846 relations: ABC News, Abolitionism, Abolitionism in the United Kingdom, Abolitionism in the United States, Abraham Lincoln, Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, Abubakar Shekau, Achaemenid Empire, Adam Hochschild, Afonso I of Kongo, Afonso V of Portugal, Ahmad ibn Rustah, Aja people, Akitoye, Akkadian Empire, Al-Andalus, Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, Alexander the Great, Alexandre Pétion, Algeria, Algiers, Allies of World War II, Almohad Caliphate, Amazon basin, Amazon River, Amazon rubber boom, American Civil War, American Colonization Society, American slave court cases, Americas, Ammonoidea, Amorites, Amsterdam, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Hawaii, André Rebouças, Angkor Wat, Angles, Anglo-Saxons, Angola, Annaba, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Annual Customs of Dahomey, Anthony Johnson (colonist), Anti-Slavery International, Anti-Slavery Society, Aotearoa, ..., Apprenticeship, Arab Charter on Human Rights, Arab League, Arab slave trade, Arab world, Arabian Peninsula, Arabs, Arameans, Arbeitslager, Armenian Genocide, Armenians, Aro Confederacy, Arrian, Arthur William Hodge, Ashanti Empire, Ashanti people, Asia, Asiento, Assyria, Assyrian genocide, Astrakhan Khanate, Athens, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic slave trade, Austronesian peoples, Author Solutions, Ayllu, Aztecs, Étienne Polverel, Babylonia, Bacon's Rebellion, Bahmani Sultanate, Balkans, Baltimore, County Cork, Balts, Bamana Empire, Bandeirantes, Bani Utbah, Bantu peoples, Barbados, Barbary pirates, Barbary slave trade, Battle of Lepanto, Battle of Peshawar (1001), Bay of Islands, BBC, BBC News, Belgian overseas colonies, Belgians, Bengal, Benin, Benin City, Berbers, Beylik of Tunis, Bilal ibn Rabah, Black Sea, Blackbirding, Bleeding Kansas, Blockade of Africa, Boko Haram, Bombardment of Algiers (1816), Brazil, Brian Glyn Williams, Bride kidnapping, Bride price, British Empire, British North America, British West Indies, Brothel, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Ottoman wars, Cagliari, Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, Caliphate, Cameroon, Camisard, Canaan, Canadian Museum of History, Cape Coloureds, Capital punishment, Caribbean, Carnatic region, Carolingian Empire, Carolingian Renaissance, Cassava, Caste, Castration, Caucasus, Cavalier, Córdoba, Spain, Celtic Britons, Celts, Central African Republic, Central and Eastern Europe, Century, Chad, Chaldea, Charlemagne, Charles Leclerc, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chatham Islands, Chibok, Child abandonment, Child labor in cocoa production, Child labour, Child sexual abuse, Child slavery, Chokwe people, Christchurch, Christian, Christian VII of Denmark, Christianity, Christianization, Church Mission Society, Cigarette, Clapham Sect, CNN, Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, Coastwise slave trade, Cocoa bean, Code Noir, Code of Hammurabi, Colchis, Colonialism, Comanche, Compensated emancipation, Conceptual model, Confederate States of America, Congo Free State, Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), Congress of the Confederation, Congress of Vienna, Constantinople, Coolie, Corporation, Corvée, Cossacks, Cradle of civilization, Crimea, Crimean Khanate, Crimean Tatars, Crucifixion, Cuba, Culture, Cyrus the Great, Dabiq (magazine), Dahomey, Daily Mail, Daily Mirror, Danubian Principalities, Dark Ages (historiography), Dasa, David Brion Davis, David Livingstone, Debt bondage, Deccan Plateau, Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Deep South, Delaware, Delhi Sultanate, Democracy Now!, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark–Norway, Devshirme, Dey, Dinka people, Dragut, Dred Scott v. Sandford, Duala people, Dum Diversas, Dunning School, Dutch Caribbean, Dutch Empire, Dutch Gold Coast, Dutch language, Dutch West India Company, Early Middle Ages, Early Muslim conquests, East Slavs, Easter Island, Ebla, Economic Community of West African States, Economic history of Brazil, Economic history of the Ottoman Empire, Economic history of the United Kingdom, Economy, Edict of Fontainebleau, Edict of Nantes, Edom, Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, Egypt, Elam, Elba, Emancipation Proclamation, Emperor Gaozu of Han, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Encyclopædia Britannica, Enderûn, English law, Eric Foner, Eric Williams, Ethiopia, Ethnic groups in Europe, Ethnic groups in the Philippines, Ethnohistory (journal), Eugene Genovese, Eunuch, Eurasia, Europe, Evangelism, Famine, Fante Confederacy, Fazenda, Federal Writers' Project, Feodosia, Fernand Braudel, Fishery Resources Monitoring System, Forced labor in the Soviet Union, Forced marriage, France, Franks, Frederick Douglass, Fredericksburg, Virginia, Free people of color, Free Soil Party, Freedmen's Bureau, French colonial empire, French First Republic, French Revolution of 1848, Friends Committee on National Legislation, Frisians, Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, Fulani War, Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, Gabo Reform, Galley, Galley slave, Gandhara, Gatineau, Gauls, Genoa, Genocide, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys, Georgians, Gerald Horne, Germanic peoples, Germantown, Philadelphia, Ghana, Ghana Empire, Gladiator, Globe Trekker, Godomey, Golden Horde, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand-Popo, Grande Seca, Great Britain, Greek genocide, Greeks, Guano, Guaraní people, Gujarat, Gulag, Gustav Nachtigal, Hacı I Giray, Haida people, Haile Selassie, Haiti, Haitian Revolution, Han dynasty, Harem, Harper (publisher), Harriet Tubman, Hattians, Hausa people, Helots, Henri Grégoire, Henry Clay, Herbert Gutman, Herodotus, High Middle Ages, Hindu, Hindustan, Hispanic America, Hispaniola, Historical revisionism, History of Antigua and Barbuda, History of Barbados, History of Brazil, History of Cuba, History of Guadeloupe, History of Iran, History of Jamaica, History of Martinique, History of Portugal, History of Puerto Rico, History of Saint Kitts and Nevis, History of slavery, History of Suriname, History of the Caribbean, History of the Netherlands, History of the Philippines (900–1521), History of the United States Republican Party, Hittites, Holland, Hongi Hika, Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton, Huguenots, Human rights, Human sacrifice, Human trafficking, Hunter-gatherer, Hurrians, Iceland, Igbo people, Imamate of Futa Jallon, Imamate of Futa Toro, Inca Empire, Indentured servitude, India, Indian Ocean trade, Indian Slavery Act, 1843, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Indonesia, Industrial Revolution, Influx of disease in the Caribbean, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, International Business Times, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Labour Organization, International Socialism (magazine), International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition, Iran, IRIN, Irish Independent, Irish people, Islam by country, Islam in India, Islamic eschatology, Islamic Golden Age, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic views on slavery, Islamism, Island Caribs, Israelites, Istanbul, Ivory Coast, Iwi, Jahangir, James Buchanan, Jamestown Foundation, Jamestown, Virginia, Jan Janszoon, Jan Pranger, Janissaries, Janjaweed, Java, Jean Parisot de Valette, Jean Sévillia, Jean-Baptiste Debret, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Jesuit reduction, Jewish Encyclopedia, Jewish views on slavery, Jewish Virtual Library, Jews, John Brown (abolitionist), John III of Portugal, John R. Jewitt, John Wesley Blassingame, Joseon, Joseph Knight (slave), Joseph Sturge, July Monarchy, Junius P. Rodriguez, Jury nullification, Kaabu, Kanem–Bornu Empire, Kansas Territory, Kansas–Nebraska Act, Kapıkulu, Karakorum, Kassites, Kenneth M. Stampp, Khanate of Kazan, Khasso, Khmer Empire, Kholop, King Cotton, King Leopold's Ghost, Kingdom of Benin, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Kongo, Kingdom of Koya, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Klamath people, Knights Hospitaller, Konduga, Kong Empire, Korea, Kukawa, Lagos, Portugal, Late Middle Ages, Law of the United Kingdom, Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, Le