal confederation (khanlig) on the Mongolian Plateau in the 12th century.

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Khanbaliq

Khanbaliq or Dadu was the capital of the Yuan dynasty, the main center of the Mongol Empire founded by Kublai Khan in what is now Beijing, also the capital of China today.

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Khitan people

The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

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King Wu of Zhou

King Wu of Zhou was the first king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.

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Kingdom of Tungning

The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) between 1661 and 1683.

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Korean Peninsula

The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.

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Koxinga

Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast.

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Kublai Khan

Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).

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Kuomintang

The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

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Lantian Man

Lantian Man, formerly Sinanthropus lantianensis (currently Homo erectus lantianensis) is a subspecies of Homo erectus.

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Laogai

Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Laozi

Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.

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Largest naval battle in history

The title of "largest naval battle in history" is disputed between adherents of different criteria which include the numbers of personnel and/or vessels involved in the battle, and the total tonnage of the vessels involved.

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Late Imperial China (journal)

Late Imperial China, formerly Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i (清史問題) until 1984,https://qing_studies.press.jhu.edu/journal/ching is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1965.

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Later Han (Five Dynasties)

The Later Han was founded in 947.

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Later Jin (Five Dynasties)

The Later Jìn (936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.

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Later Liang (Five Dynasties)

The Later Liang (1 June 907 – 19 November 923), also known as Zhu Liang, was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.

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Later Tang

Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty that lasted from 923 to 937 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in the history of China.

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Later Zhou

The Later Zhou was the last in a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty.

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Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.

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Leifeng Pagoda

Leifeng Pagoda is a five stories tall tower with eight sides, located on Sunset Hill south of the West Lake in Hangzhou, China.

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Li Bai

Li Bai (701–762), also known as Li Bo, Li Po and Li Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.

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Li Song (painter)

Li Song (active 1190–1230) was a Chinese imperial court painter in the Song Dynasty.

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Li Zicheng

Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.

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Liang dynasty

The Liang dynasty (502–557), also known as the Southern Liang dynasty (南梁), was the third of the Southern Dynasties during China's Southern and Northern Dynasties period.

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Liangzhu culture

The Liangzhu culture (3400–2250 BC) was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China.

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Liao dynasty

The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.

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Liaodi Pagoda

The Liaodi Pagoda of Kaiyuan Monastery, Dingzhou, Hebei Province, China is the tallest existing pre-modern Chinese pagoda and tallest brick pagoda in the world, built in the 11th century during the Song dynasty (960–1279).

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Liaoning

Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.

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Lin Liang

Lin Liang (ca. 1424-1500) was a Chinese imperial painter of plum, flower, and fruit works during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).

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Lin Tinggui

Lin Tinggui (fl. circa 1174–1189) (Japanese: Rin Teikei) was a Chinese painter of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279 AD).

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Linheraptor

Linheraptor is a genus of dromaeosaurid dinosaur which lived in what is now China in the Late Cretaceous.

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List of campaigns of the Communist Party of China

This is a list of political campaigns of the Communist Party of China since the founding of the party in 1921.

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List of Chinese monarchs

This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912.

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List of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

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List of largest cities throughout history

This article lists the largest cities or urban areas by estimated population in history.

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List of Mongol rulers

The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.

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List of Neolithic cultures of China

This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been unearthed by archaeologists.

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List of rebellions in China

This is an incomplete list of some of the rebellions, revolts and revolutions that have occurred in China.

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List of recipients of tribute from China

Chinese zhongyuan state entities have paid tribute to a number states and confederations throughout history.

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List of tributaries of China

This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.

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Liu Song dynasty

The Song dynasty, better known as the Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE;; Wade-Giles: Liu Sung), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin and followed by the Southern Qi.

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Long March

The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.

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Longmen Grottoes

The Longmen Grottoes (literally Dragon's Gate Grottoes) or Longmen Caves are some of the finest examples of Chinese Buddhist art.

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Longshan culture

The Longshan (or Lung-shan) culture, also sometimes referred to as the Black Pottery Culture, was a late Neolithic culture in the middle and lower Yellow River valley areas of northern China from about 3000 to 1900 BC.

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Lower Xiajiadian culture

The Lower Xiajiadian culture (2200–1600 BC) is an archaeological culture in Northeast China, found mainly in southeastern Inner Mongolia, northern Hebei and western Liaoning, China.

