175 relations: AK-47, Amnesty International, Anchorage, Alaska, Animism, Appleton, Wisconsin, Argentina, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Arrest warrant, Atlanta, Auburn, Georgia, Aurora, Illinois, Australia, Australian National University, Austroasiatic languages, Điện Biên Phủ, Bangkok, Buddhism, Cacao, French Guiana, California, California State University, Monterey Bay, Canada, Catholic Church, Central California, Central Intelligence Agency, Charlotte, North Carolina, Cheney, Washington, China, Chiyou, Christian, Christianity, David Crockett Graham, Denver, Detroit, Duluth, Georgia, Eastern Washington University Press, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, Ethnography, Ethnonym, Exonym and endonym, Extrajudicial killing, France, French Guiana, Fresno, California, Gary Yia Lee, Genocide, George W. Bush, Google Books, Gran Torino, Grand jury, Green Bay, Wisconsin, ..., Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Guoyu (book), Hainan, Han dynasty, Hanoi, Hill tribe (Thailand), Hmong Americans, Hmong churches, Hmong cuisine, Hmong customs and culture, Hmong funeral, Hmong language, Hmong music, Hmong Studies Journal, Hmong textile art, Hmong: History of a People, Hmong–Mien languages, Ho Chi Minh trail, Hong Kong, Hongwu Emperor, Hubei, Hunan, Illegal drug trade, Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, Indochina refugee crisis, Javouhey, Jiangxi, Kansas City, Kansas, Kitchener, Ontario, La Crosse, Wisconsin, Lao alphabet, Lao Human Rights Council, Lao Veterans of America, Laos, Laotian Civil War, Last Glacial Maximum, List of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan, List of Hmong people, Long Tieng, Macalester College, Madison, Wisconsin, Manchu people, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, Mekong, Mercenary, Miao folk religion, Miao people, Miao Rebellion (1795–1806), Milwaukee, Ming dynasty, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Missoula, Montana, Monroe, Georgia, Morganton, North Carolina, Nanman, Neutrality Act of 1794, North Vietnam, North Vietnamese invasion of Laos, Ontario, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, Oxford University Press, Pahawh Hmong, Pathet Lao, People's Army of Vietnam, Phetchabun Province, Portland, Oregon, Protestantism, Providence, Rhode Island, Qing dynasty, Records of the Grand Historian, Refugee Act, Republican Party (United States), Romanized Popular Alphabet, Sacramento, California, Saint Paul, Minnesota, Sheboygan Hmong Memorial, Sheboygan, Wisconsin, Shooting at the Moon (book), Sichuan, Southern California, Soviet Union, Spartanburg, South Carolina, Special Activities Division, Special operations, Stephan Feuchtwang, Taijiang County, Thai alphabet, Thai royal and noble titles, The Center for Public Policy Analysis, The Sacramento Bee, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, The Wall Street Journal, Time (magazine), Tone (linguistics), Tonkin, Torture, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United League for Democracy in Laos, United States, United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, United States Military Academy, University of Chicago Press, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Upper Midwest, Vang Pao, Vang Pobzeb, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Voiceless bilabial nasal, Wangyee Vang, Warren, Michigan, Wat Tham Krabok, Wausau, Wisconsin, Western world, Winder, Georgia, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Public Television, Yellow rain, Yunnan, Zhan Guo Ce, Zhuolu Town, Zong Zoua Her. Expand index (125 more) » « Shrink index
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Anchorage (officially called the Municipality of Anchorage) (Dena'ina Athabascan: Dgheyaytnu) is a unified home rule municipality in the U.S. state of Alaska.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Appleton is a city in Outagamie (mostly), Calumet, and Winnebago counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.
An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a judge or magistrate on behalf of the state, which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual, or the search and seizure of an individual's property.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
Auburn is a city in Barrow and Gwinnett counties in the U.S. state of Georgia.
Aurora, a suburb of Chicago, is a city predominantly in Kane County and DuPage County, with portions extending into Kendall and Will counties.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Điện Biên, sometimes called Dienbien Phu (/ means Dienbien Prefecture), is a city in the northwestern region of Vietnam.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cacao is a town in French Guiana, lying on the Comté river to the south of Cayenne.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) is a public university in the 23-campus California State University system, located in Marina and Seaside, in Monterey County, California.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central California is a subregion of Northern California, generally thought of as the middle third of the state, north of Southern California.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
Cheney is a city in Spokane County, Washington, United States.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chiyou (蚩尤) was a tribal leader of the Nine Li tribe (九黎) in ancient China.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
David Crockett Graham (葛維漢, Ge Weihan), D.Sc., Ph.D., B.D., F.R.G.S. (21 March 1884 – 15 September 1961) was a polymath American Baptist minister and missionary, educator, author, archeologist, anthropologist, naturalist and field collector in Szechuan Province, West China from 1911 to 1948.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
Duluth is a city in Gwinnett County, Georgia, United States.
