234 relations: A & C Black, Academic American Encyclopedia, Acting, Adam Black, Alan Whicker, Albert A. Michelson, Albert Einstein, Alexander Pope, Algernon Charles Swinburne, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Andrew Bell (engraver), Anthony Panizzi, Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, Archibald Constable, Aristotle, Arthur Compton, Arthur Eddington, Arthur Twining Hadley, Baden Baden-Powell, Ballroom dance, Bankruptcy, Bartholomeus Anglicus, Benjamin Franklin, Benton Foundation, Bible, Bicentennial of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Bodleian Library, Boxing, Caledonian Mercury, Cambridge University Press, Catholic Church, CD-ROM, Charles Darwin, Charles Frederic Moberly Bell, Charles Kingsley, Charles Maclaren, Charles Merivale, Charles Mosley (genealogist), Charles Scribner's Sons, Chicago, Chief executive officer, Colin Macfarquhar, Compton's Encyclopedia, Conchology, Copyright, Crochallan Fencibles, Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, D. Appleton & Company, David Brewster, ..., David Ricardo, Denis Diderot, Dennis de Coetlogon, Direct marketing, Dobson's Encyclopædia, Donald Mackenzie Wallace, Donald Tovey, Edinburgh, Edmund Gosse, Edward Everett, Egypt, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Elihu Root, Elkan Harrison Powell, Encarta, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica First Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica Second Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica Third Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Encyclopédie, Entomology, Ephraim Chambers, Epistemology, Ferdinand Foch, Fire (classical element), Flood myth, Francis Bacon, Franklin Henry Hooper, Funk & Wagnalls, Gene Tunney, Geochronology, Geography, George Bernard Shaw, George Gleig, George III of the United Kingdom, George Washington, Gravity, Great Depression, Grolier, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon, Grove Press, Gustav Stresemann, Harry Houdini, Harvey Einbinder, Henry Ford, Herpetology, Horace Everett Hooper, Hugh Chisholm, Humphry Davy, Internet, Isaac K. Funk, Isaac Newton, Jacob Safra, Jacqui Safra, James Browne (writer), James Louis Garvin, James Millar (physician), James Tytler, James Ussher, James Wilson, Jean-Baptiste Biot, Johann Heinrich Alsted, Johann Heinrich Zedler, John Harris (writer), John Herschel, John Hutchinson (writer), John Robison (physicist), John Stuart Blackie, John Stuart Mill, John Wanamaker, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Julius Rosenwald, Kite, Latin, Leon Trotsky, Lillian Gish, Literature, Little, Brown and Company, London, Long s, Love, Macropædia, Macvey Napier, Marie Curie, Martianus Capella, Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), Metallurgy, Metaphysics, Micropædia, Microsoft, Middle Ages, Mortimer J. Adler, Multimedia, Natural history, Natural History (Pliny), Natural philosophy, New York City, Noah's Ark, Nobel Prize, Online Books Page, Optical disc, Pagination, Pearl Harbor, Penny, Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, Peter Mark Roget, Philadelphia, Philanthropy, Philip W. Goetz, Phlogiston theory, Photography, Physicist, Physiology, Pliny the Elder, Pound sterling, Propædia, Pseudonym, Public domain, Richard Owen, River Thames, Robert Andrews Millikan, Robert Bunsen, Robert Burns, Robert Chambers (publisher, born 1802), Robert E. Wood, Robert Louis Stevenson, Robert McHenry, Robert Stephenson, Roget's Thesaurus, Rosetta Stone, Royal Society, Saalfield Publishing, Samuel Johnson, Satyricon, Scottish Enlightenment, Sears, Sexism, Sigmund Freud, Sixpence (British coin), Socialism, Solanum nigrum, Taiwan, The Times, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Thomas Bonar, Thomas De Quincey, Thomas Dobson (printer), Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomas Robert Malthus, Thomas Spencer Baynes, Thomas Stewart Traill, Thomas Thomson (chemist), Thomas Young (scientist), Time (magazine), Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Traditional Chinese characters, Tuberculosis, U.S. state, United States, United States Constitution, United States dollar, University of Cambridge, University of Chicago, University of Oxford, Vernon and Irene Castle, Vincent of Beauvais, Voltaire, Walter Montgomery Jackson, Walter Scott, Watch Mr. Wizard, William Benton (senator), William Hazlitt, William Hosking, William Jones (1726–1800), William Michael Rossetti, William Robertson Smith, William Smellie (encyclopedist), William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, Woman, 10 Eventful Years. Expand index (184 more) » « Shrink index
A & C Black is a British book publishing company, owned since 2002 by Bloomsbury Publishing.