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Luoyang

Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.

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Macau

Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Magnetostratigraphy

Magnetostratigraphy is a geophysical correlation technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences.

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Mainland China

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Majiayao culture

The Majiayao culture was a group of neolithic communities who lived primarily in the upper Yellow River region in eastern Gansu, eastern Qinghai and northern Sichuan, China.

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Manchu people

The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

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Manchuria

Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.

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Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.

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Mao: The Unknown Story

Mao: The Unknown Story is a 2005 biography of Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong (1893–1976) written by the wife and husband team of writer Jung Chang and historian Jon Halliday, who depict Mao as being responsible for more deaths in peacetime than Adolf Hitler or Joseph Stalin.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Maritime Silk Road

Maritime Silk Road or Maritime Silk Route refer to the maritime section of historic Silk Road that connects China to Southeast Asia, Indonesian archipelago, Indian subcontinent, Arabian peninsula, Somalia and all the way to Egypt and finally Europe, that flourished between 2nd-century BCE and 15th-century CE.

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Market socialism

Market socialism is a type of economic system involving the public, cooperative or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy.

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Maurice Meisner

Maurice Jerome Meisner (November 17, 1931 – January 23, 2012) was an historian of 20th century China and professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

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May Fourth Movement

The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.

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Memorial to the throne

A memorial to the throne (Chinese: 章表, zhāngbiǎo) was an official communication to the Emperor of China.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Meteoric iron

Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.

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Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.

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Miaoying Temple

The Miaoying Temple, also known as the "White Stupa Temple", is a Chinese Buddhist temple on the north side of Fuchengmennei Street in the Xicheng District of Beijing.

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Military history

Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.

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Military history of China before 1911

The recorded military history of China extends from about 2200 BC to the present day.

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Millet

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Ming Great Wall

The Ming Great Wall (明長城; Ming changcheng), built by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), forms the most visible parts of the Great Wall of China today.

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Ming treasure voyages

The Ming treasure voyages were the seven maritime expeditions by Ming China's treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.

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Ming–Hồ War

The Ming–Hồ War was a military campaign by the Ming Empire of China to invade Đại Ngu (present-day north Vietnam) ruled by the Hồ dynasty.

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Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China

The Ministry of Culture (MOC) was a ministry of the government of the People's Republic of China which was dissolved on March 19, 2018.

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Mogao Caves

The Mogao Caves, also known as the Thousand Buddha Grottoes or Caves of the Thousand Buddhas, form a system of 492 temples southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis strategically located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu province, China.

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Moghulistan

Moghulistan (Mughalistan, Moghul Khanate) (from مغولستان, Moqulestân/Moġūlistān), also called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate, was a Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate and a historical geographic area north of the Tian Shan mountain range, on the border of Central Asia and East Asia.

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Mohism

Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi.

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Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty

The Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, also known as the Mongol–Jin War, was fought between the Mongol Empire and the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in Manchuria and north China.

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Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty

The Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty under Kublai Khan (r. 1260–1294) was the final step for the Mongols to rule the whole of China under the Yuan dynasty.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasions and conquests

Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Mongol invasions of Japan

The, which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of Goryeo (Korea) to vassaldom.

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Mongol invasions of Vietnam

The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol-Vietnamese War refer to the three times that the Mongol Empire and its chief khanate the Yuan dynasty invaded Đại Việt during the time of the Trần dynasty, along with Champa: in 1258, 1285, and 1287–88. The first invasion began in 1258 under the united Mongol Empire, as it looked for alternative paths to invade Song China. The Mongol high ranking commander Uriyangkhadai was successful in capturing the Dai Viet capital (Thang Long); however, his army was weakened by the tropical climate and were later defeated. The second and third invasions occurred during the reign of Kublai Khan of the Yuan Dynasty. By this point, the Mongolian Empire had fractured into 4 separate entities with Yuan Dynasty being the strongest and biggest empire. These invasions resulted in a disastrous land defeat for the Mongols in 1285 and the annihilation of the Mongol navy in 1288. However, both the Trần dynasty and Champa decided to accept the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty and serve as tributary states in order to avoid further conflicts.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland ecoregion, also known as the Mongolian-Manchurian steppe, in the temperate grassland Biome, is found in Mongolia, the Chinese Autonomous region of Inner Mongolia and northeastern China.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Mongols in China

Chinese Mongols are citizens of the People's Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols.