Eastern Washington University Press (EWU Press) was a publishing house formed in the 1970s that was a part of Eastern Washington University.
Eau Claire is a city in Chippewa and Eau Claire counties in the west-central part of the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
Fresno (Spanish for "ash tree") is a city in California, United States, and the county seat of Fresno County.
Gary Yia Lee (born Lee Yia, 1949) is a Hmong anthropologist and author based in Australia.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Gran Torino is a 2008 American drama film directed and produced by Clint Eastwood, who also starred in the film.
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
The Guoyu, usually translated Discourses of the States, is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of speeches attributed to rulers and other men from the Spring and Autumn period (771–476).
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Hill tribe (ชาวดอย, ชาวเขา, คนเขา) (Northern Thai: จาวดอย, คนดอย,; "mountain people/folk") is a term used in Thailand for all of the various ethnic groups who mostly inhabit the high mountainous Northern and Western regions of Thailand, including both sides of the border areas between Northern Thailand, Laos and Burma, the Phi Pan Nam Range, the Thanon Range, the latter a southern prolongation of the Shan Hills, as well as the Tenasserim Hills in Western Thailand.
Hmong Americans are Americans of Hmong or Miao descent from China, Southeast Asia, most notably from Thailand, Vietnam and Laos.
Hmong Churches are churches of the China-based Hmong people.
Hmong cuisine is the cuisine of the Hmong people of Southeast Asia and the Hmong American community in the United States.
The Hmong people are an ethnic group currently native to several countries, believed to have come from the Yangtze river basin area in southern China.
Hmong people have a culture built on animistic beliefs and a strong faith that after death the soul reincarnates as one of many forms such as humans, plants, rocks and ghosts (Goetz par. 1, 12).
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
Hmong music is an important part of the culture of the Hmong people, an ethnic group from southeast Asia.
The Hmong Studies Journal is an irregularly published, peer-reviewed academic journal covering studies on the Hmong people.
Hmong textile art (RPA:Paj ntau or Paj ntaub, or "flower cloth" in the Hmong language; sometimes transliterated as pa ntau) consists of textile arts traditionally practiced by Hmong people.
Hmong: History of a People is a book by H. Keith Quincy, PhD,"".
The Hmong–Mien (also known as Miao–Yao) languages are a highly tonal language family of southern China and northern Southeast Asia.
The Hồ Chí Minh trail (also known in Vietnam as the "Trường Sơn trail") was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
The Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, passed on May 23, 1975, under President Gerald Ford, was a response to the Fall of Saigon and the end of the Vietnam War.
The Indochina refugee crisis was the large outflow of people from the former French colonies of Indochina, comprising the countries of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, after communist governments were established in 1975.
Javouhey is a town in northwest French Guiana.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
Kansas City is the third-largest city in the State of Kansas, the county seat of Wyandotte County, and the third-largest city of the Kansas City metropolitan area.
The City of Kitchener is a city in Southern Ontario, Canada.
La Crosse is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of La Crosse County.
Lao script or Akson Lao (Lao: ອັກສອນລາວ) is the primary script used to write the Lao language and other minority languages in Laos.
The Lao Human Rights Council, Inc. (LHRC) is a non-profit, non-partisan, non-governmental (NGO) refugee and human rights organization.
The Lao Veterans of America, Inc., describes itself as a non-profit, non-partisan, non-governmental, veterans organization that represents Lao- and Hmong-American veterans who served in the U.S. clandestine war in the Kingdom of Laos during the Vietnam War as well as their refugee families in the United States.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The Laotian Civil War (1959–75) was fought between the Communist Pathet Lao (including many North Vietnamese of Lao ancestry) and the Royal Lao Government, with both sides receiving heavy external support in a proxy war between the global Cold War superpowers.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
This is a list of some well-known Miao/Hmong individuals throughout the world.
Long Tieng (also spelled Long Chieng, Long Cheng, or Long Chen) is a Laotian military base located in Xiangkhouang Province.
Macalester College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college located in Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States.
Madison is the capital of the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the seat of Dane County.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manitowoc is a city in and the county seat of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, United States.
The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Miao folk religion or Hmong folk religion is the common ethnic religion of Miao peoples, primarily consisting in the practice of ua dab (Hmongic: "worship of deities").
