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History of agriculture in the Indian subcontinent

Index History of agriculture in the Indian subcontinent

Indian agriculture began by 9000 BCE as a result of early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals. [1]

184 relations: Agrarian reform, Agriculture in India, Akbar, Al-Andalus, Americas, Andhra Pradesh, Animal, Animal husbandry in India, Arabic, Areca nut, Ashok Desai, Assam, Ayurveda, Banana, Banyan, Barley, Bean, Belan River, Bengal, Bengal Subah, Bengalis, Bihar, Biotechnology, Black pepper, Borassus, British Raj, Bt cotton, Cadastral surveying, Cambridge University Press, Canal, Cash crop, Cashew, Central India, Cereal, Cheshmeh-Ali (Shahr-e-Rey), Chola dynasty, Cinnamon, Citrus, Coconut, Coffee, Cooking banana, Cotton, Crop, Crop yield, Dam, Date palm, DDT, Deccan Plateau, Delhi, Dharampal, ..., Dharma Kumar, Drainage, Drawbar (haulage), Economic liberalisation in India, Edo period, Egg as food, Ethiopia, Europe, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, Ficus religiosa, Fishing in India, Five-Year Plans of India, Forestry in India, Fruit, Ganges, Ginger, Girnar, Granary, Greece, Green Revolution in India, Gross domestic product, Gujarat, Gupta Empire, Harappa, Hemp, Horticulture, Immanuel Wallerstein, India, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Indigo, Indo-Roman trade relations, Indus River, Indus Valley Civilisation, Infobase Publishing, IOS Press, Irfan Habib, Irrigation, Islam, Jackfruit, Jeitun, John F. Richards, Jute, Kallanai Dam, Kashmir, Kharif crop, Legume, Lindane, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Maize, Malabar Coast, Mango, Manilkara zapota, Maurya Empire, Meat, Medieval India, Mediterranean Sea, Megasthenes, Mehrgarh, Meteorology, Middle Ages, Middle East, Milk, Millet, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Monsoon, Morus (plant), Mughal Empire, Mung bean, Muskmelon, Narcotic, Narmada River, National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, National Dairy Development Board, Neolithic Revolution, New Guinea, New World, Noboru Karashima, North Africa, North India, Odisha, Oil, Operation Flood, Opium, Pakistan, Papaya, Pastoralism, Pea, Pearson Education, Percival Spear, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Persian language, Pineapple, Plough, Portuguese East India Company, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Proso millet, Punjab Province (British India), Rabi crop, Reservoir, Rice, Roller mill, Rope, Routledge, Sang-i Chakmak, Sanitary sewer, Seed drill, Sericulture, Sesame, Setaria verticillata, Sher Shah Suri, South Asia, South India, Southeast Asia, Spice trade, Sugarcane, Sugarcane mill, Sur Empire, Tamarind, Tamils, Tapan Raychaudhuri, Tax, Taylor & Francis, Tea, Tobacco, Todar Mal, Tribute, Turmeric, University of California Press, Vedas, Vigna, Vindhya Range, Wheat, World war, Worm drive. Expand index (134 more) »

Agrarian reform

Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.

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Agriculture in India

The history of Agriculture in India dates back to Indus Valley Civilization Era and even before that in some parts of Southern India.

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Akbar

Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

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Al-Andalus

Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Animal husbandry in India

A large number of farmers in India depend on animal husbandry for their livelihood.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Areca nut

The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.

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Ashok Desai

Ashok H. Desai is a Senior Advocate practicing in the Supreme Court of India.

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Assam

Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.

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Ayurveda

Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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Banana

A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.

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Banyan

A banyan, also spelled "banian", is a fig that begins its life as an epiphyte, i.e. a plant that grows on another plant, when its seed germinates in a crack or crevice of a host tree or edifice.

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Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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Bean

A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

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Belan River

Belan river (बेलन नदी) is a river in Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

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Bengal

Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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Bengal Subah

The Bengal Subah was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal between the 16th and 18th centuries.

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Bengalis

Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.

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Bihar

Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Black pepper

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.

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Borassus

Borassus (Palmyra palm) is a genus of five species of fan palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and New Guinea.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Bt cotton

Bt cotton is a genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically modified pest resistant plant cotton variety, which produces an insecticide to bollworm.