Academic American Encyclopedia is a 21-volume general English-language encyclopedia published in 1980.
Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a character—in theatre, television, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the mimetic mode.
Adam Black (20 February 178424 January 1874) was a Scottish publisher and politician.
Alan Donald Whicker (2 August 1921 – 12 July 2013) was a British journalist and television presenter and broadcaster.
Albert Abraham Michelson FFRS HFRSE (December 19, 1852 – May 9, 1931) was an American physicist known for his work on measuring the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.
Algernon Charles Swinburne (5 April 1837 – 10 April 1909) was an English poet, playwright, novelist, and critic.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Andrew Bell (1726–1809) was a Scottish engraver and printer, who co-founded Encyclopædia Britannica with Colin Macfarquhar.
Sir Antonio Genesio Maria Panizzi (16 September 1797 – 8 April 1879), better known as Anthony Panizzi, was a naturalised British librarian of Italian birth and an Italian patriot.
Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography is a six-volume collection of biographies of notable people involved in the history of the New World.
Archibald David Constable (24 February 1774 – 21 July 1827) was a Scottish publisher, bookseller and stationer.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.
Arthur Twining Hadley (April 23, 1856 – March 6, 1930) was an economist who served as President of Yale University from 1899 to 1921.
Baden Fletcher Smyth Baden-Powell, FS, FRAS, FRMetS (22 May 1860 – 3 October 1937) was a military aviation pioneer, and President of the Royal Aeronautical Society from 1900 to 1907.
Ballroom dance is a set of partner dances, which are enjoyed both socially and competitively around the world.
Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.
Bartholomeus Anglicus (before 1203 – 1272), also known as Bartholomew the Englishman and Berthelet, was an early 13th-century scholastic of Paris, a member of the Franciscan order.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The Benton Foundation is a nonprofit organization set up by former U.S. Senator William Benton and his wife, Helen Hemingway Benton.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The first two pamphlets ("numbers") of the Encyclopædia Britannica were issued in December 1768, being sold from the printing office of its originator, Colin Macfarquhar, in Nicholson Street in Edinburgh.
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Caledonian Mercury was the name of a Scottish newspaper, published three times a week between 1720–1867.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Frederic Moberly Bell (2 April 1847 in Alexandria – 5 April 1911 in London) was a prominent British journalist and newspaper editor during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Charles Kingsley (12 June 1819 – 23 January 1875) was a broad church priest of the Church of England, a university professor, social reformer, historian and novelist.
Charles Maclaren (7 October 1782 – 10 September 1866) was a Scottish journalist and geologist.
The Very Reverend Charles Merivale (8 March 1808 – 27 December 1893) was an English historian and churchman, for many years dean of Ely Cathedral.
Charles Gordon Mosley FRSA (14 September 1948 – 5 November 2013) was a British genealogist who was among the foremost experts on British nobility.
Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, and Edith Wharton.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.
Colin Macfarquhar (1745? – 2 April 1793) was a Scottish bookseller and printer who is best known as being, with Andrew Bell, the founder of the Encyclopædia Britannica, first published in 1768.
Compton's Encyclopedia and Fact-Index is a home and school encyclopedia first published in 1922 as Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia.
Conchology (from κόγχος konkhos, "cockle") is the study of mollusc shells.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The Crochallan Fencibles was an 18th-century Edinburgh convivial club that met at the Anchor Close, a public house off the High Street (part of the Royal Mile).
Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (two volumes in folio) was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century.
Sir David Brewster KH PRSE FRS FSA(Scot) FSSA MICE (11 December 178110 February 1868) was a British scientist, inventor, author, and academic administrator.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Dennis de Coetlogon (ca 170023 October 1749) was a French doctor who moved to England around 1727.
