170 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Ahab, Ahaz, Alexander the Great, Ammon, Ancient Canaanite religion, Ancient Egypt, André Lemaire, Angel, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Arabah, Arabian Desert, Aram-Damascus, Asherah, Ashkelon, Augustus, Baal, Battle of Qarqar, Bethel, Biblical archaeology, Bibliotheca Sacra, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Isaiah, Book of Jeremiah, Book of Joshua, Book of Judges, Book of Lamentations, Books of Kings, Books of Samuel, Broad Wall (Jerusalem), Bulla (seal), Cambyses II, Canaan, Canaanite languages, Chronology of the Bible, Client state, Cyrus the Great, Damascus, Dan (ancient city), Darius I, David, Davidic line, Dead Sea, Demon, Deuteronomist, Development of the Hebrew Bible canon, Diadochi, Documentary hypothesis, Early Christianity, ..., Eastern Mediterranean, Edom, El (deity), Ethnarch, Exogamy, Ezekiel, Ezra, First Jewish–Roman War, Galilee, Genealogy, Gilead, Habiru, Hasmonean dynasty, Hebrew language, Hellenistic Judaism, Henotheism, Herod the Great, Herodian dynasty, Hezekiah, History of Israel, History of Palestine, History of the ancient Levant, History of the Jews in Egypt, History of the Jews in Iran, History of the Jews in the Roman Empire, Intertestamental period, Israel Finkelstein, Israelites, Jeconiah, Jehoram of Israel, Jerusalem, Jewish diaspora, Jewish identity, Jews, Jezreel Valley, Jordan River, Josiah, Jotham of Judah, Judea, Judea (Roman province), Kenite, King Ahaz's seal, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), Kingdom of Judah, Kings of Israel and Judah, Kings of Judah, Lachish reliefs, Land of Israel, Late Bronze Age collapse, Levant, LMLK seal, Maccabean Revolt, Merneptah Stele, Mesha Stele, Midian, Mizpah in Benjamin, Moab, Monolatry, Monotheism, Mount Carmel, Mount Lebanon, National god, Nehemiah, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Nomad, Old Testament, Omri, Pastoralism, Philistines, Phoenicia, Pithos, Pompey, Population transfer, Prehistory of the Levant, Priestly source, Ptolemy I Soter, Rabbinic Judaism, Red Sea, Religions of the ancient Near East, Roman Empire, Roman Senate, Samaria, Samaria (ancient city), Samaritans, Second Temple period, Seleucid Empire, Semeia, Semitic languages, Sennacherib, Shabbat, Shalmaneser III, Shasu, Shebna, Shfela, Shishak, Shoshenq I, Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC), Siloam inscription, Siloam tunnel, Simon bar Kokhba, Sinai Peninsula, Southern Levant, Stele, Synagogue, Syria Palaestina, Tanakh, Taurus Mountains, The Bible Unearthed, The Exodus, The Jerusalem Post, Torah, Traditional story, Tyndale Bulletin, Utu, Vassal state, Wadi, Yahweh, Yehud Medinata. Expand index (120 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Ahab (Aḫabbu; Αχααβ; Achab) was the seventh king of Israel since Jeroboam I, the son and successor of Omri, and the husband of Jezebel of Sidon, according to the Hebrew Scriptures.
Ahaz (Ἄχαζ, Ἀχάζ Akhaz; Achaz; an abbreviation of Jehoahaz, "Yahweh has held" (𒅀𒌑𒄩𒍣 Ia-ú-ḫa-zi)Hayim Tadmor and Shigeo Yamada, The Royal Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 BC) and Shalmaneser V (726-722 BC), Kings of Assyria. (The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period 1; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011), Tiglath-Pileser III 47 r 11'. was king of Judah, and the son and successor of Jotham. Ahaz was 20 when he became king of Judah and reigned for 16 years. Ahaz is portrayed as an evil king in the Second Book of Kings (2 Kings 16:2). Edwin R. Thiele concluded that Ahaz was co-regent with Jotham from 736/735 BC, and that his sole reign began in 732/731 and ended in 716/715 BC. William F. Albright has dated his reign to 744 – 728 BC. The Gospel of Matthew lists Ahaz of Judah in the genealogy of Jesus. He is also mentioned in according to the King James Version.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ammon (ʻAmmūn) was an ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan.