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Nanjing

Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.

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Nanyue

Nanyue or, or Nam Viet (Nam Việt) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan.

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Nara period

The of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794.

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National Gallery of Art

The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW.

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National Palace Museum

The National Palace Museum, located in Taipei and Taibao, Taiwan, has a permanent collection of nearly 700,000 pieces of ancient Chinese imperial artifacts and artworks, making it one of the largest of its type in the world.

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Naval history of China

The naval history of China dates back thousands of years, with archives existing since the late Spring and Autumn period (722 BC – 481 BC) about the ancient navy of China and the various ship types used in war.

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Neo-Confucianism

Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Neolithic signs in China

Since the second half of the 20th century, inscriptions have been found on pottery in a variety of locations in China, such as Banpo near Xi'an, as well as on bone and bone marrows at Hualouzi, Chang'an County near Xi'an.

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New Army

The New Armies (Traditional Chinese: 新軍, Simplified Chinese: 新军; Pinyin: Xīnjūn, Manchu: Ice cooha), more fully called the Newly Created Army (Xinjian LujunAlso translated as "Newly Established Army"), was the modernized army corps formed under the Qing dynasty in December 1895, following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War.

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New Culture Movement

The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.

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New Qing History

The New Qing History is a school of thought that gained prominence in the United States in the mid-1990s by offering a wide-ranging revision of history of the Manchu Qing dynasty.

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Nian Rebellion

The Nian Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868, contemporaneously with Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) in South China.

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Ningxia

Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.

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Niu–Li factional strife

The Niu–Li factional strife was an ongoing contention at the court of the mid-to late Tang dynasty.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Nomadic empire

Nomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, are the empires erected by the bow-wielding, horse-riding, nomadic peoples in the Eurasian steppe, from classical antiquity (Scythia) to the early modern era (Dzungars).

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North China

North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.

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North China Plain

The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.

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Northern Expedition

The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.

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Northern Qi

The Northern Qi was one of the Northern dynasties of Chinese history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577.

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Northern Song Dynasty

The Northern Song Dynasty (2.4.960-3.20.1127) is an era of Song Dynasty.

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Northern Wei

The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.

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Northern Yuan dynasty

The Northern Yuan dynasty, was a Mongol régime based in the Mongolian homeland.

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Northern Zhou

The Northern Zhou followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China from 557 to 581 AD.

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Novel

A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.

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Nurhaci

Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.

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Oirats

Oirats (Oirad or Ойрд, Oird; Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.

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One-China policy

"One China policy" is a policy saying that there is only one country of China, despite the fact that there are two governments, China (officially the People's Republic of China) and Taiwan (officially the Republic of China), with the official name of China.

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Opium

Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).

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Oracle bone

Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.

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Outline of ancient China

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient China: Ancient China – China from about 2070 to 221 BC, spanning the Xia Dynasty, Shang Dynasty, Zhou Dynasty, the Spring and Autumn period, to the end of the Warring States period.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Paddle wheel

A paddle wheel is a form of waterwheel or impeller in which a number of paddles are set around the periphery of the wheel.

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Pamir Mountains

The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.

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Panthay Rebellion

The Panthay rebellion (1856–1873), known to Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion (Tu Wen-hsiu Rebellion), was a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other (Muslim) ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.

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Papermaking

The art, science, and technology of papermaking addresses the methods, equipment, and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products.

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Paramount leader

In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the State is an informal term that refers to the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China.

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Pax Mongolica

The Pax Mongolica (Latin for "Mongol Peace"), less often known as Pax Tatarica ("Tatar Peace"), is a historiographical term modelled after the original phrase Pax Romana which describes the stabilising effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries.

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Pax Sinica

Pax Sinica (Latin for "Chinese peace") is a historiographical term, modeled after the original phrase Pax Romana, applied to the period of peace in East Asia, maintained by Chinese hegemony.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Peasant

A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.

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Peiligang culture

The Peiligang culture was a Neolithic culture in the Yi-Luo river basin (in modern Henan Province, China) that existed from 7000 to 5000 BC.

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Peking Man

Peking Man, Homo erectus pekinensis (formerly known by the junior synonym Sinanthropus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus.

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Penghu

The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.