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Cadastral surveying

Cadastral surveying is the sub-field of cadastre and surveying that specialises in the establishment and re-establishment of real property boundaries.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canal

Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.

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Cash crop

A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.

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Cashew

The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.

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Central India

Central India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of the states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.

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Cereal

A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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Cheshmeh-Ali (Shahr-e-Rey)

Cheshmeh-Ali ("Spring of Ali") is an ancient recreational place, located in the south of Tehran and north of Rey.

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Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.

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Cinnamon

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.

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Citrus

Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.

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Coconut

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.

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Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Cooking banana

Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Crop

A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.

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Crop yield

In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).

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Dam

A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.

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Date palm

Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.

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DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.

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Deccan Plateau

The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.

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Delhi

Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.

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Dharampal

Dharampal (धरमपाल) (19 February 1922 – 24 October 2006) was an Indian Gandhian thinker.

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Dharma Kumar

Dharma Kumar (1928 – 19 October 2001) was an Indian economic historian, noted for her work on the agrarian history of India.

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Drainage

Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area.

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Drawbar (haulage)

A drawbar is a solid coupling between a hauling vehicle and its hauled load.

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Economic liberalisation in India

The economic liberalisation in India refers to the economic liberalisation, initiated in 1991, of the country's economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market and service-oriented and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.

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Edo period

The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.

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Egg as food

Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry

The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) is an association of business organisations in India.

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Ficus religiosa

Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to the Indian subcontinent, and Indochina.

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Fishing in India

Fishing in India is a major industry in its coastal states, employing over 14 million people.

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Five-Year Plans of India

From 1947 to 2017, the Indian economy was premised on the concept of planning.

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Forestry in India

Forestry in India is a significant rural industry and a major environmental resource.

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Fruit

In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

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Ganges

The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.

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Ginger

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.

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Girnar

Girnar, also known as Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') or Revatak Parvata, is a group of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh.

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Granary

A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.

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Greece

No description.

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Green Revolution in India

The Green Revolution in India refers to a period of time when agriculture in India changed to an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, pump sets, etc.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Gujarat

Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.

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Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.

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Harappa

Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.

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Hemp

Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.

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Horticulture

Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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Immanuel Wallerstein

Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (born September 28, 1930) is an American sociologist, historical social scientist, and world-systems analyst, arguably best known for his development of the general approach in sociology which led to the emergence of his world-systems approach.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Council of Agricultural Research

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous body responsible for co-ordinating agricultural education and research in India.

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Indigo

Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.

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Indo-Roman trade relations

Indo-Roman trade relations (see also the spice trade and incense road) was trade between the Indian subcontinent and the Roman Empire in Europe and the Mediterranean.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Infobase Publishing

Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.

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IOS Press

IOS Press is a publishing house headquartered in Amsterdam, specialising in the publication of journals and books related to fields of scientific, technical, and medical research.

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Irfan Habib

Irfan Habib (born 1931) is an Indian historian of ancient and medieval India, following the approach of Marxist historiography.

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Irrigation

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Jackfruit

The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, fenne, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae) native to southwest India.

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Jeitun

Jeitun (Djeitun) is an archaeological site of the Neolithic period in southern Turkmenistan, about 30 kilometers northwest of Ashgabat in the Kopet-Dag mountain range.

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John F. Richards

John F. Richards (November 3, 1938 - August 23, 2007) was a historian of South Asia and in particular of the Mughal Empire.

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Jute

Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.

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Kallanai Dam

Kallanai (also known as the Grand Anicut, Tamil: கல்லணை) is an ancient dam, which is built (in running water) across the Kaveri river in Tiruchirappalli District in the state of Tamil Nadu in India.

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Kashmir

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Kharif crop

Kharif crops or monsoon crops are domesticated plants that are cultivated and harvested in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh during the rainy season, which lasts from June to October depending on the area.

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Legume

A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Lindane

Lindane, also known as gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCCH), gammaxene, Gammallin and sometimes incorrectly called benzene hexachloride (BHC), is an organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.

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Macrotyloma uniflorum

Macrotyloma uniflorum (horse gram, kulthi bean, hurali, Madras gram) is one of the lesser known beans.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Malabar Coast

The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.

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Mango

Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.

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Manilkara zapota

Manilkara zapota, commonly known as the sapodilla, is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.