Monde diplomatique, League of Nations, Lecompton Constitution, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Lei Áurea, Lesser Antilles, Liberia, Libyan Civil War (2014–present), Lima, Lisbon, List of epidemics, List of Kazan khans, List of pre-Columbian cultures, List of slaves, List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire, Lithuania, Live Science, Liverpool, Lois Horton, Louis XIV of France, Louis XVIII of France, Louisiana Purchase, Luakini, Lundy, Luwians, Lydians, Ma malakat aymanukum, Machado de Assis, Madagascar, Maghrebis, Mahdist War, Mahmud of Ghazni, MailOnline, Mali Empire, Malta, Malwa, Mamluk, Mamluk dynasty (Delhi), Mandinka people, Manumission, Manusmriti, Marist Poll, Maroon (people), Marquis of Pombal (title), Mauritania, Maya society, Māori King Movement, Māori Land Court, Māori people, Medes, Mediterranean Sea, Mesoamerica, Mesopotamia, Messenian Wars, Michael King, Middle Ages, Middle East Quarterly, Middle Passage, Military history of African Americans in the American Civil War, Military of the Ottoman Empire, Mit'a, Mitanni, Moab, Mongol invasions and conquests, Monte della Redenzione degli Schiavi, Moriori, Mozambique, Mughal Empire, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad bin Qasim, Muhammad of Ghor, Mulatto, Mungo Park (explorer), Murder, Musket Wars, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Muslim world, Myanmar, Mycenaean Greece, Nantes, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Nationality, Naval warfare, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Near East, Neolithic Revolution, Netherlands, New Laws, New World, New York Conspiracy of 1741, New York Slave Revolt of 1712, New Zealand Wars, Newsweek, Ngāti Mutunga, Ngāti Tama, Niger River, Nigeria, Nigerian naira, Nordic countries, Norsemen, North Carolina v. Mann, Northern Region, Nigeria, Northwest Ordinance, Novgorod Republic, Nubia, Oba of Lagos, Ohio River, Old Norse, Origins of the American Civil War, Ottoman Algeria, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Navy, Ottoman Tripolitania, Ottoman wars in Europe, Ouidah, Oyo Empire, Pacific Northwest, Pacific War, Palace School, Papal bull, Paraguay, Paraguayan War, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parthia, Pawnee people, Pedro Blanco (slave trader), Penal labour, Peoples of the Caucasus, Persecution of Christians, Persian Gulf, Persian people, Peru, Peshawar, Peter Kolchin, Peter the Great, Philistines, Phoenicia, Phrygians, Plantation, Poles, Polis, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polynesia, Polynesian Triangle, Polynesians, Pope Nicholas V, Population decline, Port of Spain, Portugal, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese people, Pound sterling, Prince Henry the Navigator, Prisoner of war, Profit motive, Protestant work ethic, Pulitzer Prize, Pygmy peoples, Qin dynasty, Quakers, Queen's Bench, Quilombo, Qutb al-Din Aibak, Racial segregation, Radhanite, Ransom, Rapa Nui people, Reconstruction era, Red Sea, Religion, Republic of Genoa, Republic of the Congo, Republic of Venice, Reuters, Richard Pares, Ritual servitude, Robert E. Wright, Robert Fogel, Robin Blackburn, Roman agriculture, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Romani people, Romania, Romanus Pontifex, Rongorongo, Roundup (history), Royal African Company, Royal Navy, Rus' Khaganate, Sack of Baltimore, Sacrifice, Sahara, Sahel, Saint Patrick, Saint-Domingue, Salé, Salon (website), Sambisa Forest, Sambo (racial term), Sambo's Grave, Sanskrit, Sante Kimes, Saqaliba, Sarai (city), Sardinia, Savi, São Paulo, Seal hunting, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Second Sino-Japanese War, Second Sudanese Civil War, Senegambia Confederation, Serfdom, Serfdom in Russia, Sex industry, Sex worker, Sexual slavery, Seymour Drescher, Shah Jahan, Sharia, Shipwreck, Siddi, Sierra Leone, Silves, Portugal, Slave Coast of West Africa, Slave narrative, Slave Narrative Collection, Slave Power, Slave raiding, Slave rebellion, Slave ship, Slave Trade Act, Slave Trade Act 1807, Slavery, Slavery Abolition Act 1833, Slavery among Native Americans in the United States, Slavery and religion, Slavery at common law, Slavery in 21st-century Islamism, Slavery in Africa, Slavery in ancient Greece, Slavery in ancient Rome, Slavery in Canada, Slavery in contemporary Africa, Slavery in Haiti, Slavery in Iran, Slavery in Japan, Slavery in Korea, Slavery in Libya, Slavery in Niger, Slavery in Romania, Slavery in the British and French Caribbean, Slavery in the colonial United States, Slavery in the Ottoman Empire, Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies, Slavery in the United States, Slavs, Smallpox, Social class in the Ottoman Empire, Social stratification, Society and culture of the Han dynasty, Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, Society of Jesus, Socratic dialogue, Sojourner Truth, Sokoto, Sokoto Caliphate, Somerset v Stewart, Songhai Empire, South Carolina Lowcountry, Spain, Spain in the Middle Ages, Spanish Empire, Sparta, Spartacus, Stanley Elkins, Stanley Engerman, States' rights, Steppe, Steven Hahn, Stono Rebellion, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sudan, Sugar plantations in the Caribbean, Sugarcane, Sultan, Sumer, Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Swahili coast, Swahili people, Swedish slave trade, Tang dynasty, Tatars, Te Rauparaha, Tehuelche people, Teredo navalis, Terracotta Army, Thailand, The Atlantic, The Christian Post, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Virginia Gazette, The Wall Street Journal, Theobroma cacao, Third Servile War, Thirteen Colonies, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thomas Clarkson, Thracians, Thrall, Tikanga Māori, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, Tlingit, Togo, Tokhtamysh, Toraja, Toussaint Louverture, Trans-Saharan trade, Treaty, Treaty of Paris (1815), Treaty of Waitangi, Triangular trade, Trinidad, Tripoli, Tropical disease, Tsardom of Russia, Tupi people, Tupinambá people, Turan, Turkish language, Turkish people, Ulrich Bonnell Phillips, Underground Railroad, Unfree labour, United Kingdom, United Nations General Assembly, United States, United States Department of State, United States dollar, United States National Slavery Museum, United States presidential election, 1860, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of Chicago Press, University of Mary Washington, Urartu, Varangians, Venice, Verdingkinder, Vermont Republic, Victor Schœlcher, Vikings, War, War in Darfur, War of the Spanish Succession, Warring States period, Washington, D.C., West Africa, West Africa Squadron, West African CFA franc, West Indies, Western Sudan, Whaling, Whitehall, Wiedergutmachungsinitiative, Wild Fields, Willem Bosman, William Cowper, William Lloyd Garrison, William Lynch speech, William Wilberforce, Williamsburg, Virginia, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, World War I, World War II, Xlibris, Yalta Conference, Yazidis, Yoruba people, Yurok, Zanzibar, 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery, 1926 Slavery Convention. Expand index (796 more) » « Shrink index
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Abolitionism in the United Kingdom was the movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries to end the practice of slavery, whether formal or informal, in the United Kingdom, the British Empire and the world, including ending the Atlantic slave trade.
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Abū Yūsuf Ya‘qūb al-Manṣūr (c. 1160 Morocco – 23 January 1199 Marrakesh, Morocco), also known as Moulay Yacoub, was the third Almohad Caliph.
Abubakar Shekau, also known by the alias Darul Akeem wa Zamunda Tawheed, or Darul Tawheed ("the abode of monotheism") (دار التوحيد), thought to be born between 1965 and 1975 is a Kanuri man known as the leader of Boko Haram, a Nigerian militant group that has declared loyalty to the Islamist militant group Islamic State of Iraq Syria (ISIS).
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adam Hochschild (born October 5, 1942) is an American author, journalist, and lecturer.
Mvemba a Nzinga or Nzinga Mbemba (c. 1456–1542 or 1543), also known as King Afonso I, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo in the first half of the 16th century.