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People's commune

The people's commune was the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas of the People's Republic of China during the period from 1958 to 1983 when they were replaced by townships.

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People's Liberation Army

The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Plague (disease)

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Porcelain

Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Potala Palace

The Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China was the residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India during the 1959 Tibetan uprising.

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Prefecture

A prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.

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President of the Republic of China

The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.

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Proto-writing

Proto-writing consists of visible marks communicating limited information.

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Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912)

The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (中華民國臨時政府, pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Línshí Zhèngfǔ) was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912.

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Punti-Hakka Clan Wars

Punti-Hakka Clan Wars or Hakka-Punti Clan Wars refer to the conflict between the Hakka and Cantonese people in Guangdong, China between 1855 and 1867.

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Putuo Zongcheng Temple

The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei province, China is a Qing dynasty era Buddhist temple complex built between 1767 and 1771,Foret, 155.

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Puyi

Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.

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Qara Khitai

The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Хар Хятан; 1124–1218), also known as the Kara Khitan Khanate or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.

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Qiang (historical people)

Qiang was a name given to various groups of people at different periods in ancient China.

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Qiang people

The Qiang people are an ethnic group in China.

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Qianlong Emperor

The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

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Qin (state)

Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.

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Qin's wars of unification

Qin's wars of unification were a series of military campaigns launched in the late 3rd century BC by the Qin state against the other six major states — Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu and Qi — within the territories that formed modern China.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qiu Xigui

Qiu Xigui (born 13July 1935) is a Chinese historian, palaeographer, and professor of Fudan University.

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Qu (poetry)

The Qu form of poetry is a type of Classical Chinese poetry form, consisting of words written in one of a number of certain, set tone patterns, based upon the tunes of various songs.

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Quanzhou

Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, China.

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Queen regnant

A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.

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Questia Online Library

Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.

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Queue (hairstyle)

The queue or cue is a Qing dynasty hairstyle most often worn by Chinese men.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Rafe de Crespigny

Richard Rafe Champion de Crespigny (born 1936), better known as Rafe de Crespigny, is an Australian sinologist and historian, currently an adjunct professor in the College of Asia and the Pacific at the Australian National University.

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Rammed earth

Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.

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Rana Mitter

Rana Shantashil Rajyeswar Mitter FBA (born 1969) is a British historian and political scientist of Indian origin who specialises in the history of republican China.

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Records of the Grand Historian

The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.

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Relief

Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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Religion in China

China has long been a cradle and host to a variety of the most enduring religio-philosophical traditions of the world.

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Republic of China (1912–1949)

The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Revolt of the Three Feudatories

The Revolt of the Three Feudatories was a rebellion lasting from 1673 to 1681 in the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722).

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Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.

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Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 14th-century historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong.

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Salt in Chinese history

Salt, salt production, and salt taxes played key roles in Chinese history, economic development, and relations between state and society.

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Sanqu

Sanqu refers to a fixed-rhythm form of Classical Chinese poetry, or "literary song".

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sanxingdui

Sanxingdui is the name of an archaeological site and a major Bronze Age culture in modern Sichuan, China.

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Sōrin

The two types of pagoda finial (sōrin), in bronze (tahōtō) and stone (hōkyōintō) The is the vertical shaft (finial) which tops a Japanese pagoda, whether made of stone or wood.

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Scholar-official

Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Science and technology of the Han dynasty

The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) of ancient China, divided between the eras of Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE, when the capital was at Chang'an), Xin dynasty of Wang Mang (r. AD 9–23), and Eastern Han (25–220 CE, when the capital was at Luoyang, and after 196 CE at Xuchang), witnessed some of the most significant advancements in premodern Chinese science and technology.

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Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.

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Self-Strengthening Movement

The Self-Strengthening Movement, c. 1861 – 1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers.

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Semu

Semu is the name of a caste established by the Yuan dynasty.

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Serfdom

Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.

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Several

No description.

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Seymour Expedition

The Seymour Expedition was an attempt by a multi-national military force to march to Beijing and protect the diplomatic legations and foreign nationals in the city from attacks by Boxers in 1900.

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Shaanxi

Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Shaanxi History Museum

Shaanxi History Museum, which is located to the northwest of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda in the ancient city Xi'an, in the Shaanxi province of China, is one of the first huge state museums with modern facilities in China and one of the largest.

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Shandong

Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.