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Meat

Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

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Medieval India

Medieval India refers to a long period of the history of the Indian subcontinent between the "ancient period" and "modern period".

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Megasthenes

Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.

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Mehrgarh

Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.

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Meteorology

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Milk

Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

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Millet

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare

The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (formerly Ministry of Agriculture), a branch of the Government of India, is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws related to agriculture in India.

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Monsoon

Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Morus (plant)

Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Mung bean

The mung bean (Vigna radiata), alternatively known as the green gram, maash, or moong Sanskrit मुद्ग / mŪgd, is a plant species in the legume family.

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Muskmelon

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) is a species of melon that has been developed into many cultivated varieties.

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Narcotic

The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.

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Narmada River

The Narmada, also called the Rewa and previously also known as Nerbudda,even Shankari, is a river in central India and the sixth longest river in the Indian subcontinent.

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National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is an apex development financial institution in India, headquartered at Mumbai with regional offices all over India.

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National Dairy Development Board

The National Dairy Development Board is an institution of national importance set up by an Act of Parliament of India.

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Noboru Karashima

was a Japanese historian, writer and Professor Emeritus in University of Tokyo, Japan.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Odisha

Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.

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Oil

An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").

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Operation Flood

Operation Flood, launched in 1970, was a project of India's National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), which was the world's biggest dairy development program.

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Opium

Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Papaya

The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.

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Pastoralism

Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.

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Pea

The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.

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Pearson Education

Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.

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Percival Spear

Thomas George Percival Spear (1901–1982) was an English historian who spent much of his life living and teaching in India.

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Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Pineapple

The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.

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Plough

A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.

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Portuguese East India Company

The Portuguese East India Company (Companhia do commércio da Índia or Companhia da Índia Oriental) was a short-lived ill-fated attempt by Philip III of Portugal to create a national chartered company to look after interests in Portuguese India in the face on encroachment by the Dutch and English following the personal union of the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns.

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Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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Proso millet

Panicum miliaceum, with many common names including proso millet, broomcorn millet, common millet, broomtail millet, hog millet, Kashfi millet red millet, and white millet, is a grass species used as a crop.

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Punjab Province (British India)

Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.

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Rabi crop

Rabi crops or Rabi harvest are agricultural crops that are sown in winter and harvested in the spring in South Asia.

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Reservoir

A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Roller mill

Roller mills are mills that use cylindrical rollers, either in opposing pairs or against flat plates, to crush or grind various materials, such as grain, ore, gravel, plastic, and others.

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Rope

A rope is a group of yarns, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Sang-i Chakmak

Sang-i Chakmak (Tappeh Sang-e Chakhmaq, Sange Chaxmaq, Chakhmagh) is a Neolithic archaeological site located about 1 km north of the village of Bastam in the northern Semnan Province of Iran, on the southeastern flank of the Elburs Mountains.

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Sanitary sewer

A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.

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Seed drill

A seed drill is a device that sows the seeds for crops by metering out the individual seeds, positioning them in the soil, and covering them to a certain average depth.

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Sericulture

Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.

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Sesame

Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.

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Setaria verticillata

Setaria verticillata is a species of grass known by the common names hooked bristlegrass, rough bristle-grass and bristly foxtail.

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Sher Shah Suri

Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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South India

South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Spice trade

The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.

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Sugarcane

Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Sugarcane mill

A sugar cane mill can refer to a factory that processes sugar cane to produce raw or white sugar.

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Sur Empire

The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital.

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Tamarind

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa.

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Tamils

The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.

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Tapan Raychaudhuri

Tapan Raychaudhuri (8 May 1926 – 26 November 2014) was an Indian historian specialising in British Indian history, Indian economic history and the History of Bengal.

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Tax

A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Tea

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.

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Tobacco

Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Todar Mal

Raja Todar Mal was the Finance Minister of the Mughal empire during Akbar's reign.

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Tribute

A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.

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Turmeric

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Vedas

The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Vigna

Vigna is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, with a pantropical distribution.

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Vindhya Range

The Vindhya Range(also known as Vindhyachal)() is a complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.

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Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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World war

A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.

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Worm drive

A worm drive is a gear arrangement in which a worm (which is a gear in the form of a screw) meshes with a worm gear (which is similar in appearance to a spur gear).

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History of agriculture in India.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_agriculture_in_the_Indian_subcontinent

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