Afonso V KG (15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481), called the African, was King of Portugal and of the Algarves.
Ahmad ibn Rustah Isfahani (احمد ابن رسته اصفهانی Aḥmad ibn Rusta Iṣfahānī), more commonly known as Ibn Rustah (ابن رسته, also spelled Ibn Rusta and Ibn Ruste), was a 10th-century Persian explorer and geographer born in Rosta district, Isfahan, Persia.
The Aja are a group of people native to south-western Benin and south-eastern Togo.
Akitoye (died September 2, 1853), sometimes wrongly referred to as Akintoye, reigned twice as Oba of Lagos; first, from 1841 to 1845 and a second time, from 1851 to 1853.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Ala-ud-Din Hasan Bahman Shah (r. 3 August 1347 – 11 February 1358), whose original name was Zafar Khan, was the founder of the Bahmani sultanate.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandre Sabès Pétion (April 2, 1770 – March 29, 1818) was the first President of the Republic of Haiti from 1807 until his death in 1818.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
The Amazon Rubber Boom (Ciclo da borracha, 1879 to 1912) was an important part of the economic and social history of Brazil and Amazonian regions of neighboring countries, being related to the extraction and commercialization of rubber.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America, commonly known as the American Colonization Society (ACS), was a group established in 1816 by Robert Finley of New Jersey which supported the migration of free African Americans to the continent of Africa.
The following is a list of court cases in the United States concerning slavery.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.
The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Hawaii is the period of Hawaiian human history preceding the unification in 1810 of the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai by Kamehameha the Great.
André Pinto Rebouças (13 January 1838 – 9 April 1898) was a Brazilian military engineer, abolitionist and inventor, son of Antônio Pereira Rebouças (1798–1880) and Carolina Pinto Rebouças.
Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
The Annual Customs of Dahomey (xwetanu or huetanu in Fon) were the main yearly celebration in the Kingdom of Dahomey, held at the capital, Abomey.
Anthony Johnson (1600 – 1670) was a black Angolan who achieved freedom in the early 17th-century Colony of Virginia after serving his term of indenture.
Anti-Slavery International is an international non-governmental organization, registered charity and a lobby group, based in the United Kingdom.
The Anti-Slavery Society was the everyday name of two different British organisations.
Aotearoa (commonly pronounced by some English speakers as) is the Māori name for New Zealand.
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
The Arab Charter on Human Rights (ACHR), adopted by the Council of the League of Arab States on 22 May 2004, affirms the principles contained in the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights and the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
Arbeitslager is a German language word which means labor camp.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Aro Confederacy (1690–1902) was a political union orchestrated by the Aro people, Igbo subgroup, centered in Arochukwu in present-day southeastern Nigeria.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Arthur William Hodge (1763–1811) was a plantation farmer, member of the Executive Council and Legislative Assembly, and slave owner in the British Virgin Islands, who was hanged on 8 May 1811, for the murder of one of his slaves.
The Ashanti Empire (also spelled Asante) was an Akan empire and kingdom in what is now modern-day Ghana from 1670 to 1957.
Ashanti also known as Asante are an ethnic group native to the Ashanti Region of modern-day Ghana.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The asiento was the license issued by the Spanish crown, they were included in some peace treaties, by which a set of merchants received the monopoly on a trade route or product, an example of it was the payment of a fee, granting legal permission to sell a fixed number of African slaves in the Spanish colonies.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar Turkic state that arose during the break-up of the Golden Horde.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
Author Solutions is the parent company of the self publishing companies/imprints AuthorHouse, iUniverse, Trafford Publishing, Xlibris, Palibrio, and Booktango.
The ayllu is the traditional form of a community in the Andes, especially among Quechuas and Aymaras.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Étienne Polverel (1740–1795) was a French lawyer, aristocrat, and revolutionary.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Baltimore (translated as the "Fort of the Jewels") is a village in western County Cork, Ireland.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
The Bamana Empire (also Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire) was a large West African state based at Ségou, now in Mali.
The Bandeirantes were 17th-century Portuguese settlers in Brazil and fortune hunters.
The Bani Utbah (بني عتبة) is a tribal confederation of Arab clans, which originated from Najd.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Barbary slave trade refers to the slave markets that were extremely lucrative and vast on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, which included the Ottoman provinces of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania and the independent sultanate of Morocco, between the 16th and middle of the 18th century.
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, of which the Venetian Empire and the Spanish Empire were the main powers, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where Ottoman forces sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily.
Battle of Peshawar, was fought on 27 November 1001 between the Ghaznavid army of Sultan Mahmud bin Sebuktigin (Mahmud of Ghazni) and the Hindu Shahi army of Jayapala, near Peshawar.
The Bay of Islands is an area on the east coast of the Far North District of the North Island of New Zealand.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belgium controlled two colonies during its history: the Belgian Congo from 1885 to 1960 and Ruanda-Urundi from 1916 to 1962.
Belgians (Belgen, Belges, Belgier) are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Benin City is the capital of Edo State in southern Nigeria.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
The Beylik of Tunis was a largely autonomous beylik of the Ottoman Empire founded on July 15, 1705, after the Husainid Dynasty led by Al-Husayn I ibn Ali at-Turki defeated the Turkish Deys, that controlled what is now Tunisia.
Bilal ibn Rabah (بلال ابن رباح‎; 580–640 AD) also known as Bilal al-Habashi, Bilal ibn Riyah, and ibn Rabah), was one of the most trusted and loyal Sahabah (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was born in Mecca and is considered as the first muezzin, chosen by Muhammad himself.Robinson, David.. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print. He was known for his beautiful voice with which he called people to their prayers. He died in 640, at the age of 57.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blackbirding is the coercion of people through trickery and kidnapping to work as labourers.
Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent civil confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 which emerged from a political and ideological debate over the legality of slavery in the proposed state of Kansas.
The Blockade of Africa began in 1808 after the United Kingdom outlawed the Atlantic slave trade, making it illegal for British ships to transport slaves.
The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
The Bombardment of Algiers (27 August 1816) was an attempt by Britain and the Netherlands to end the slavery practices of Omar Agha, the Dey of Algiers.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brian Glyn Williams is a professor of Islamic History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Montserrat and the British Virgin Islands.
A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes, who are sometimes referred to as sex workers.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Ottoman wars were a series of decisive conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and Byzantines that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
Cagliari (Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.
The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation adopted in Cairo, Egypt, on 5 August 1990, (Conference of Foreign Ministers, 9–14 Muharram 1411H in the Islamic calendar) which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and affirms Islamic sharia as its sole source.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Camisards were Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) of the rugged and isolated Cévennes region, and the Vaunage in southern France.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
The Canadian Museum of History (Musée canadien de l’histoire), formerly the Canadian Museum of Civilization (Musée canadien des civilisations), is Canada's national museum of human history.
In Southern Africa, Cape Coloureds is the name given to an ethnic group composed primarily of persons of mixed race.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Carnatic region is the region of peninsular South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, in the modern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and southern Andhra Pradesh.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is a period of 100 years.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Victoire Emmanuel Leclerc (17 March 1772 – 2 November 1802) was a French Army general who served under Napoleon Bonaparte during the French Revolution.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
The Chatham Islands form an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean about east of the South Island of New Zealand.
Chibok is a Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria, located in the north of the state.
Child abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting guardianship over them.
The widespread use of children in cocoa production is controversial, not only for the concerns about child labor and exploitation, but also because, as of 2015, up to 19,000 children working in Côte d'Ivoire, the world's biggest producer of cocoa, may have been victims of trafficking or slavery.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
Child slavery is the slavery of children.
The Chokwe people, known by many other names (including Kioko, Bajokwe, Chibokwe, Kibokwe, Ciokwe, Cokwe or Badjok), are an ethnic group of Central and Southern Africa.