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Shanhai Pass

Shanhai Pass is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China.

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Shanxi

Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.

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Shatuo

The Shatuo (or, also: Shato, Sha-t'o, Sanskrit Sart Zuev Yu.A., "Horse Tamgas from Vassal Princedoms (Translation of Chinese composition "Tanghuyao" of 8-10th centuries)", Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences, Alma-Ata, I960, p. 127 (In Russian)) were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century.

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Shen Kuo

Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.

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Shijiazhuang

Shijiazhuang is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province.

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Shu (state)

The State of Shu was an ancient state in what is now Sichuan Province.

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Shu Han

Shu or Shu Han (221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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Shunzhi Emperor

The Shunzhi Emperor; Manchu: ijishūn dasan hūwangdi; ᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ |translit.

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Sichuan

Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.

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Siege engine

A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.

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Siege of the International Legations

The Siege of the International Legations occurred in the summer of 1900 in Peking (today Beijing), the capital of the Qing Empire, during the Boxer Rebellion.

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Silk

Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sima Guang

Sima Guang (17 November 1019 – 11 October 1086), courtesy name Junshi, was a Chinese historian, writer, and politician.

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Sima Qian

Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.

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Sinicization

Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.

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Sino-Dutch conflicts

The Sino–Dutch conflicts were a series of conflicts between the Ming dynasty of China and the Dutch East India Company over trade and land throughout the 1620s, 1630s and 1662.

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Sino-Roman relations

Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.

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Sino-Russian border conflicts

The Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689) were a series of intermittent skirmishes between the Qing dynasty, with assistance from the Joseon dynasty of Korea, and the Tsardom of Russia by the Cossacks in which the latter tried and failed to gain the land north of the Amur River with disputes over the Amur region.The hostilities culminated in the Qing siege of the Cossack fort of Albazin (1686) and resulted in the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 which gave the land to China.

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Sino-Soviet split

The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.

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Sixteen Kingdoms

The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 CE to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived sovereign states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians" who had settled in northern China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century.

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Sixteen Prefectures

The Sixteen Prefectures, more specifically the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan and Yun or the Sixteen Prefectures of You and Ji, comprise a historical region in northern China along the Great Wall in present-day Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities and northern Hebei and Shanxi Province, that were ceded by the Shatuo Turk Emperor Shi Jingtang of the Later Jin to the Khitan Liao dynasty in 938.

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Small Wild Goose Pagoda

The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, sometimes Little Wild Goose Pagoda, is one of two significant pagodas in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, the site of the old Han and Tang capital Chang'an.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Socialism with Chinese characteristics

The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics (hp) is a broad term for political theories and polices that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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South Central China

South Central China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the province of Guangdong, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, and Hunan, and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, however the two provincial-level special administrative regions (SAR) are also often included under South Central China: Hong Kong and Macau.

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Southern Ming

The Southern Ming was a loyalist movement that was active in southern China following the Ming dynasty's collapse in 1644.

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Southern Qi

The Southern Qi (479-502) was the second of the Southern dynasties in China, followed by the Liang Dynasty.

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Southward expansion of the Han dynasty

The Southward expansion of the Han dynasty were a series of Chinese military campaigns and expeditions in what is now modern Southern China and Northern Vietnam.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spear of Fuchai

The Spear of Fuchai (吳王夫差矛) is purportedly the spear of King Fuchai of Wu, the arch-rival of King Goujian of Yue.

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Spring and Autumn Annals

The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.

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Spring and Autumn period

The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Standing army

A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.

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Su Song

Su Song (courtesy name: Zirong 子容) (1020–1101 AD) was a renowned Hokkien polymath who was described as a scientist, mathematician, statesman, astronomer, cartographer, horologist, medical doctor, pharmacologist, mineralogist, zoologist, botanist, mechanical and architectural engineer, poet, antiquarian, and ambassador of the Song Dynasty (960–1279).

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Sui dynasty

The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.

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Summer Palace

The Summer Palace, is a vast ensemble of lakes, gardens and palaces in Beijing.

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Sun Tzu

Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.

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Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.

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Sweet Dew incident

The Sweet Dew incident (Ganlu incident, or 甘露之變) refers to an incident on December 14, 835, Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 245.

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Sword of Goujian

The Sword of Goujian (Traditional Chinese: 越王勾踐劍, Simplified Chinese: 越王勾践剑) is an archaeological artifact of the Spring and Autumn period (771 to 403BC) found in 1965 in Hubei, China.