Canaanite religion refers to the group of ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
André Lemaire (born 1942) is a French epigrapher, historian and philologist.
An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC.
The Arabah (وادي عربة, Wādī ʻAraba), or Arava/Aravah (הָעֲרָבָה, HaAravah, lit. "desolate and dry area"), as it is known by its respective Arabic and Hebrew names, is a geographic area south of the Dead Sea basin, which forms part of the border between Israel to the west and Jordan to the east.
The Arabian Desert is a vast desert wilderness in Western Asia.
Aram-Damascus was an Aramaean state around Damascus in Syria, from the late 12th century BCE to 732 BCE.
Asherah in ancient Semitic religion, is a mother goddess who appears in a number of ancient sources.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.
The Battle of Qarqar (or Ḳarḳar) was fought in 853 BC, when the army of Assyria led by king Shalmaneser III encountered an allied army of eleven kings at Qarqar, led by Hadadezer (also called Adad-idr and possibly to be identified with Benhadad II) of Damascus and King Ahab of Israel.
Bethel (Ugaritic: bt il, meaning "House of El" or "House of God",Bleeker and Widegren, 1988, p. 257. בֵּית אֵל, also transliterated Beth El, Beth-El, or Beit El; Βαιθηλ; Bethel) was a border city described in the Hebrew Bible as being located between Benjamin and Ephraim and also a location named by Jacob.
Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible, be they from the Old Testament (Tanakh) or from the New Testament, as well as the history and cosmogony of the Judeo-Christian religions.
Bibliotheca Sacra is a theological journal published by Dallas Theological Seminary, first published in 1844 and the oldest theological journal in the United States.
The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Lamentations (אֵיכָה, ‘Êykhôh, from its incipit meaning "how") is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem.
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
The Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel.
The Broad Wall is an ancient defensive wall in the Old City of Jerusalem.
A bulla (from Latin ''bulla'', "bubble, blob", plural bullae) is an inscribed clay or soft metal (such as lead or tin) or bitumen or wax token used in commercial and legal documentation as a form of identification and for tamper-proofing whatever is attached to it (or, in the historical form, contained in it).
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.
The chronology of the Bible is an elaborate system of lifespans, "generations," and other means by which the passage of events is measured, beginning with Creation and extending through other significant events.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dan (דן), is a city mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, described as the northernmost city of the Kingdom of Israel, and belonging to the tribe of Dan.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The Davidic line refers to the tracing of lineage to King David through the texts in the Hebrew Bible, in the New Testament, and through the following centuries.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
The Deuteronomist, or simply D, is one of the sources identified through source criticism as underlying much of the Hebrew Bible (Christian Old Testament).
Rabbinic Judaism recognizes the 24 books of the Masoretic Text, commonly called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, as authoritative.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
The documentary hypothesis (DH) is one of three models used to explain the origins and composition of the first five books of the Bible,The five books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
(or ’Il, written aleph-lamed, e.g. 𐎛𐎍; 𐤀𐤋; אל; ܐܠ; إل or rtl; cognate to ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major Ancient Near East deities.
Ethnarch, pronounced, the anglicized form of ethnarches (ἐθνάρχης), refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or homogeneous kingdom.
Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social group.
Ezekiel (יְחֶזְקֵאל Y'ḥezqēl) is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.
Ezra (עזרא,; fl. 480–440 BCE), also called Ezra the Scribe and Ezra the Priest in the Book of Ezra, was a Jewish scribe and a priest.
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 AD), sometimes called the Great Revolt (המרד הגדול), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, fought in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Gilead or Gilaad (جلعاد; גִּלְעָד) is the name of three people and two geographic places in the Bible.
Habiru (sometimes written as Hapiru, and more accurately as 'Apiru, meaning "dusty, dirty") is a term used in 2nd-millennium BCE texts throughout the Fertile Crescent for people variously described as rebels, outlaws, raiders, mercenaries, bowmen, servants, slaves, and laborers.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.