Direct marketing is a form of advertising where organizations communicate directly to customers through a variety of media including cell phone text messaging, email, websites, online adverts, database marketing, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and targeted television, newspaper, and magazine advertisements, as well as outdoor advertising.
Dobson's Encyclopædia was the first encyclopedia issued in the newly independent United States of America, published by Thomas Dobson from 1789–1798.
Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace (11 November 1841 – 10 January 1919) was a Scottish public servant, writer, editor and foreign correspondent of The Times (London).
Sir Donald Francis Tovey (17 July 187510 July 1940) was a British musical analyst, musicologist, writer on music, composer, conductor and pianist.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Sir Edmund William Gosse CB (21 September 184916 May 1928) was an English poet, author and critic.
Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was an American politician, pastor, educator, diplomat, and orator from Massachusetts.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Elihu Root (February 15, 1845February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt and as Secretary of War under Roosevelt and President William McKinley.
Elkan Harrison Powell (21 November 1888 – 8 May 1966) was the president of Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. who introduced the policies of continuous revision and of leveraging the Britannica's fame to market successful spin-off products, such as historical overviews, compilations of good Britannica articles, children's encyclopedias and atlases.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Encyclopædia Britannica First Edition (1768–1771) is a 3-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Second Edition (1777–1784) is a 10-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Third Edition (1797) is an 18-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Ephraim Chambers (c.1680 – 15 May 1740) was an English writer and encyclopaedist, who is primarily known for producing the Cyclopaedia, or a Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War.
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
A flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Franklin Henry Hooper (January 28, 1862, Worcester, Massachusetts – August 14, 1940, Bedford Hills, New York) was a U.S. editor.
Funk & Wagnalls was an American publisher known for its reference works, including A Standard Dictionary of the English Language (1st ed. 1893-5), and the Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia (25 volumes, 1st ed. 1912).
James Joseph "Gene" Tunney (May 25, 1897 – November 7, 1978) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1915 to 1928.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
Rt Rev George Gleig FRSE FSA LLD (12 May 1753 – 9 March 1840) was a Scottish minister who transferred to the Episcopalian faith and became Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Grolier is one of the largest U.S. publishers of general encyclopedias, including The Book of Knowledge (1910), The New Book of Knowledge (1966), The New Book of Popular Science (1972), Encyclopedia Americana (1945), Academic American Encyclopedia (1980), and numerous incarnations of a CD-ROM encyclopedia (1986–2003).
The Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste (italic) is a 68-volume German encyclopedia published by Johann Heinrich Zedler between 1731 and 1754.
Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1947.
(10 May 1878 – 3 October 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor in 1923 (for a brief period of 102 days) and Foreign Minister 1923–1929, during the Weimar Republic.
Harry Houdini (born Erik Weisz, later Ehrich Weiss or Harry Weiss; March 24, 1874 – October 31, 1926) was a Hungarian-born American illusionist and stunt performer, noted for his sensational escape acts.
Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
Horace Everett Hooper (December 8, 1859 – June 13, 1922) was the publisher of Encyclopædia Britannica from 1897 until his death.
Hugh Chisholm (22 February 1866 – 29 September 1924) was a British journalist, and editor of the 10th, 11th and 12th editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Isaac Kaufmann Funk (September 10, 1839April 4, 1912) was an American Lutheran minister, editor, lexicographer, publisher, and spelling reformer.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Jacob Safra (يعقوب صفرا) (1891 - 27 May 1963) was a Syrian Jewish banker.
Jacqui (Jacob) Eli Safra (*1948, alias: J.E. Beaucaire) is a milionarie Brazilian investor from Geneva.
James Browne (1793 – 8 April 1841), Scottish man of letters, was born at Whitefield, Perthshire.
James Louis Garvin (12 April 1868 – 23 January 1947) was a British journalist, editor, and author.
Dr James Millar (or Miller) (1762–1827) was a Scottish physician, botanist and author.
James Tytler (17 December 1745 – 11 January 1804) was a Scottish apothecary and the editor of the second edition of Encyclopædia Britannica.
James Ussher (or Usher; 4 January 1581 – 21 March 1656) was the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625 and 1656.