Christchurch (Ōtautahi) is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christian VII (29 January 1749 13 March 1808) was a monarch of the House of Oldenburg who was King of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1766 until his death.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
The Church Mission Society (CMS), formerly in Britain and currently in Australia and New Zealand known as the Church Missionary Society, is a mission society working with the Anglican Communion and Protestant Christians around the world.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
The Clapham Sect or Clapham Saints were a group of Church of England social reformers based in Clapham, London, at the beginning of the 19th century (active 1780s–1840s).
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST) is a Los Angeles-based anti-human trafficking organization.
The coastwise slave trade existed along the eastern coastal areas of the United States in the antebellum years prior to 1861.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
The Code Noir (Black Code) was a decree originally passed by France's King Louis XIV in 1685.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Comanche (Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas and northern Chihuahua.
Compensated emancipation was a method of ending slavery in countries where slavery was legal.
A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
The Congo Free State (État indépendant du Congo, "Independent State of the Congo"; Kongo-Vrijstaat) was a large state in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908.
The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, held in the autumn of 1818, was a high-level diplomatic meeting of France and the four allied powers Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia which had defeated it in 1814.
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The word coolie (also spelled koelie, kuli, cooli, cooly and quli); (Hindi: कुली, Tamil: கூலி, Telugu: కూలీ, Chinese: 苦力) meaning a labourer, has a variety of other implications and is sometimes regarded as offensive or a pejorative, depending upon the historical and geographical context.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Dabiq (دابق) was an online magazine used by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) for Islamic radicalisation and recruitment.
The Kingdom of Dahomey was an African kingdom (located within the area of the present-day country of Benin) that existed from about 1600 until 1894, when the last king, Béhanzin, was defeated by the French, and the country was annexed into the French colonial empire.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.
Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene, translit) was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the early 14th century.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
Dasa is a Sanskrit language term found in ancient Hindu texts, such as the Rigveda and Arthashastra.
David Brion Davis (born February 16, 1927) is an American intellectual and cultural historian, and a leading authority on slavery and abolition in the Western world.
David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Christian Congregationalist, pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society, an explorer in Africa, and one of the most popular British heroes of the late-19th-century Victorian era.
Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is a person's pledge of labour or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where there is no hope of actually repaying the debt.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
Devshirme (دوشيرمه, devşirme, literally "lifting" or "collecting"), also known as the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the practice where by the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take Christian boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in Eastern and Southeastern Europe in order that they be raised to serve the state.
Dey (Arabic: داي, from Turkish dayı) was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers (Algeria), Tripoli,Bertarelli (1929), p. 203.
The Dinka people (Jiɛ̈ɛ̈ŋ) are a community, composed of many ethnic groups, inhabiting the East and West Banks of River Nile, from Mangalla to Renk, regions of Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile (former two of three Southern Provinces in Sudan) and Abyei Area of the Angok Dinka in South Khordofan of Sudan.
Dragut (Turgut Reis; 1485 – 23 June 1565), known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", was a famed, respected, and feared Muslim Ottoman Naval Commander of Greek descent.
Dred Scott v. Sandford,, also known as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law.
The Duala (or Douala) are an ethnic group of Cameroon.
Dum Diversas (English: Until different) is a papal bull issued on 18 June 1452 by Pope Nicholas V. It authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer Saracens and pagans and consign them to "perpetual servitude".
The Dunning School refers to a group of historians who shared a historiographical school of thought regarding the Reconstruction period of American history (1865–1877).
The Dutch Caribbean (historically known as the Dutch West Indies) is the territories, colonies, and countries, both former and current, of the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of the Netherlands that are located in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
The Dutch Gold Coast or Dutch Guinea, officially Dutch possessions on the Coast of Guinea (Dutch: Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) was a portion of contemporary Ghana that was gradually colonized by the Dutch, beginning in 1598.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.
Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.
The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa.
The economic history of Brazil covers various economic events and traces the changes in the Brazilian economy over the course of the history of Brazil.
Economic history of the Ottoman Empire covers the period 1299–1923.
The economic history of the United Kingdom deals with the economic history of England and Great Britain from 1500 to the early 21st century.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
Admiral Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, GCB (19 April 1757 – 23 January 1833) was a British naval officer.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
The Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān (abbreviated EQ) is an encyclopedia dedicated to the Qur'an published with Brill.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Enderûn (اندرون, from Persian andarûn, "inside") was the term used in the Ottoman Empire to designate the "Interior Service" of the Imperial Court, concerned with the private service of the Ottoman Sultans, as opposed to the state-administrative "Exterior Service" (Birûn).
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Eric Foner (born February 7, 1943) is an American historian.
The Rt Hon. Dr. Eric Eustace Williams TC, CH (25 September 1911 – 29 March 1981) served as the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
The Philippines is inhabited by more than 175 ethnolinguistic nations, the majority of whose languages are Malay in origin, then Han Chinese, then European (mostly Spanish).
Ethnohistory is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1954 and published quarterly by Duke University Press on behalf of the American Society for Ethnohistory.
Eugene Dominic Genovese (May 19, 1930 – September 26, 2012) was an American historian of the American South and American slavery.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
The Fante Confederacy can refer either to the loose alliance of the Fante states in existence at least since the sixteenth century, or it can refer to the short-lived Confederation formed in 1868 and dissolved in 1874.
A fazenda is a plantation found throughout Brazil; during the colonial period (16th - 18th centuries) they were concentrated primarily in the northeastern region, where (sugar) was produced, expanding during the 19th century in the southeastern region to coffee production.
The Federal Writers' Project (FWP) was a United States federal government project created to provide jobs for out-of-work writers during the Great Depression.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.
The Fishery Resources Monitoring System (FIRMS) is a partnership of intergovernmental fisheries organizations that share a wide range of high-quality information on the global monitoring and management of marine fishery resources.
Forced labor was used extensively in the Soviet Union as a means of controlling Soviet citizens and foreigners.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; – February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.
Fredericksburg is an independent city located in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
In the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, free people of color (French: gens de couleur libres, Spanish: gente libre de color) were people of mixed African and European descent who were not enslaved.
The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections as well as in some state elections.
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, usually referred to as simply the Freedmen's Bureau, was an agency of the United States Department of War to "direct such issues of provisions, clothing, and fuel, as he may deem needful for the immediate and temporary shelter and supply of destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children." The Freedmen's Bureau Bill, which established the Freedmen's Bureau on March 3, 1865, was initiated by President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
The Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL) is a lobbying organization in the public interest founded in 1943 by members of the Religious Society of Friends.
The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany.
The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave-holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers.
The Fulani War of 1804–1808, also known as the Fulani Jihad or Jihad of Usman dan Fodio, was a military contest in present-day Nigeria and Cameroon.
The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina were adopted on March 1, 1669 by the eight Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina, which included most of the land between what is now Virginia and Florida.
The Gabo Reform, also known as the Kabo Reform, describes a series of sweeping reforms suggested to the government of Korea beginning in 1894 and ending in 1896 during the reign of Gojong of Korea in response to the Donghak Peasant Revolution.
A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.
A galley slave is a slave rowing in a galley, either a convicted criminal sentenced to work at the oar (French: galérien), or a kind of human chattel, often a prisoner of war, assigned to his duty of rowing.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Gatineau (locally), officially Ville de Gatineau, is a city in western Quebec, Canada.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem, PC (15 May 1645 – 18 April 1689), also known as "The Hanging Judge", was a Welsh judge.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Gerald Horne is an African-American historian who currently holds the John J. and Rebecca Moores Chair of History and African American Studies at the University of Houston.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germantown is an area in Northwest Philadelphia.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.
A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
Globe Trekker (sometimes called Pilot Guides in Australia and Thailand, and originally broadcast as Lonely Planet) is an adventure tourism television series produced by Pilot Productions.
Godomey is a town and arrondissement in the Atlantique Department of southern Benin.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
Grand-Popo is a town, arrondissement, and commune in the Mono Department of south-western Benin.
The Grande Seca, the Great Drought, or the Brazilian drought of 1877–78 is the largest and most devastating drought in Brazilian history.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Greek genocide, including the Pontic genocide, was the systematic genocide of the Christian Ottoman Greek population carried out in its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath (1914–1922).
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Gustav Nachtigal (23 February 1834 – 20 April 1885) was a German explorer of Central and West Africa.
