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Index Hives

Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps. [1]

102 relations: Adrenaline, Afamelanotide, Alexander Kapp (dermatologist and allergist), Allergen, Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, Allergy test, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, Angioedema, Anti-diabetic medication, Antibody, Anticholinergic, Anticonvulsant, Antihistamine, Antileukotriene, Aspirin, Asthma, Autoimmune thyroiditis, Autoimmunity, Balsam of Peru, Blastocystosis, Cefaclor, Cetirizine, Cholinergic urticaria, Choosing Wisely, Ciclosporin, Clotrimazole, Codeine, Coeliac disease, Contact dermatitis, Corticosteroid, Cutaneous condition, Cytokine, Dermatographic urticaria, Dermatology, Dermis, Desloratadine, Dextroamphetamine, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diphenhydramine, Edema, Egg as food, Erythropoietic protoporphyria, Evanescent (dermatology), Exanthem, Extracellular fluid, FCER1, George Waldbott, Glimepiride, Helicobacter pylori, ..., Hereditary coproporphyria, Hippocrates, Histamine, Hydroxyzine, Ibuprofen, Idiopathic disease, Immunoglobulin E, Immunosuppressive drug, Insect bites and stings, Ketotifen, Latin, Loratadine, Mast cell, Morphine, Naltrexone, Neuropeptide, Nut (fruit), Omalizumab, Opioid, Patch test, Penicillin, Physical urticaria, Piracetam, Poison oak, Porphyria, Porphyria cutanea tarda, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Psychological stress, Quality of life, Ranitidine, Rash, Rheumatoid arthritis, Scombroid food poisoning, Shellfish, Sjögren syndrome, Solar urticaria, Soybean, Streptococcus, Stress (biology), Strongyloidiasis, Sulfonamide (medicine), Sulfonylurea, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Tongue depressor, Toxicodendron radicans, Toxicodendron vernix, Urticarial vasculitis, Urushiol, Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, Vaccine, Variegate porphyria, Wheat. Expand index (52 more) »


Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Afamelanotide ((INN) (brand name Scenesse), also known as melanotan I (or melanotan-1), originally developed at the University of Arizona and now by Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals, is a synthetic peptide and analogue of the naturally occurring melanocortin peptide hormone α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) that has been shown to induce the production of darkening dermal pigmentation through melanogenesis and thereby subsequently reduce sun (UV) damage to UV light-exposed skin in preliminary research and human clinical trials. Its amino acid sequence is Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Nle-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2, and it is additionally known as -α-MSH, which is sometimes abbreviated as NDP-MSH or NDP-α-MSH (especially in the scientific literature). Afamelanotide is the International Nonproprietary Name for the molecule α-MSH initially researched and developed as melanotan-1 and later, CUV1647 (by Clinuvel). A marketing trade name for one brand of afamelanotide was approved in 2010 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Name Review Group (NRG) and the agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) as Scenesse (pronounced "sen-esse"). On May 5, 2010 the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA, or Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco) became the first governmental health organization ever (even before the drug received approval in Europe) to authorize afamelanotide as a medicine for therapeutic treatment of Italian citizens to reduce painful dermal photosensitivity stemming from the orphan disease erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). This approval allowed the drug to be immediately available for prescription in Italy and reimbursable under the country's national health system. Authorities in Switzerland have also allowed prescription of the drug for EPP with reimbursement approved by two unnamed insurers. Afamelanotide is currently being trialed in the form of a "grain of rice"-sized bioabsorbable subcutaneous implant as a potential therapeutic photoprotection-inducing agent for a series of light-related skin indications as well as a potential dermal repigmentation agent for vitiligo. Afamelanotide, as of October 24, 2014, has been approved by the EMA in Europe for the treatment of EPP. Clinuvel now intends to seek approval of afamelanotide in the United States. Unlicensed and untested powders sold as "melanotan" are found on the Internet and are reported to be used by tens of thousands of members of the general public for sunless tanning. Multiple regulatory bodies have warned consumers that the peptides may be unsafe and ineffective in usage, with one regulatory agency warning that consumers who purchase any product labeled "melanotan" risk buying a counterfeit drug. Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals, the developer of afamelanotide, and medical researchers have warned consumers that counterfeit products sold using the names "melanotan I and II", could "pose a hazard to public health". on counterfeit products. February 10, 2009. Clinuvel has stated publicly that products sold online as "melanotan" are not afamelanotide.

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Alexander Kapp (dermatologist and allergist)

Alexander Kapp (born 28 February 1955 in Heidelberg) is a German dermatologist and allergist.

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An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.

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Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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Allergy test

Allergy testing can help confirm or rule out allergies and consequently reduce adverse reactions and limit unnecessary avoidance and medications.

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American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

Founded in 1943, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) is a professional medical membership organization of nearly 6,800 allergist/immunologists and related professionals around the world with advanced training and experience in allergy, asthma and other immunologic diseases.

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Angioedema is an area of swelling of the lower layer of skin and tissue just under the skin or mucous membranes.

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Anti-diabetic medication

Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.

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An antileukotriene is a drug which functions as a leukotriene-related enzyme inhibitor (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (cysteinyl leukotriene receptors) and consequently opposes the function of these inflammatory mediators; leukotrienes are produced by the immune system and serve to promote bronchoconstriction, inflammation, microvascular permeability, and mucus secretion in asthma and COPD.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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Autoimmune thyroiditis

Autoimmune thyroiditis, (or Chronic Autoimmune thyroiditis), is a chronic disease in which the body interprets the thyroid glands and its hormone products T3, T4 and TSH as threats, therefore producing special antibodies that target the thyroid’s cells, thereby destroying it.

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.

