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History of the Punjab

Index History of the Punjab

The History of the Punjab concerns the history of the Punjab region the Northern area of the Indian Subcontinent that straddles the modern day countries of India and Pakistan. [1]

133 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Akal Takht, Alexander the Great, Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Aornos, Arthashastra, Ashram, Attock, Babur, Bactria, Bamyan, Battle of Peshawar (1001), Battle of the Ten Kings, BBC, Beas River, Bharatas (tribe), Brahman, British Empire, Buddhism, Chalukya dynasty, Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya, Chenab River, Coin, Cryogenian, Descent from Genghis Khan, Durrani Empire, East Punjab, Fergana Valley, Gaṇa sangha, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Guru Arjan, Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Hargobind, Guru Nanak, Guru Tegh Bahadur, Gwalior, Harappa, Hephthalite Empire, Himalayas, Hindu, Hindu Shahi, History of India, History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, History of Sindh, ..., India, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Indus River, Indus Valley Civilisation, Islam, Islamic culture, Jahangir, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Jhelum River, Kalanos, Kalinga (historical region), Kannauj, Karachi, Kashmir, Kashmiri Pandit, Khalsa, Kurukshetra, Kushan Empire, Lahore, List of Indian monarchs, List of Rigvedic tribes, Lohgarh (Bilaspur), Malwa, Maratha Empire, Megasthenes, Mohenjo-daro, Multan, Muslim, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, North India, Nysa, Oligarchy, Onesicritus, Partition of India, Pashtuns, Pataliputra, Patiala, Pāṇini, Persian Empire, Porus, Princely state, Pulakeshin II, Punjab, Punjab Province (British India), Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabis, Pushyamitra Shunga, Raghunathrao, Rajasthan, Ramraiya, Ranjit Singh, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Ravi River, Rigveda, Rigvedic rivers, Rishi, Saka, Samudragupta, Scythians, Seleucus I Nicator, Shah Jahan, Sikh, Sikh Empire, Sirhind-Fategarh, Sivalik Hills, Soan River, Sutlej, Taxila, Third Battle of Panipat, Timur, Timur Shah Durrani, Timurid dynasty, Uzbekistan, Vasishtha, Vassal state, Vedic period, Veena, Vikramaditya II, Vishnu, Vishvamitra, West Punjab, Yamuna. Expand index (83 more) »

Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Ahmad Shah Durrani

Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.

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Akal Takht

The Akal Takht (ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ), meaning throne of the timeless one, is one of five takhts (seats of power) of the Sikhs.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Amritsar

Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.

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Anandpur Sahib

Anandpur Sahib, sometimes referred to simply as Anandpur (lit. "city of bliss"), is a city in Rupnagar district (Ropar), on the edge of Shivalik Hills, in the state of Punjab, India.

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Aornos

Aornos (Ἄορνος) was the Ancient Greek name for the site of Alexander the Great's last siege: "the climax to Alexander's career as the greatest besieger in history" according to Robin Lane Fox, a biographer of Alexander.

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Arthashastra

The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.

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Ashram

Traditionally, an ashram-Hindi (Sanskrit ashrama or ashramam) is a spiritual hermitage or a monastery in Indian religions.

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Attock

Attock City (Punjabi, Urdu), formerly Campbellpore or Campbellpur until 1978, is a city located in northern part of Punjab province of Pakistan near the capital of Islamabad in the Panjistan region, and is the headquarters of Attock District.

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Babur

Babur (بابر|lit.

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Bactria

Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.

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Bamyan

No description.

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Battle of Peshawar (1001)

Battle of Peshawar, was fought on 27 November 1001 between the Ghaznavid army of Sultan Mahmud bin Sebuktigin (Mahmud of Ghazni) and the Hindu Shahi army of Jayapala, near Peshawar.

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Battle of the Ten Kings

The Battle of the Ten Kings is a battle alluded to in the Rigveda (Book 7, hymns 18, 33 and 83.4–8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Beas River

The Beas River also known as the Biás or Bias, (Sanskrit: विपाशा Vipāśā; Hyphasis), is a river in north India.

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Bharatas (tribe)

Bharatas were a tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, especially in Mandala 3 attributed to the Bharata sage Vishvamitra.

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Brahman

In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Chalukya dynasty

The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.

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Chanakya

Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.

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Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.

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Chenab River

The Chenab River (चेनाब; ਚਨਾਬ,; چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.

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Coin

A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.

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Cryogenian

The Cryogenian (from Greek κρύος (krýos), meaning "cold" and γένεσις (génesis), meaning "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from.

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Descent from Genghis Khan

Descent from Genghis Khan (Алтан ураг Altan urag, meaning "Golden lineage"), generally called Genghisids, is traceable primarily in Mongolia, India, China, Russia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.

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Durrani Empire

The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.

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East Punjab

East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between India and Pakistan by the Radcliffe Commission in 1947.

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Fergana Valley

The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.

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Gaṇa sangha

Gana-Sangha (Sanskrit: गणसङ्घ, lit. equal assembly) or Gana-Rajya (Sanskrit: गणराज्य, lit. equal government), refers to a type of republic or oligarchy in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent.

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Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.

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Gurjara-Pratihara

The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, also known as the Pratihara Empire, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-7th to the 11th century.

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Guru Arjan

Guru Arjan (ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ Guru Arjan) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who later became Guru Ram Das, and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization (dasvand). The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003.

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Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.

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Guru Granth Sahib

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Guru Hargobind

Guru Hargobind (19 June 1595 - 3 March 1644), revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Guru Nanak

Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.

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Guru Tegh Bahadur

Guru Tegh Bahadur (1 April 1621 – 24 November 1675), revered as the ninth Nanak, was the ninth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Gwalior

Gwalior is a major and the northern-most city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities.