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T'oung Pao

T’oung Pao, founded in 1890, is a Dutch journal and the oldest international journal of sinology.

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Taipei

Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").

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Taiping Rebellion

The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taixue

Taixue (Tai-hsueh), or sometimes called the "Imperial Academy", "Imperial School", "Imperial University" or "Imperial Central University", was the highest rank of educational establishment in Ancient China between the Han Dynasty and Sui Dynasty.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tang dynasty in Inner Asia

The Tang dynasty in Inner Asia was the expansion of the Tang dynasty's realm in the Inner Asia in the 7th and, to a lesser degree, the 8th century AD, in the Tarim Basin, across the Gobi Desert and into Middle Asia.

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Tang poetry

Tang poetry refers to poetry written in or around the time of or in the characteristic style of China's Tang dynasty, (June 18, 618 – June 4, 907, including the 690–705 reign of Wu Zetian) and/or follows a certain style, often considered as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry.

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Tangut people

The Tangut first appeared as a tribal union living under Tuyuhun authority and moved to Northwest China sometime before the 10th century to found the Western Xia or Tangut Empire (1038–1227).

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Tangzhuang

A tangzhuang is a kind of pseudo-traditional Chinese jacket with a straight collar.

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Tank Man

Tank Man (also known as the Unknown Protester or Unknown Rebel) is the nickname of an unidentified man who stood in front of a column of tanks on June 5, 1989, the morning after the Chinese military had suppressed the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 by force.

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Taoism

Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Taotie

The taotie is a motif commonly found on Chinese ritual bronze vessels from the Shang and Zhou dynasty.

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Tarbosaurus

Tarbosaurus (meaning "alarming lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that flourished in Asia about 70 million years ago, at the end of the Late Cretaceous Period.

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Terracotta Army

The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.

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The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art

The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art is a Chinese mathematics book, composed by several generations of scholars from the 10th–2nd century BCE, its latest stage being from the 2nd century CE.

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The Travels of Marco Polo

Book of the Marvels of the World (French: Livre des Merveilles du Monde) or Description of the World (Devisement du Monde), in Italian Il Milione (The Million) or Oriente Poliano and in English commonly called The Travels of Marco Polo, is a 13th-century travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing Polo's travels through Asia between 1271 and 1295, and his experiences at the court of Kublai Khan.

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Third Battle of Nanking

The Third Battle of Nanking was the last major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion, occurring in 1864 after the death of the king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan.

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Third Chinese domination of Vietnam

The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Early Lý dynasty in 602 to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Thừa Dụ in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ngô Quyền.

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Three Alls Policy

The Three Alls Policy (三光作戦 Sankō Sakusen) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II, the three "alls" being "kill all, burn all, loot all".

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Three Departments and Six Ministries

The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the main central government structure in imperial China from the Sui dynasty (581–618) to the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368).

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Three Kingdoms

The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).

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Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.

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Tianlongshan Grottoes

The Tianlongshan Grottoes (Chinese: 天龙山石窟, pinyin: Tiānlóngshān Shíkū, English translation: Mountain of the Heavenly Dragon) are caves located in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China, that are notable for the Buddhist temples located within them.

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Tianning Temple (Beijing)

The Tianning Temple is a Buddhist temple complex located in Xicheng District of Beijing, in northern China.

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Tibet

Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Tibetan people

The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.

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Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Tiger Hill Pagoda

The Tiger Hill Pagoda, more officially the Yunyan Pagoda (Suzhou Wu: Yuin nge zy thaeh, or; Suzhou Wu: Hou chieu thaeh), also sometimes translated as Huqiu Tower, is a Chinese pagoda situated on Tiger Hill in Suzhou city, Jiangsu Province of Eastern China.

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Timeline of Chinese history

This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China and its predecessor states.

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Times Higher Education

Times Higher Education (THE), formerly The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES), is a weekly magazine based in London, reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education.

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Timothy Brook

Timothy James Brook (Chinese name: 卜正民; born January 6, 1951) is a Canadian historian, sinologist, and writer specializing in the study of China (sinology).

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TLV mirror

A TLV mirror is a type of bronze mirror that was popular during the Han Dynasty in China.