Hacı I Giray, Melek Haji Girai (بیر-حاجى كراى; Melek Hacı Geray, ملک خاجى كراى‎; died 1466) was the founder and the first ruler of the Crimean Khanate.
Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.
Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.
Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross, March 10, 1913) was an American abolitionist and political activist.
The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia.
The Hausa (autonyms for singular: Bahaushe (m), Bahaushiya (f); plural: Hausawa and general: Hausa; exonyms: Ausa) are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.
The helots (εἵλωτες, heílotes) were a subjugated population group that formed the main population of Laconia and Messenia, the territory controlled by Sparta.
Henri Jean-Baptiste Grégoire (4 December 1750 – 28 May 1831), often referred to as Abbé Grégoire, was a French Roman Catholic priest, constitutional bishop of Blois and a revolutionary leader.
Henry Clay Sr. (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was an American lawyer, planter, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives.
Herbert G. Gutman (1928 – July 21, 1985) was an American professor of history at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, where he wrote on slavery and labor history.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
The history of Antigua and Barbuda can be separated into three distinct eras.
Barbados was inhabited by Arawaks and Caribs at the time of European colonization of the Americas in the 16th century.
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil.
The island of Cuba was inhabited by various Mesoamerican cultures prior to the arrival of the Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The earliest settlers on Guadeloupe arrived around 300 AD and developed agriculture on the island.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The Caribbean island of Jamaica was colonized by the Taino tribes prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1503.
This is a page on the history of the island of Martinique.
The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis.
The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3,000 and 2,000 BC.
Saint Kitts and Nevis have one of the longest written histories in the Caribbean, both islands being among Spain's and England's first colonies in the archipelago.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The early history of Suriname dates from 3000 BCE when Native Americans first inhabited the area.
The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the 15th century.
The history of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe.
The recorded History of the Philippines begins with the creation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI) in 900, the first written document found in an ancient Philippine language.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
Hongi Hika (c. 1772 – 6 March 1828) was a New Zealand Māori rangatira (chief) and war leader of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe).
Hugh Swynnerton Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (21 October 1931 – 7 May 2017) was an English historian, writer and life peer in the House of Lords.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Igbo people (also Ibo," formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo; natively Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò) are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria.
The Imamate of Futa Jallon or Jalon (Fouta Djallon; Fuuta Jaloo or Fuuta Jalon) was a West African theocratic state based in the Fouta Djallon highlands of modern Guinea.
The Imamate of Futa Toro (1776-1861) was a pre-colonial West African theocratic state of the Fula-speaking people (Fulɓe and Toucouleurs) centered on the middle valley of the Senegal River.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history.
The Indian Slavery Act, 1843, also Act V of 1843, was an act passed in British India under East India Company rule, which outlawed many economic transactions associated with slavery.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are composed of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they share certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Atlantic slave trade brought an influx of diseases, particularly malaria and yellow fever, to the Caribbean.
Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World is a book by American cultural and intellectual historian David Brion Davis, published by Oxford University Press in 2006.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
International Socialism is a British-based quarterly journal established in 1960 and published in London by the Socialist Workers Party which discusses socialist theory.
The United Nations General Assembly declared 2004 as the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (having welcomed the fact that UNESCO had proclaimed it as such earlier).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
The Irish Independent is Ireland's largest-selling daily newspaper, published by Independent News & Media (INM).
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group.
Islam is the second largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or roughly 172 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2011 census) as an ethnoreligious group.
Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة,, "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين,, "the Day of Judgment").
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamic views on slavery represent a complex and multifaceted body of Islamic thought,Brockopp, Jonathan E., “Slaves and Slavery”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
The Island Caribs, also known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous Caribbean people of the Lesser Antilles.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Iwi are the largest social units in New Zealand Māori society.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
James Buchanan Jr. (April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was an American politician who served as the 15th President of the United States (1857–61), serving immediately prior to the American Civil War.
The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, commonly known as Murat Reis the Younger (c. 1570 – c. 1641), was a Dutch pirate who "turned Turk" after being captured by a Moorish state in 1618.
Jan Pranger (1700 – 13 April 1773) was a Dutch merchant, who in 1730 became Director-General of the Dutch Gold Coast.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد janjawīd; also transliterated Janjawid) (English: a man with a gun on a horse.") are a militia that operate in western Sudan and eastern Chad.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Fra' Jean Parisot de La Valette (4 February 1495 – 21 August 1568) was a French nobleman and 49th Grand Master of the Order of Malta, from 21 August 1557 to his death in 1568.
Jean Sévillia (born in Paris on September 14, 1952) is a conservative French journalist and essayist.
Jean-Baptiste Debret (18 April 1768 – 28 June 1848) was a French painter, who produced many valuable lithographs depicting the people of Brazil.
Jean-Jacques Dessalines (Haitian Creole: Jan-Jak Desalin;; 20 September 1758 – 17 October 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1805 constitution.
A Jesuit reduction was a type of settlement for indigenous people in North and South America established by the Jesuit Order from the 16th to the 18th centuries.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Jewish views on slavery are varied both religiously and historically.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.
John III (João III; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) nicknamed "o Colonizador" (English: "The Colonizer") was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557.
John Rodgers Jewitt (21 May 1783 – 7 January 1821) was an English armourer who entered the historical record with his memoirs about the 28 months he spent as a captive of Maquinna of the Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) people on the Pacific Northwest Coast of what is now Canada.
John Wesley Blassingame (March 23, 1940 – February 13, 2000) was an American scholar, historian, educator, writer, and pioneer in the study of American slavery.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Joseph Knight was a man born in Africa and sold as a slave in Jamaica to John Wedderburn of Ballendean, Scotland.
Joseph Sturge (1793 – 14 May 1859) was an English Quaker, abolitionist and activist.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
Junius P. Rodriguez is a professor of history at Eureka College in Eureka, Illinois, who has been the general editor of multiple major reference books on the history of slavery in the United States and the world, as well as related topics such as black history and abolitionism.
Jury nullification is a concept where members of a trial jury find a defendant not guilty if they do not support a government's law, do not believe it is constitutional or humane, or do not support a possible punishment for breaking the law.
The Kaabu Empire (1537–1867), also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu', was a Mandinka empire of Senegambia centered within modern northeastern Guinea-Bissau, Larger parts of today's Gambia; Kingdom of Saloum, extending into Koussanar, Koumpentoum regions of South Eastern Senegal, and Casamance in Senegal.
The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.
The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas.
The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and was drafted by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and President Franklin Pierce.
Kapıkulu (قپوقولو اوجاغی, Kapıkulu Ocağı, "Slaves of the Porte") was the collective name for the household troops of the Ottoman Sultans.
Karakorum (Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум Kharkhorum) was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260, and of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
Kenneth Milton Stampp (12 July 191210 July 2009), Alexander F. and May T. Morrison Professor of History Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley (1946–1983), was a celebrated historian of slavery, the American Civil War, and Reconstruction.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
Khasso or Xaaso was a West African kingdom of the 17th to 19th centuries, occupying territory in what is today Senegal and the Kayes Region of Mali.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
A kholop (p) was a feudally dependent person in Russia between the 10th and early 18th centuries.
"King Cotton" is a slogan which summarized the strategy used before the American Civil War (of 1861–1865) by pro-secessionists in the southern states (the future Confederate States of America) to claim the feasibility of secession and to prove there was no need to fear a war with the northern states.
King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa (1998) is a best-selling popular history book by Adam Hochschild that explores the exploitation of the Congo Free State by King Leopold II of Belgium between 1885 and 1908, as well as the large-scale atrocities committed during that period.
The Kingdom of Benin, also known as the Benin Kingdom, was a pre-colonial kingdom in what is now southern Nigeria.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda, the Republic of the Congo, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.
The Kingdom of Kquoja or Koya or Koya Temne, or the Temne Kingdom (1505–1896), was a pre-colonial African state in the north of present-day Sierra Leone.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification.