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Harappa

Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.

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Hephthalite Empire

The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.

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Himalayas

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Hindu

Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hindu Shahi

The Hindu Shahi held sway over the Kabul Valley and Gandhara (modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan) from as far back as the fourth century CE.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa concerns the history of the North Western region of what is now the state of Pakistan, as well as the surrounding areas that have been colloquially referred to as Pashtunistan.

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History of Sindh

The history of Sindh or Sind (سنڌ جي تاريخ, سندھ کی تاریخ) is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and surrounding regions.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indo-Gangetic Plain

The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the Indus-Ganga Plain and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million-hectare (630 million-acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic culture

Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.

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Jahangir

Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

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Jallianwala Bagh massacre

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.

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Jhelum River

The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.

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Kalanos

Kalanos, also spelled Calanus (– 323 BC) was a gymnosophist, a philosopher from Taxila who accompanied Alexander the Great to Persis and later committed suicide by self-immolation.

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Kalinga (historical region)

Kalinga is a historical region of India.

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Kannauj

Kannauj also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

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Karachi

Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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Kashmir

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Kashmiri Pandit

The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a Saraswat Brahmin community from the Kashmir Valley, a mountainous region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Khalsa

Khalsa (Punjabi: "the pure") refers to both a special group of initiated Sikh warriors, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith.

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Kurukshetra

Kurukshetra is a city in the state of Haryana, India.

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Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.

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Lahore

Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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List of Indian monarchs

The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents.

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List of Rigvedic tribes

The tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi-nomadic pastoralists.

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Lohgarh (Bilaspur)

Lohgarh (Hindi: लोहगढ़) is a historic town in Bilaspur tehsil of Yamunanagar district of Haryana in India.

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Malwa

Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin.

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Maratha Empire

The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.

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Megasthenes

Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.

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Mohenjo-daro

Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Multan

Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent

Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Nysa

Nysa may refer to.

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Oligarchy

Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.

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Onesicritus

Onesicritus (Ὀνησίκριτος; c. 360 BC – c. 290 BC), a Greek historical writer, who accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns in Asia.

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Partition of India

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.

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Pashtuns

The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Pataliputra

Pataliputra (IAST), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Udayin in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river.

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Patiala

Patiala is a city in southeastern Punjab, northwestern India.

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Pāṇini

(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.

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Persian Empire

The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.

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Porus

Porus or Poros (from Ancient Πῶρος, Pôros), was a great Indian king from the Punjab region, whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (River of Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Princely state

A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.

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Pulakeshin II

Pulakeshin II (610–642 CE), also spelt Pulakesi II and Pulikeshi II, was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty.

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Punjab

The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Punjab Province (British India)

Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.

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Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.

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Punjabis

The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.

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Pushyamitra Shunga

Pushyamitra Shunga (IAST) was the founder and first ruler of the Shunga Empire in East India.

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Raghunathrao

Raghunathrao (a.k.a. Ragho Ballal or Ragho Bharari) (b. 18 Aug.1734 – d. 11 Dec.1783) was a Peshwa of the Maratha Empire for a brief period from 1773 to 1774.

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Rajasthan

Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).

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Ramraiya

Ramraiyas, also referred to as Ram Raiyas, have been a Sikh sect who follow Baba Ram Rai, the excommunicated eldest son of Guru Har Rai (1630–61).

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Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

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Rashtrakuta dynasty

Rashtrakuta (IAST) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.

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Ravi River

The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.

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Rigveda

The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Rigvedic rivers

Rivers, such as the Sapta Sindhavah ("seven rivers" सप्त सिन्धव) play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rig Veda, and consequently in early Hindu religion.

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Rishi

Rishi (Sanskrit: ऋषि IAST: ṛṣi) is a Vedic term for an inspired poet of hymns from the Vedas.

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Saka

Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.

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Samudragupta

Samudragupta (CE) was the second ruler of the Gupta Empire and the son and successor of Chandragupta I. His rule was one of expansion marked first by the conquest of his immediate neighbours and then by campaigns to the east and the south where chiefdoms and kingdoms were subdued and forced to pay tribute to him.

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Scythians

or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.

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Shah Jahan

Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.

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Sikh

A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Sikh Empire

The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.

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Sirhind-Fategarh

Sirhind-Fatehgarh (ਸਰਹਿੰਦ-ਫ਼ਤਿਹਗੜ੍ਹ) is a city and a municipal council in Fatehgarh Sahib district in the Indian state of Punjab.

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Sivalik Hills

The Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas.

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Soan River

The Soan River (سواں), also referred to as the Swan, Sawan, or Sohan, is a river in Punjab, Pakistan.

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Sutlej

The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.

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Taxila

Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.

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Third Battle of Panipat

The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about north of Delhi, between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Najib-ud-daulah Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh.

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Timur

Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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Timur Shah Durrani

Timur Shah Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic:; 1748 – May 18, 1793) was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793.

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Timurid dynasty

The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.

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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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Vasishtha

Vasishtha (वसिष्ठ, IAST) is a revered Vedic sage in Hinduism.

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Vassal state

A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.

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Vedic period

The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.

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Veena

The veena (வீணை, वीणा, IAST: vīṇā), comprises a family of chordophone instruments of the Indian subcontinent.

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Vikramaditya II

Vikramaditya II (reigned 733 – 744 CE) was the son of King Vijayaditya and ascended the Badami Chalukya throne following the death of his father.

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Vishnu

Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.

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Vishvamitra

Brahmarshi Vishvamitra is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of ancient India.

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West Punjab

West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.

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Yamuna

The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.

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History of Jammu, History of Punjab, History of Punjab (India), History of Punjab (Pakistan), History of Punjab, Pakistan, History of jammu, History of the punjab, Punjab history, Punjabi history.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Punjab

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