Henotheism is the worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
The Herodian Dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the Herodian Kingdom and later the Herodian Tetrarchy, as vassals of the Roman Empire.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.
Modern Israel is roughly located on the site of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
The history of Palestine is the study of the past in the region of Palestine, generally defined as a geographic region in the Southern Levant between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River (where Israel and Palestine are today), and various adjoining lands.
The Levant is a geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the south, and Mesopotamia in the east.
Egyptian Jews constitute both one of the oldest and youngest Jewish communities in the world.
The beginnings of Jewish history in Iran date back to late biblical times.
The history of the Jews in the Roman Empire traces the interaction of Jews and Romans during the period of the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 476).
The intertestamental period is the Protestant term and deuterocanonical period is the Catholic and Orthodox Christian term for the gap of time between the period covered by the Hebrew Bible and the period covered by the Christian New Testament.
Israel Finkelstein (ישראל פינקלשטיין, born March 29, 1949) is an Israeli archaeologist and academic.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jeconiah (יְכָנְיָה Yəḵonyā, meaning "Yah has established"; Ιεχονιας; Iechonias, Jechonias), also known as Coniah and as Jehoiachin (יְהֹויָכִין; Ioachin, Joachin), was a king of Judah who was dethroned by the King of Babylon in the 6th century BC and was taken into captivity.
Jehoram (Yəhōrām; also Joram) was a king of the northern Kingdom of Israel.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
Jewish identity is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Josiah or Yoshiyahu was a seventh-century BCE king of Judah (c. 649–609) who, according to the Hebrew Bible, instituted major religious reforms.
Jotham or Yotam (Ioatham; Joatham) was a king of Judah, and son of Uzziah by Jerusha, daughter of Zadok.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kenites were a nomadic clan in the ancient Levant.
King Ahaz's seal is a bulla (impressed piece of clay) originating from the 8th century BCE.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
This article is an overview of the kings of the United Kingdom of Israel as well as those of its successor states.
The Kings of Judah were the monarchs who ruled over the ancient Kingdom of Judah.
The Lachish reliefs are a set of Assyrian palace reliefs narrating the story of the Assyrian victory over the kingdom of Judah during the siege of Lachish in 701 BCE.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
LMLK seals are ancient Hebrew seals stamped on the handles of large storage jars dating from reign of King Hezekiah (circa 700 BC) discovered mostly in and around Jerusalem.
The Maccabean Revolt (מרד החשמונאים) was a Jewish rebellion, lasting from 167 to 160 BC, led by the Maccabees against the Seleucid Empire and the Hellenistic influence on Jewish life.
The Merneptah Stele—also known as the Israel Stele or the Victory Stele of Merneptah—is an inscription by the ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign: 1213 to 1203 BC) discovered by Flinders Petrie in 1896 at Thebes, and now housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
The Mesha Stele, also known as the Moabite Stone, is a stele (inscribed stone) set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab (a kingdom located in modern Jordan).
Midian (מִדְיָן), Madyan (مَـدْيَـن), or Madiam (Μαδιάμ) is a geographical place mentioned in the Torah and Qur’an.
Mizpah ("watch-tower; the look-out") was a city of the tribe of Benjamin referred to in the Hebrew Bible.
Moab (Moabite: Māʾab;; Μωάβ Mōáb; Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Mu'aba, 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Ma'ba, 𒈠𒀪𒀊 Ma'ab; Egyptian 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 Mu'ibu) is the historical name for a mountainous tract of land in Jordan.
Monolatry (Greek: μόνος (monos).
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mount Carmel (הַר הַכַּרְמֶל, Har HaKarmel ISO 259-3 Har ha Karmell (lit. God's vineyard); الكرمل, Al-Kurmul, or جبل مار إلياس, Jabal Mar Elyas (lit. Mount Saint Elias/Elijah) is a coastal mountain range in northern Israel stretching from the Mediterranean Sea towards the southeast. The range is a UNESCO biosphere reserve. A number of towns are situated there, most notably the city of Haifa, Israel's third largest city, located on the northern slope. The name is presumed to be directly from the Hebrew language word Carmel (כַּרְמֶל), which means "fresh" (planted), or "vineyard" (planted).
Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.
National gods are a class of guardian divinities or deities whose special concern is the safety and well-being of an ethnic group (nation), and of that group's leaders.
Nehemiah is the central figure of the Book of Nehemiah, which describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Omri (fl. 9th century BC) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the sixth king of Israel.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pithos (πίθος, plural: πίθοι) is the Greek name of a large storage container.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.
The prehistory of the Levant includes the various cultural changes that occurred, as revealed by archaeological evidence, prior to recorded traditions in the area of the Levant.
The Priestly source (or simply P) is, according to the documentary hypothesis, one of four sources of the Torah, together with the Jahwist, the Elohist and the Deuteronomist.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The religions of the ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of primitive monolatry (Yahwism/Judaism, Mardukites), Ashurism and Monism (Atenism).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
Samaria (שומרון; Σαμάρεια; as-Samira) was an ancient city in the Land of Israel.
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Semeia was a journal published by the Society of Biblical Literature, "devoted to the exploration of new and emergent areas and methods of biblical criticism.".
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sennacherib was the king of Assyria from 705 BCE to 681 BCE.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašurēdu, "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent" Sulmanu being an asuredu or divinity) was king of Assyria (859–824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II.
The Shasu (from Egyptian š3sw, probably pronounced Shaswe) were Semitic-speaking cattle nomads in the Levant from the late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age or the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.
Shebna was "treasurer over the house" (meaning comptroller or governor of the palace) in the reign of king Hezekiah of Judah, according to the Hebrew Bible.
The Shfela, or Shephelah, lit.
Shishak, Shishaq or Susac (Hebrew: שישק, Tiberian) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, an Egyptian pharaoh who sacked Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE.
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq, Tamazight: ⵛⵉⵛⵓⵏⵇ cicunq), (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq)—was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt.
The Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC) occurred during Pompey the Great's campaigns in the east, shortly after his successful conclusion of the Third Mithridatic War.
The Siloam inscription or Shiloah inscription (כתובת השילוח) or Silwan inscription is a passage of inscribed text found in the Siloam tunnel which brings water from the Gihon Spring to the Pool of Siloam, located in the City of David in East Jerusalem neighborhood of Shiloah or Silwan.
The Siloam Tunnel (נקבת השילוח, Nikbat HaShiloah), also known as Hezekiah's Tunnel, is a water tunnel that was carved underneath the City of David in Jerusalem in ancient times.
Simon bar Kokhba (שמעון בר כוכבא; died 135 CE), born Simon ben Kosevah, was the leader of what is known as the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state which he ruled for three years as Nasi ("Prince").
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
The Southern Levant is a geographical region encompassing the southern half of the Levant.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, a book published in 2001, discusses the archaeology of Israel and its relationship to the origins and content of the Hebrew Bible.
The exodus is the founding myth of Jews and Samaritans.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Traditional stories, or stories about traditions, differ from both fiction and nonfiction in that the importance of transmitting the story's worldview is generally understood to transcend an immediate need to establish its categorization as imaginary or factual.
The Tyndale Bulletin is an academic journal published by Tyndale House in Cambridge, England.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
Yahweh (or often in English; יַהְוֶה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.
Yehud Medinata (Aramaic for "the province of Judah"), or simply Yehud, was an autonomous province of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, roughly equivalent to the older kingdom of Judah but covering a smaller area, within the satrapy of Eber-Nari.
Ancient Israel, Ancient Israel & Judah, Ancient Israel and Judah, Ancient Israelite History, Ancient isreal, Biblical Israel, Biblical timeline for ancient Israel and Judah, Biblical times, First Temple Period, History of Ancient Israel and Judah, History of ancient Israel, History of ancient Israel & Judah, History of ancient Israel and Judah (1000-63 BCE), History of ancient Judah, History of ancient Judah and Israel, History of ancient israel and judah, Israel and Judah, Israelite period, Jews in the Old Testament, Judah and Israel, Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, Monarchic period, Monarchical Period, Monarchy in Judaism, Pre-Roman history of ancient Israel and Judah, Religion of Ancient Israel, Religion of ancient Israel.