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Balsam of Peru

Balsam of Peru, also known and marketed by many other names, is a balsam derived from a tree known as Myroxylon balsamum var.

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Blastocystosis refers to a medical condition caused by infection with Blastocystis.

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Cefaclor, sold under the trade name Ceclor among others, is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat certain bacterial infections such as pneumonia and infections of the ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract.

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Cetirizine, prominently marketed under the brand name Zyrtec among others, is a potent second-generation antihistamine used in the treatment of hay fever, allergies, angioedema, and urticaria.

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Cholinergic urticaria

Cholinergic urticaria (CU) is a type of physical urticaria (or hives) that appears when a person is sweating or their core body temperature increases.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.

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Clotrimazole, sold under the brand name Canesten among others, is an antifungal medication.

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Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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Cutaneous condition

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Dermatographic urticaria

Dermatographic urticaria (also known as dermographism, dermatographism or "skin writing") is a skin disorder and one of the most common types of urticaria, affecting 2–5% of the population.

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Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.

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The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.

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Desloratadine (trade name Clarinex in the US and Aerius in Europe and Canada) is a tricyclic H1-antihistamine that is used to treat allergies.

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Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

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Diabetes mellitus type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.

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Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Egg as food

Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.

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Erythropoietic protoporphyria

Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a form of porphyria, which varies in severity and can be very painful.

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Evanescent (dermatology)

Evanescent skin lesions, like wheals, are those that last for less than 24 hours before resolving.

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An exanthem or exanthema (from Greek ἐξάνθημα exánthēma, "a breaking out") is a widespread rash usually occurring in children.

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Extracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.

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The high-affinity IgE receptor, also known as FcεRI, or Fc epsilon RI, is the high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE), an antibody isotype involved in the allergy disorder and parasites immunity.

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George Waldbott

George L. Waldbott, M.D. (January 14, 1898 – July 17, 1982), was an American physician, scientist, and leading activist against water fluoridation.

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Glimepiride (original trade name Amaryl) is an orally available medium-to-long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug.

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Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.

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Hereditary coproporphyria

Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is a disorder of heme biosynthesis, classified as an acute hepatic porphyria.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.

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Hydroxyzine, sold under the brand names Atarax and Vistaril among others, is a first-generation antihistamine.

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Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.

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Idiopathic disease

An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.

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Immunoglobulin E

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.

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Immunosuppressive drug

Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.

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Insect bites and stings

Insect bites and stings occur when an insect is agitated and seeks to defend itself through its natural defense mechanisms, or when an insect seeks to feed off the bitten person.

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Ketotifen, sold under the brand name Zaditor among others, is a first-generation noncompetitive H1-antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Loratadine, sold under the brand name Claritin among others, is a medication used to treat allergies.

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Mast cell

A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.

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Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.

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Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.

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Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.

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Nut (fruit)

A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.

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Omalizumab, sold under the trade name Xolair, is a medication originally designed to reduce sensitivity to allergens.

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Patch test

A patch test is a method used to determine whether a specific substance causes allergic inflammation of a patient's skin.

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Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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Physical urticaria

Physical urticaria is a distinct subgroup of the urticaria that are induced by an exogenous physical stimulus rather than occurring spontaneously.

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Piracetam (sold under many brand names) is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide.

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Poison oak

Poison oak refers to two plant species in the genus Toxicodendron.

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Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.

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Porphyria cutanea tarda

Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is the most common subtype of porphyria.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Psychological stress

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Ranitidine, sold under the trade name Zantac among others, is a medication which decreases stomach acid production.

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A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Scombroid food poisoning

Scombroid food poisoning, also known as simple scombroid, is a foodborne illness that typically results from eating spoiled fish.

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Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.

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Sjögren syndrome

Sjögren syndrome (SjS, SS) is a long-term autoimmune disease in which the moisture-producing glands of the body are affected.

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Solar urticaria

Solar urticaria (SU) is a rare condition in which exposure to ultraviolet or UV radiation, or sometimes even visible light, induces a case of urticaria or hives that can appear in both covered and uncovered areas of the skin.

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The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

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Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the nematode called Strongyloides stercoralis, or sometimes S. fülleborni which is a type of helminth.

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Sulfonamide (medicine)

Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.

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Sulfonylureas (UK: sulphonylurea) are a class of organic compounds used in medicine and agriculture.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.

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Tongue depressor

A tongue depressor is a tool used in medical practice to depress the tongue to allow for examination of the mouth and throat.

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Toxicodendron radicans

Toxicodendron radicans, commonly known as eastern poison ivy or poison ivy, is a poisonous Asian and Eastern North American flowering plant that is well-known for causing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, an itchy, irritating, and sometimes painful rash, in most people who touch it.

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Toxicodendron vernix

Toxicodendron vernix, commonly known as poison sumac, is a woody shrub or small tree growing to 9 m (30 ft) tall.

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Urticarial vasculitis

Urticarial vasculitis (also known as "chronic urticaria as a manifestation of venulitis", "hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome", "hypocomplementemic vasculitis" and "unusual lupus-like syndrome") is a skin condition characterized by fixed urticarial lesions that appear histologically as a vasculitis.

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Urushiol is an oily mixture of organic compounds with allergic properties found in plants of the family Anacardiaceae, especially Toxicodendron spp. (e.g., poison oak, Lacquer Tree, poison ivy, poison sumac) and also in parts of the mango tree.

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Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis

Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis (also called Toxicodendron dermatitis and Rhus dermatitis) is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil urushiol, which is contained in various plants, most notably those of the genus Toxicodendron: the Chinese lacquer tree, poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.

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A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.

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Variegate porphyria

Variegate porphyria, also known by several other names, is an autosomal dominant porphyria that can have acute (severe but usually not long-lasting) symptoms along with symptoms that affect the skin.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hives

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