James Wilson (September 14, 1742 – August 21, 1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
Jean-Baptiste Biot (21 April 1774 – 3 February 1862) was a French physicist, astronomer, and mathematician who established the reality of meteorites, made an early balloon flight, and studied the polarization of light.
Johann Heinrich Alsted (March 1588 – November 9, 1638), "the true parent of all the Encyclopædias", was a German-born Transylvanian Saxon Calvinist minister and academic, known for his varied interests: in Ramism and Lullism, pedagogy and encyclopedias, theology and millenarianism.
Johann Heinrich Zedler (7 January 1706 in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) – 21 March 1751 in Leipzig) was a bookseller and publisher.
John Harris (c. 1666 – 7 September 1719) was an English writer, scientist, and Anglican priest.
Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical work.
John Hutchinson (1674 – 28 August 1737) was an English theological writer.
John Robison FRSE LLD (4 February 1739 – 30 January 1805) was a Scottish physicist and mathematician.
Prof John Stuart Blackie FRSE (28 July 1809 – 2 March 1895) was a Scottish scholar and man of letters.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Wanamaker (July 11, 1838 – December 12, 1922) was an American merchant and religious, civic and political figure, considered by some to be a proponent of advertising and a "pioneer in marketing".
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.
Julius Rosenwald (August 12, 1862 – January 6, 1932) was an American businessman and philanthropist.
A kite is a tethered heavier-than-air craft with wing surfaces that react against the air to create lift and drag.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Lillian Diana Gish (October 14, 1893 – February 27, 1993) was an American actress of the screen and stage, as well as a director and writer.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").
Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.
The 17-volume Macropædia is the third part of the Encyclopædia Britannica; the other two parts are the 12-volume Micropædia and the 1-volume Propædia.
Macvey Napier (born Napier Macvey) (11 April 1776 – 11 February 1847) was a Scottish solicitor, legal scholar, and an editor of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity (fl. c. 410–420), one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education.
In the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, Bachelors of Arts with Honours of these universities are promoted to the title of Master of Arts or Master in Arts (MA) on application after six or seven years' seniority as members of the university (including years as an undergraduate).
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
The 12-volume Micropædia is one of the three parts of the 15th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, the other two being the one-volume Propædia and the 17-volume Macropædia.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mortimer Jerome Adler (December 28, 1902 – June 28, 2001) was an American philosopher, educator, and popular author.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Noah's Ark (תיבת נח; Biblical Hebrew: Tevat Noaḥ) is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative (Genesis chapters 6–9) by which God spares Noah, his family, and a remnant of all the world's animals from a world-engulfing flood.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Online Books Page is an index of e-text books available on the Internet.
In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.
Pagination is the process of dividing a document into discrete pages, either electronic pages or printed pages.
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu.
A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.
Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, (born 6 June 1919) is a British Conservative politician and hereditary peer who served as Defence Secretary between 1970 and 1974, Foreign Secretary between 1979 and 1982, chairman of General Electric between 1983 and 1984, and Secretary General of NATO from 1984 to 1988.
Peter Mark Roget FRS (18 January 1779 – 12 September 1869) was a British physician, natural theologian and lexicographer.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philanthropy means the love of humanity.
Whitehead Goetz (1927 – October 1, 2008) was the Executive Editor (under Chief Editor Warren E. Preece) for the first version of the 15th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The one-volume Propædia is the first of three parts of the 15th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, the other two being the 12-volume Micropædia and the 17-volume Macropædia.
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.
Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (30 March 1811N1 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Robert Chambers (10 July 1802 – 17 March 1871) was a Scottish publisher, geologist, evolutionary thinker, author and journal editor who, like his elder brother and business partner William Chambers, was highly influential in mid-19th century scientific and political circles.
Robert Elkington Wood (June 13, 1879 – November 6, 1969) was an American military officer and business executive.
Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer.
Robert Dale McHenry (born April 30, 1945) is an American editor, encyclopedist, philanthropist and writer.
Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 – 12 October 1859) was an early railway and civil engineer.
Roget's Thesaurus is a widely used English-language thesaurus, created in 1805 by Peter Mark Roget (1779–1869), British physician, natural theologian and lexicographer.