The Klamath people are a Native American tribe of the Plateau culture area in Southern Oregon and Northern California.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
Konduga is a community in Borno State, Nigeria and the center of a Local Government Area of the same name about 25 km to the southeast of Maiduguri, situated on the north bank of the Ngadda River.
The Kong Empire (1710–1898), also known as the Wattara Empire or Ouattara Empire for its founder, was a pre-colonial African Muslim state centered in north eastern Ivory Coast that also encompassed much of present-day Burkina Faso.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Kukawa (previously Kuka) is a town and Local Government Area in the northeastern Nigerian state of Borno, close to Lake Chad.
Lagos (literally lakes; Lacobriga) is a municipality at the mouth of Bensafrim River and along the Atlantic Ocean, in the Barlavento region of the Algarve, in southern Portugal.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
The United Kingdom has three legal systems, each of which applies to a particular geographical area.
Léger-Félicité Sonthonax (1763–1813) was a French abolitionist and Jacobin before joining the Girondist party, which emerged in 1791.
Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Lecompton Constitution was the second of four proposed constitutions for the state of Kansas (it was preceded by the Topeka Constitution and was followed by the Leavenworth and Wyandotte Constitutions, the Wyandotte becoming the Kansas state constitution).
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that abolished slavery in Brazil.
The Lesser Antilles are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
The second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease.
This list of pre-Columbian cultures includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas.
Slavery is a social-economic system under which persons are enslaved: deprived of personal freedom and forced to perform labor or services without compensation.
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Live Science is a science news website run by Purch, which it purchased from Imaginova in 2009.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Lois Horton (born 1950) is an American historian.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
In ancient Hawaii, a luakini temple, or luakini heiau, was a Native Hawaiian sacred place where human and animal blood sacrifices were offered.
Lundy is the largest island in the Bristol Channel.
The Luwians were a group of Indo-European speaking people who lived in central, western, and southern Asia Minor as well as the northern part of western Levant in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
The Lydians were an Anatolian people living in Lydia, a region in western Anatolia, who spoke the distinctive Lydian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian group.
Mā malakat aymānukum ("what your right hands possess", ما ملكت أيمانکم) is a Quranic expression referring to slaves.
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme VelhoVainfas, p. 505.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Maghrebis or Maghrebians are the native inhabitants of the Maghreb in Northwest Africa.
The Mahdist War (الثورة المهدية ath-Thawra al-Mahdī; 1881–99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the "Guided One"), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
MailOnline (also known as dailymail.co.uk) is the website of the Daily Mail, a newspaper in the United Kingdom, and of its sister paper The Mail on Sunday.
The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1670.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) (سلطنت مملوک), (غلام خاندان) was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave general from Central Asia.
The Mandinka (also known as Mandenka, Mandinko, Mandingo, Manding or Malinke) are an African ethnic group with an estimated global population of 11 million (the other three largest ethnic groups in Africa being the unrelated Fula, Hausa and Songhai peoples).
Manumission, or affranchisement, is the act of an owner freeing his or her slaves.
The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.
The Marist Poll, founded in 1978, is a national public opinion poll operated by the Marist Institute for Public Opinion (MIPO) on the campus of Marist College in Poughkeepsie, New York.
Maroons were Africans who had escaped from slavery in the Americas and mixed with the indigenous peoples of the Americas, and formed independent settlements.
Count of Oeiras (in Portuguese Conde de Oeiras) was a Portuguese title of nobility created by a royal decree, dated from July 15, 1759, by King Joseph I of Portugal, and granted to Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Head of the Portuguese Government.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Maya society concerns the social organization of the Pre-Hispanic Mayas, its political structures and social classes.
The Māori King Movement or Kīngitanga is a movement that arose among some of the Māori tribes of New Zealand in the central North Island in the 1850s, to establish a role similar in status to that of the monarch of the British colonists, as a way of halting the alienation of Māori land.
The Māori Land Court (Māori: Te Kōti Whenua Māori) is the specialist court in New Zealand that hears matters relating to Māori land.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Messenian Wars refers to the wars between Messenia and Sparta in the 8th and 7th centuries BC as well as the 4th century BC.
Michael King, OBE (15 December 1945 – 30 March 2004) was a New Zealand popular historian, author, and biographer.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle East Quarterly (MEQ) is a quarterly journal, a publication of the think tank Middle East Forum (MEF) founded by Daniel Pipes in 1994.
The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.
A large contingent of African Americans served in the American Civil War.
The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.
Mit'a was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Moab (Moabite: Māʾab;; Μωάβ Mōáb; Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Mu'aba, 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Ma'ba, 𒈠𒀪𒀊 Ma'ab; Egyptian 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 Mu'ibu) is the historical name for a mountainous tract of land in Jordan.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Monte della Redenzione degli Schiavi, often simply known as the Monte di Redenzione, was Maltese institution which was set up to finance the redemption of Maltese people enslaved by Ottomans or Barbary pirates.
Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rēkohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on 29 June 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.
‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; c. 695715) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Mungo Park (11 September 1771 – 1806) was a Scottish explorer of West Africa.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
The Musket Wars were a series of as many as 3,000 battles and raids fought throughout New Zealand as well as the Chatham Islands among Māori between 1807 and 1845, after Māori first obtained muskets and then engaged in an intertribal arms race in order to gain territory or seek revenge for past defeats.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Laws (Spanish: Leyes Nuevas), also known as the New Laws of the Indies for the Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians (Spanish:Leyes y ordenanzas nuevamente hechas por su Majestad para la gobernación de las Indias y buen tratamiento y conservación de los Indios), were issued on November 20, 1542, by King Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (Charles I of Spain) and regard the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The Conspiracy of 1741, also known as the Negro Plot of 1741 or the Slave Insurrection of 1741, was a purported plot by slaves and poor whites in the British colony of New York in 1741 to revolt and level New York City with a series of fires.
The New York Slave Revolt of 1712 was an uprising in New York City, in the British Province of New York, of 23 enslaved Africans.
The New Zealand Wars were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand from 1845 to 1872 between the New Zealand government and the Māori.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Ngāti Mutunga is a Māori iwi of New Zealand.
Ngāti Tama is a historic Māori iwi of present-day New Zealand.
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The naira (sign: ₦; code: NGN) is the currency of Nigeria.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
North Carolina v. Mann, 13 N.C. 263 (N.C. 1830) (or State v. Mann, as it would have been identified within North Carolina), is a decision in which the Supreme Court of North Carolina ruled that slave owners had absolute authority over their slaves and could not be found guilty of committing violence against them.
Northern Nigeria was an autonomous division within Nigeria, distinctly different from the southern part of the country, with independent customs, foreign relations and security structures.
The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as The Ordinance of 1787) enacted July 13, 1787, was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
The Oba (king) of Lagos is the traditional, yet ceremonial, sovereign of Lagos, a coastal Yoruba settlement that went on to become one of the largest cities in Africa after first giving its name to Lagos State, the acclaimed financial heart of contemporary Nigeria.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States (the Union), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (or simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go.
The regency of Algiers' (in Arabic: Al Jazâ'ir), was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.
The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania (ایالت طرابلس غرب Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary from 1551 to 1864 and as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (ولايت طرابلس غرب Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1911.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
Ouidah or Whydah (Xwéda; Ouidah, Juida, and Juda by the French; Ajudá by the Portuguese; and Fida by the Dutch), formally the Kingdom of Whydah, is a city on the coast of the Republic of Benin.
The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North central Nigeria.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
The Palace School (Enderun-i Hümayun Mektebi) was a special school inside of the innermost court of Topkapı Palace that provided the education for the servants of the Ottoman dynasty, who went on to staff the administrative elite of the Ottoman Empire.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the Great War in Paraguay, was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma.
Pedro Blanco (1795–1854) was a notorious Spanish slave trader based in Gallinas on the coast of Sierra Leone between 1822 and 1838.
Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
The persecution of Christians can be historically traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Peter Kolchin (born June 3, 1943) is an American historian.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
The Polynesian Triangle is a region of the Pacific Ocean with three island groups at its corners: Hawaiokinai (formerly "the Sandwich Islands"), Easter Island (Rapa Nui) and New Zealand (Aotearoa).