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Tomahawk

A tomahawk is a type of single-handed ax from North America, traditionally resembling a hatchet with a straight shaft.

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Transition from Ming to Qing

The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).

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Transition from Sui to Tang

The transition from Sui to Tang refers to the transition period between the end of the Sui Dynasty and the start of the Tang Dynasty, when the former dynasty's territories were carved into a handful of short-lived states by its officials, generals, and agrarian rebel leaders, and the process of elimination and annexation that followed which ultimately culminated in the consolidation of the Tang dynasty by the former Sui general Li Yuan.

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Treaty of Nanking

The Treaty of Nanking or Nanjing was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China on 29 August 1842.

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Treaty of Nerchinsk

The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Нерчинский договор, Nerčinskij dogovor; Manchu:,Möllendorff: nibcoo-i bade bithe;, Xiao'erjing: نِبُچُ تِيَوْيُؤ) was the first treaty between Russia and China.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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Trebuchet

A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of siege engine.

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Tsinghua Bamboo Slips

The Tsinghua Bamboo Slips are a collection of Chinese texts dating to the Warring States period and written in ink on strips of bamboo, that were acquired in 2008 by Tsinghua University, China.

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Tuen Mun

Tuen Mun or Castle Peak is a city near the mouth of Tuen Mun River and Castle Peak Bay in the New Territories, Hong Kong.

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Tumu Crisis

The Tumu Crisis (Тумугийн тулалдаан); also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress or Battle of Tumu, was a frontier conflict between the Oirat tribes of Mongols and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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Unequal treaty

Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after suffering military defeat by the West or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.

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Unit 731

was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.

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United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was passed in response to the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1668 that required any change in China's representation in the UN be determined by a two-thirds vote referring to Article 18 of the UN Charter.

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Uprising of the Five Barbarians

The Uprising of the Five Barbarians, is a Chinese expression referring refers to a series of uprisings between 304 and 316 by non-Han Chinese peoples living in Northeast Asia against the Jin dynasty (265–420).

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Wang Anshi

Wang Anshi (December 8, 1021 – May 21, 1086) was a Chinese economist, statesman, chancellor and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted major and controversial socioeconomic reforms known as the New Policies.

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Wang Mang

Wang Mang (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 AD.

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War of the Eight Princes

The War of the Eight Princes, Rebellion of the Eight Kings or Rebellion of the Eight Princes was a series of civil wars among kings/princes (Chinese: wáng 王) of the Chinese Jin dynasty from AD 291 to 306.

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Warlord

A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.

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Warlord Era

The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Watchtower

A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world.

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Wei River

The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.

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Weiyang Palace

Weiyang Palace was the main imperial palace complex of Han Dynasty and many other dynasties, located in the city of Chang'an (modern-day Xi'an).

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Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade between 2003 and 2013.

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Western Regions

The Western Regions or Xiyu (Hsi-yu) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most often Central Asia or sometimes more specifically the easternmost portion of it (e.g. Altishahr or the Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang), though it was sometimes used more generally to refer to other regions to the west of China as well, such as the Indian subcontinent (as in the novel Journey to the West).

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Western Wei

The Western Wei followed the disintegration of the Northern Wei, and ruled northern China from 535 to 557.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Western Xia

The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak,Stein (1972), pp.

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Wokou

Wokou (Japanese: Wakō; Korean: 왜구 Waegu), which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea.

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Women in ancient and imperial China

The study of women's history in the context of imperial China has been pursued since at least the late 1990s.

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Woodblock printing

Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wu Sangui

Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.

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Wu Zetian

Wu Zetian (624 December16, 705),Paludan, 100 alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, also referred to in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and later, officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty (周, 684–705), which interrupted the Tang dynasty (618–690 & 705–907).

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Wuchang Uprising

The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, in China.

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Wuhan

Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.

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Wujing Zongyao

The Wujing Zongyao, sometimes rendered in English as the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044.

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Xenophobia

Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.

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Xi'an

Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.

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Xia dynasty

The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.

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Xianbei

The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.

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Xianren Cave

The Xianren Cave, together with the nearby Diaotonghuan rock shelter, is an archaeological site in Dayuan Township (大源乡), Wannian County in the Jiangxi province, China and a location of historically important discoveries of prehistoric pottery shards and it bears evidence of early rice cultivation.