The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The Saalfield Publishing Company published children's books and other products from 1900 to 1977.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
The Satyricon, or Satyricon liber (The Book of Satyrlike Adventures), is a Latin work of fiction believed to have been written by Gaius Petronius, though the manuscript tradition identifies the author as Titus Petronius.
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
Sears, Roebuck and Company, colloquially known as Sears, is an American chain of department stores founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck in 1892, reincorporated (a formality for a history-making consumer sector initial public offering) by Richard Sears and new partner Julius Rosenwald in 1906.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The sixpence (6d), sometimes known as a tanner or sixpenny bit, is a coin that was worth one-fortieth of a pound sterling, or six pence. It was first minted in the reign of Edward VI and circulated until 1980. Following decimalisation in 1971 it had a value of new pence. The coin was made from silver from its introduction in 1551 to 1947, and thereafter in cupronickel. Prior to Decimal Day in 1971 there were 240 pence in one pound sterling. Twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in shillings and pence, e.g. 42 old pence (p) would be three shillings and sixpence (3/6), often pronounced "three and six". Values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e.g. eight pence would be 8d ('d' for denarius).
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Solanum nigrum (European black nightshade) is a species in the genus Solanum, native to Eurasia and introduced in the Americas, Australasia, and South Africa.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.
Thomson Bonar (died 1814) was a wine-merchant who married Elizabeth, the daughter of the engraver Andrew Bell, who co-founded the Encyclopædia Britannica with Colin Macfarquhar.
Thomas Penson De Quincey (15 August 17858 December 1859) was an English essayist, best known for his Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821).
Thomas Dobson (1751 near Edinburgh, Scotland – 1823 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a master printer most famous for having published the earliest American version of the Encyclopædia Britannica, and the first in the United States to publish a complete Hebrew Bible.
Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.
Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.
Thomas Spencer Baynes (24 March 1823 in Wellington – 31 May 1887 in London) was a philosopher.
Thomas Stewart Traill (29 October 1781 – 30 July 1862) was a Scottish physician, chemist, meteorologist, zoologist and scholar of medical jurisprudence.
Thomas Thomson (12 April 1773 – 2 July 1852) was a British chemist and mineralogist whose writings contributed to the early spread of Dalton's atomic theory.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, sometimes anglicised to Thomas Masaryk (7 March 1850 – 14 September 1937), was a Czech politician, statesman, sociologist and philosopher.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Vernon and Irene Castle were a husband-and-wife team of ballroom dancers and dance teachers who appeared on Broadway and in silent films early in the early 20th century.
Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius Bellovacensis or Vincentius Burgundus; 1184/1194 – c. 1264) was a Dominican friar at the Cistercian monastery of Royaumont Abbey, France.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Walter Montgomery Jackson (1863–1923) was the founder of encyclopedia publisher Grolier, Inc., and he was the partner of Horace Everett Hooper in publishing the 10th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica and in developing its 11th edition.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
William Burnett Benton (April 1, 1900 – March 18, 1973) was an American senator from Connecticut (1949–1953) and publisher of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1943–1973).
William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer, drama and literary critic, painter, social commentator, and philosopher.
William Hosking (26 November 1800 – 2 August 1861) was an English writer, lecturer, and architect who had an important influence on the growth and development of London in Victorian times.
William Jones (30 July 1726 – 6 January 1800), known as William Jones of Nayland, was a British clergyman and author.
William Michael Rossetti (25 September 1829 – 5 February 1919) was an English writer and critic.
William Robertson Smith (8 November 1846 – 31 March 1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland.
William Smellie (1740–1795) was a Scottish master printer, naturalist, antiquary, editor and encyclopedist.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, (28 June 1918 – 1 July 1999), often known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative Party politician who served in a wide number of Cabinet positions, most notably as Home Secretary and de facto Deputy Prime Minister.
A woman is an adult female human being.
10 Eventful Years is the title of the 1947 Encyclopædia Britannica range of books, spanning ten years.
EB9, Eighth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopaedia Britannica Ninth Edition, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th edition, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Ninth Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica (eighth edition), Encyclopædia Britannica Ninth Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica Seventh Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica ninth edition, Encyclopædia Britannica seventh edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, eighth edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, fourth edition, History of the EB, History of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, History of the Encyclopedia Britannica, Ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.