The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
Pope Nicholas V (Nicholaus V) (13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death.
A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is any great reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.
Port of Spain (also spelled Port-of-Spain) is the capital city of Trinidad and Tobago and the country's third-largest city, after Chaguanas and San Fernando.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
In economics, the profit motive is the motivation of firms that operate so as to maximize their profits.
The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.
The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.
In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose average height is unusually short.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
The Queen's Bench (or, during the reign of a male monarch, the King's Bench, Cour du banc du Roi) is the superior court in a number of jurisdictions within some of the Commonwealth realms.
A quilombo (from the Kimbundu word kilombo, "campsite, slave hut") is a Brazilian hinterland settlement founded by people of African origin including the Quilombolas, or Maroons.
Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak also spelt Quṭb ud-Dīn Aibak or Qutub ud-Din Aybak, (1150–1210), was the founder of the Mamluk dynasty and the first sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
The Radhanites (also Radanites, Arabic الرذنية ar-Raðaniyya; Hebrew sing. רדהני Radhani, pl. רדהנים Radhanim) were medieval Jewish merchants.
Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner or item to extort money or property to secure their release, or it may refer to the sum of money involved.
The Rapa Nui are the aboriginal Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Richard Pares (25 August 1902 – 3 May 1958) was a British historian.
Ritual servitude is a practice in Ghana, Togo, and Benin where traditional religious shrines (popularly called fetish shrines in Ghana) take human beings, usually young virgin girls, in payment for services or in religious atonement for alleged misdeeds of a family member.
Robert Eric Wright (born January 1, 1969 in Rochester, N.Y.) is a business, economic, financial, and monetary historian and the inaugural Rudy and Marilyn Nef Family Chair of Political Economy at Augustana University in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
Robert William Fogel (July 1, 1926 – June 11, 2013) was an American economic historian and scientist, and winner (with Douglass North) of the 1993 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Robin Blackburn (born 1940) is a British historian, a former editor of New Left Review (1981-99), an author of essays on the collapse of Soviet Communism, on the "credit crunch" of 2008, and of books on the history of slavery and on social policy.
Agriculture in ancient Rome was not only a necessity, but was idealized among the social elite as a way of life.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanus Pontifex, Latin for "The Roman Pontiff", is a papal bull written in 1454 by Pope Nicholas V to King Afonso V of Portugal.
Rongorongo (Rapa Nui) is a system of glyphs discovered in the 19th century on Easter Island that appear to contain writing or proto-writing.
A roundup (Polish: łapanka,; French: rafle or attrapage) was a widespread German World War II security and economic exploitation tactic used in occupied countries, especially in German-occupied Poland, whereby the SS, Wehrmacht and German police took captive at random thousands of civilians on the streets of subjugated cities.
The Royal African Company (RAC) was an English mercantile (trading) company set up by the Stuart family and City of London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Rus' Khaganate is the name applied by some modern historians to a hypothetical polity postulated to exist during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe, roughly the late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD.
The Sack of Baltimore took place on June 20, 1631, when the village of Baltimore, West Cork, Ireland, was attacked by the Ottoman Algeria and Republic of Salé slavers from the Barbary Coast of North Africa – Moroccans, Dutchmen, Algerians and Ottoman Turks.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
Salé (سلا Sala, Berber ⵙⵍⴰ Sla) is a city in north-western Morocco, on the right bank of the Bou Regreg river, opposite the national capital Rabat, for which it serves as a commuter town.
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
The Sambisa Forest is a forest in Borno State, northeast Nigeria.
Sambo is a term for a person with African heritage and, in some countries, also mixed with Native American heritage (see zambo).
Sambo's Grave is the burial site of a dark-skinned cabin boy or slave, on unconsecrated ground in a field near the small village of Sunderland Point, near Heysham and Overton, Lancashire, North West England.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sante Kimes (born Sandra Louise Singhrs; July 24, 1934 – May 19, 2014) was an American criminal who was convicted of two murders, as well as robbery, violation of anti-slavery laws, forgery and numerous other crimes.
Ṣaqāliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. ṣaqlabī) refers to Slavs, captured on the coasts of Europe in raids or wars, as well as mercenaries in the medieval Muslim world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus.
Sarai (also transcribed as Saraj or Saray, from Persian sarāi, "palace" or "court") was the name of two cities, which were successively capital cities of the Golden Horde, the Mongol kingdom which ruled much of Central Asia and Eastern Europe, in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Savi was the capital of the Kingdom of Whydah prior to its capture by the forces of Dahomey in 1727.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals.
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras (13 May 1699 – 8 May 1782), popularly known as Marquis of Pombal, was an 18th-century Portuguese statesman.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army.
Senegambia, officially the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The term serf, in the sense of an unfree peasant of the Russian Empire, is the usual translation of krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин).
The sex industry (also called the sex trade) consists of businesses which either directly or indirectly provide sex-related products and services or adult entertainment.
A sex worker is a person who is employed in the sex industry.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
Seymour Drescher is an American historian and a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, known for his studies on Alexis de Tocqueville and Slavery.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water.
The Siddi, also known as Sidi, Siddhi, Sheedi, or Habshi, are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Silves is a municipality in the Portuguese Algarve of southern Portugal.
The Slave Coast is a historical name formerly used for parts of coastal West Africa along the Bight of Benin.
The slave narrative is a type of literary work that is made up of the written accounts of enslaved Africans in Great Britain and its colonies, including the later United States, Canada, and Caribbean nations.
Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States (often referred to as the WPA Slave Narrative Collection) was a massive compilation of histories by former slaves undertaken by the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration from 1936 to 1938.
The Slave Power or Slaveocracy was the perceived political power in the U.S. federal government held by slave owners during the 1840s and 1850s, prior to the Civil War.
Slave raiding is a military raid for the purpose of capturing people and bringing them out of the raid area to serve as slaves.
A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves.
Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves.
Slave Trade Act is a stock short title used for legislation in the United Kingdom and the United States that relates to the slave trade.
The Slave Trade Act 1807, officially An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom prohibiting the slave trade in the British Empire.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) abolished slavery throughout the British Empire.
Slavery among Native Americans in the United States includes slavery by Native Americans as well as slavery of Native Americans roughly within the present-day United States.
The issue of slavery and religion is an area of historical research into the relationship between the world's major religions and the practice of slavery.
Slavery at common law in former colonies of the British Empire developed slowly over centuries, and was characterised by inconsistent decisions and varying rationales for the treatment of slavery, the slave trade, and the rights of slaves and slave owners.
Quasi-state-level Islamist groups, including Boko Haram and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, have captured and enslaved women and children, often for sexual slavery.
Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa, and still continues today in some countries.
Slavery was a common practice in ancient Greece, as in other societies of the time.
Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy.
Slavery in Canada includes both that practised by First Nations from earliest times and that under European colonization.
The continent of Africa is one of the regions most rife with contemporary slavery.
Slavery in Haiti started with the arrival of Christopher Columbus on the island in 1492.
A History of slavery in Iran (Persia) during various ancient, medieval and modern periods is sparsely cataloged.
Japan had an official slave system from the Yamato period (3rd century A.D.) until Toyotomi Hideyoshi abolished it in 1590.
Slavery in Korea existed since antiquity.
Slavery in Libya has a long history and a lasting impact on the Libyan culture.
Slavery in Niger involves a number of different practices which have been practiced in the Sahel region for many centuries and which persist to this day.
Slavery (robie) existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia in 13th–14th century, until it was abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s, and also until 1783, in Transylvania and Bukovina (parts of the Habsburg Monarchy).
Slavery in the British and French Caribbean refers to slavery in the parts of the Caribbean dominated by France or the British Empire.
Slavery in the colonial area which later became the '''United States''' (1600–1776) developed from complex factors, and researchers have proposed several theories to explain the development of the institution of slavery and of the slave trade.
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire was a legal and significant part of the Ottoman Empire's economy and society.
Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution central to the operations of the Spanish Empire - it bound Africans and indigenous people to a relationship of colonial exploitation.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
There is considerable controversy regarding social status in the Ottoman Empire.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) was a period of Ancient China divided into the Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Eastern Han (25–220 CE) periods, when the capital cities were located at Chang'an and Luoyang, respectively.
The Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade (or The Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade), was a British abolitionist group, formed on 22 May 1787, by twelve men who gathered together at a printing shop in London.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Socratic dialogue (Σωκρατικὸς λόγος) is a genre of literary prose developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE.
Sojourner Truth (born Isabella (Belle) Baumfree; – November 26, 1883) was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist.
Sokoto is a city located in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near the confluence of the Sokoto River and the Rima River.
The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Sunni Caliphate, in West Africa.
Somerset v Stewart (1772) (also known as Somersett's case, and in State Trials as v.XX Sommersett v Steuart) is a famous judgment of the Court of King's Bench in 1772, which held that chattel slavery was unsupported by the common law in England and Wales, although the position elsewhere in the British Empire was left ambiguous.
The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.
The Lowcountry (sometimes Low Country or just low country) is a geographic and cultural region along South Carolina's coast, including the Sea Islands.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
Spartacus (Σπάρτακος; Spartacus; c. 111–71 BC) was a Thracian gladiator who, along with the Gauls Crixus, Gannicus, Castus, and Oenomaus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.
Stanley M. Elkins (April 27, 1925 in Boston, Massachusetts - September 16, 2013 in Leeds, Massachusetts) was an American historian, best known for his controversial comparison of slavery in the United States to Nazi concentration camps, and for his collaborations (in a book and numerous articles) with Eric McKitrick regarding the early American Republic.
Stanley Lewis Engerman (born March 14, 1936) is an economist and economic historian at the University of Rochester.
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Steven Hahn (born July 18, 1951 in New York City) is Professor of History at New York University.
The Stono Rebellion (sometimes called Cato's Conspiracy or Cato's Rebellion) was a slave rebellion that began on 9 September 1739, in the colony of South Carolina.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sugar was the main crop produced on plantations throughout the Caribbean through the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the full title of which is the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, is a 1956 United Nations treaty which builds upon the 1926 Slavery Convention, which is still operative and which proposed to secure the abolition of slavery and of the slave trade, and the Forced Labour Convention of 1930, which banned forced or compulsory labour, by banning debt bondage, serfdom, child marriage, servile marriage, and child servitude.
The Swahili Coast is a coastal area in Southeast Africa inhabited by the Swahili people.
The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.
The Swedish slave trade mainly occurred in the early history of Sweden when the trade of thralls (Old Norse: þræll) was one of the pillars of the Norse economy.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Te Rauparaha (1760s – 27 November 1849) was a Māori rangatira (chief) and war leader of the Ngāti Toa tribe who took a leading part in the Musket Wars.
The Aónikenk people, better known by the exonym Tehuelche, are a group of indigenous peoples of Patagonia and the southern pampas regions of Argentina and Chile.
Teredo navalis, the naval shipworm, is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Teredinidae, the shipworms.
The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Christian Post is an American nondenominational, Evangelical Christian newspaper.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Virginia Gazette is the local newspaper of Williamsburg, Virginia.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theobroma cacao, also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree, is a small (tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of the Americas.
The Third Servile War, also called by Plutarch the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus, was the last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Servile Wars.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thomas Clarkson (28 March 1760 – 26 September 1846) was an English abolitionist, and a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
A thrall (Old Norse/Icelandic: þræll, Norwegian: trell, Danish: træl, Swedish: träl) was a slave or serf in Scandinavian lands during the Viking Age.
Tikanga is a Māori concept with a wide range of meanings — culture, custom, ethic, etiquette, fashion, formality, lore, manner, meaning, mechanism, method, protocol, style.
The abolition of slavery occurred at different times in different countries.
The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
Tokhtamysh (tat. Tuqtamış) The spelling of Tokhtamysh varies, but the most common spelling is Tokhtamysh.
The Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture (9 May 1743 – 7 April 1803), also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution.
Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
Treaty of Paris of 1815, was signed on 20 November 1815 following the defeat and second abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (Rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.
Triangular trade or triangle trade is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions.
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
The Tupi people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.
The Tupinambá were one of the various Tupi ethnic groups that inhabited present-day Brazil before the conquest of the region by Portuguese colonial settlers.
Turan (Persian: توران Tūrān, "the land of the Tur") is a historical region in Central Asia.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (November 4, 1877 – January 21, 1934) was an American historian who largely defined the field of the social and economic history of the antebellum American South and slavery.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States National Slavery Museum was an unfunded proposal for a museum to commemorate American slavery.
The United States Presidential Election of 1860 was the nineteenth quadrennial presidential election to select the President and Vice President of the United States.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Mary Washington (UMW) is a public liberal arts and sciences university located in Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Verdingkinder, "contract children",, Associated Press, retrieved 24/11/2011 or "indentured child laborers", BBC, retrieved 19/1/2012; and Gianna Virginia Weber: "Das ’Verdingkind‘: Eine terminologische Annäherung", in: Markus Furrer, Kevin Heiniger, Thomas Huonker, Sabine Jenzer, Anne-Françoise Praz (eds.): Fürsorge und Zwang: Fremdplatzierungen in der Schweiz 1850-1980 (in German), Basel 2014 (Itinera 36), p. 249-258.
Vermont Republic is a term used by historians to refer to the government of Vermont that existed from 1777 to 1791.
Victor Schœlcher (22 July 1804 – 25 December 1893) was a French abolitionist writer in the 19th century and the main spokesman for a group from Paris who worked for the abolition of slavery, and formed an abolition society in 1834.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The Royal Navy established the West Africa Squadron at substantial expense in 1808 after Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act of 1807.
The West African CFA franc (franc CFA; franco CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XOF) is the currency of eight independent states in West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Western Sudan is a historic region in the northern part of West Africa.
Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.
The Wiedergutmachungsinitiative (children coercion reparation initiative) is a Swiss federal popular initiative (a request to change the federal constitution democracy), started in April 2014.
The Wild Fields (Дике Поле Dyke Pole, Дикое Поле, Dikoye Polye, Dzikie pola, Dykra, Loca deserta, sive campi deserti inhabitati, also translated as "the Wilderness") is a historical term used in the Polish–Lithuanian documents of the 16th to 18th centuries to refer to the Pontic steppe of Ukraine, located north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea.
Willem Bosman (12 January 1672 – after 1703) was a merchant in the service of the Dutch West India Company, spending most of his time in the Dutch Gold Coast.
William Cowper (26 November 1731 – 25 April 1800) was an English poet and hymnodist.
William Lloyd Garrison (December, 1805 – May 24, 1879) was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer.
The William Lynch speech is an address purportedly delivered by a certain William Lynch (or Willie Lynch) to an audience on the bank of the James River in Virginia in 1712 regarding control of slaves within the colony.
William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was an English politician known as the leader of the movement to stop the slave trade.
Williamsburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xlibris is a self-publishingRachel Donadio: The New York Times, April 27, 2008 and on-demand printing services provider, founded in 1997 and based in Bloomington, Indiana.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
The Yurok, whose name means "downriver people" in the neighboring Karuk language (also called yuh'ára, or yurúkvaarar in Karuk), are Native Americans who live in northwestern California near the Klamath River and Pacific coast.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
The 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery was the first protest against African-American slavery made by a religious body in the English colonies.
The 1926 Slavery Convention or the Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery was an international treaty created under the auspices of the League of Nations and first signed on 25 September 1926.
Abolition of the Slave Trade, Central american slavery, History of Slavery, History of slavery in New Zealand, North american slavery, Slave Trade, Slave dealer, Slave running, Slave trade, Slave trader, Slave traders, Slave trading, Slave-trade, Slave-trader, Slavery in Europe, Slavery in Hawaii, Slavery in New Zealand, Slavery in North America, Slavery in Oceania, Slavery in Polynesia, Slavery in central america, Slavery in modern Europe, Slavery in north america, Slavery in south america, Slavery in the Americas, Slavery in the Caribbean, South american slavery, Suppression of the Slave Trade, Suppression of the slave trade, The Slave trade, Varsha Mahender Sabhnani.