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Xianyang

Xianyang is a prefecture-level city in central Shaanxi province, situated on the Wei River a few kilometers upstream (west) from the provincial capital of Xi'an.

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Xiaochangliang

Xiaochangliang is the site of some of the earliest paleolithic remains in East Asia, located in the Nihewan Basin in Yangyuan County, Hebei, China, most famous for the stone tools discovered there.

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Xihoudu

Xihoudu is an archeological site located in the Shanxi Province of China.

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Xin dynasty

The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD.

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Xinhai Revolution

The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).

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Xinhua News Agency

Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.

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Xinjiang

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Xinye Village

Xinye is a historic Chinese village in Daciyan Town (大慈岩镇), Jiande City, Zhejiang Province.

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Xinzheng

Xinzheng is a county-level city under the jurisdiction of Zhengzhou, Henan province in Central China.

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Xiongnu

The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.

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Xuanzang

Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.

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Yam (route)

Yam (Өртөө, Örtöö, checkpoint) was a supply point route messenger system employed and extensively used and expanded by Genghis Khan and used by subsequent Great Khans and Khans.

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Yan'an

Yan'an is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Shanxi to the east and Gansu to the west.

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Yangshao culture

The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China.

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Yangtze

The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yangtze civilization

Yangtze civilization is a generic name for various ancient Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures from the Yangtze basin of China, the representative civilization of the Chinese alongside the Yellow river civilization.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.

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Yellow River civilization

Yellow River civilization or Huang civilization, Hwan‐huou civilization is an ancient Chinese civilization that prospered in a middle and lower basin of the Yellow River.

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Yellow Turban Rebellion

The Yellow Turban Rebellion, also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, was a peasant revolt in China against the Eastern Han dynasty.

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Yinxu

Yinxu (modern) is the site of one of the ancient and major historical capitals of China.

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Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

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You (vessel)

A you is a lidded vessel that was used for liquid offerings by the Chinese of the Zhou and Shang Dynasties.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yuan poetry

Yuan poetry refers to those types or styles of poetry particularly associated with the era of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), in China.

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Yuan Shikai

Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.

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Yuanmou Man

Yuanmou Man, Homo erectus yuanmouensis, refers to a member of the genus Homo whose remnants, two incisors, were discovered near Danawu Village in Yuanmou County in southwestern province of Yunnan, China.

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Yungang Grottoes

The Yungang Grottoes, formerly the Wuzhoushan Grottoes, are ancient Chinese Buddhist temple grottoes near the city of Datong in the province of Shanxi.

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Zaju

Zaju (literally meaning "variety show") was a form of Chinese drama or Chinese opera which provided entertainment through a synthesis of recitations of prose and poetry, dance, singing, and mime, with a certain emphasis on comedy (or, happy endings).

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Zhang Heng

Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Heng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.

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Zhang Qian

Zhang Qian (d. 113) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty.

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Zhang Zeduan

Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145), alias Zheng Dao, was a Chinese painter of the Song Dynasty.

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Zhangzhung

Zhangzhung or Shangshung was an ancient culture and kingdom of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet.

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Zhejiang

, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.

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Zhengzhou

Zhengzhou is the capital of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China.

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Zhou dynasty

The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.

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Zhou Enlai

Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.

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Zhu Rongji

Zhu Rongji (IPA:; born 1 October 1928) is a retired Chinese politician who served as Mayor and Party chief in Shanghai from 1988 to 1991 and as First Vice Premier and then Premier from March 1998 to March 2003.

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Zhu Wen

Emperor Taizu of Later Liang (後梁太祖), personal name Zhu Quanzhong (朱全忠) (852–912), né Zhu Wen (朱溫), name later changed to Zhu Huang (朱晃), nickname Zhu San (朱三, literally, "the third Zhu"), was a Jiedushi (military governor) at the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who previously served as a general under the rival Emperor Huang Chao's Empire of Qi and overthrew Empire of Tang in 907, established the Later Liang as its emperor, and ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.

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Zhu Xi

Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.

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Zizhi Tongjian

The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.

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Zuo zhuan

The Zuo zhuan, generally translated The Zuo Tradition or The Commentary of Zuo, is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals'' (''Chunqiu'' 春秋).

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1556 Shaanxi earthquake

The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake or Huaxian earthquake or Jiajing earthquake was a catastrophic earthquake and is also the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_China

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