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
The Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806 was an anti-Qing uprising in Hunan and Guizhou provinces, during the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor.
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
Missoula is a city in the U.S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County.
Monroe is a city in and the county seat of Walton County, Georgia, United States.
Morganton is a city in Burke County, North Carolina, United States.
The Man, commonly called the Nanman or Southern Man, were the ancient indigenous peoples who lived in inland South and Southwest China, mainly the Yangtze River valley.
The Neutrality Act of 1794 makes it illegal for an American to wage war against any country at peace with the United States.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
North Vietnam supported the Pathet Lao to fight against the Kingdom of Laos between 1958–1959.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Oshkosh is a city in Winnebago County, Wisconsin, United States, located where the Fox River enters Lake Winnebago from the west.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pahawh Hmong (RPA: Phajhauj Hmoob, known also as Ntawv Pahawh, Ntawv Keeb, Ntawv Caub Fab, Ntawv Soob Lwj) is an indigenous semi-syllabic script, invented in 1959 by Shong Lue Yang, to write two Hmong languages, Hmong Daw (Hmoob Dawb White Miao) and Hmong Njua AKA Hmong Leng (Moob Leeg Green Miao).
The Pathet Lao (Lao: ປະເທດລາວ, "Lao Nation") was a communist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid-20th century.
The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Phetchabun (เพชรบูรณ์) is one of the central or northern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
The United States Refugee Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-212) is an amendment to the earlier Immigration and Nationality Act and the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, and was created to provide a permanent and systematic procedure for the admission to the United States of refugees of special humanitarian concern to the U.S., and to provide comprehensive and uniform provisions for the effective resettlement and absorption of those refugees who are admitted.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA) or Hmong RPA (also Roman Popular Alphabet), is a system of romanization for the various dialects of the Hmong language.
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County.
Saint Paul (abbreviated St. Paul) is the capital and second-most populous city of the U.S. state of Minnesota.
The Sheboygan Hmong Memorial (or Lao, Hmong and American Veterans Memorial) is a monument to the service and sacrifice of the Hmong people of Laos who fought for the United States during the Secret War from 1961-1975, part of the Laotian Civil War.
Sheboygan is a city in and the county seat of Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, United States.
Shooting at the Moon: The Story of America's Clandestine War in Laos was written by Southeast Asian war historian, Roger Warner.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Southern California (colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spartanburg is the most populous city in and the seat of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, United States, and the 12th-largest city by population in the state.
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
Special operations (S.O.) are military operations that are "special" or unconventional and carried out by dedicated special forces and other special operations forces units using unconventional methods and resources.
Stephan Feuchtwang (born 1937) is emeritus professor of anthropology at the London School of Economics (LSE).
Taijiang County (台江县) is a county of Guizhou, China.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
Thai royal and noble titles are the royal and noble styles indicating relationship to the king which were introduced by King Trailokanat (reigned 1448–1488).
The Center for Public Policy Analysis (CPPA), or Centre for Public Policy Analysis, was established in Washington, D.C. in 1988 and describes itself as a non-profit, non-partisan, think tank and research organization.
The Sacramento Bee is a daily newspaper published in Sacramento, California, in the United States.
The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures is a 1997 book by Anne Fadiman that chronicles the struggles of a Hmong refugee family from Houaysouy, Sainyabuli Province, Laos,Fadiman.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 47th-most populous city in the United States.
The United League for Democracy in Laos, Inc.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a U.S. federal government commission created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States.
Vang Pao (Hmong: Vaj Pov; 8 December 1929 – 6 January 2011) was a major general in the Royal Lao Army.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The voiceless bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Wangyee Vang (born November 8, 1947) is a Hmong-American community leader, educator and elder from Fresno, and the Central Valley, of California.
Warren is a city in Macomb County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Wat Thamkrabok (วัดถ้ำกระบอก, literally Temple of the Bamboo Cave) is a Buddhist temple (wat) in Thailand, located in the Phra Phutthabat district of Saraburi Province, Thailand.
Wausau is a city in and the county seat of Marathon County, Wisconsin, United States.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Winder (pronounced WINE-der) is a city in Barrow County, Georgia, United States.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
Wisconsin Public Television is a state network of public television stations operated primarily by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board and the University of Wisconsin–Extension.
Yellow rain was the subject of a 1981 political incident in which the United States Secretary of State Alexander Haig accused the Soviet Union of supplying T-2 mycotoxin to the Communist states in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia for use in counterinsurgency warfare.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
The Zhan Guo Ce, also known in English as the Strategies of the Warring States, is an ancient Chinese text that contains anecdotes of political manipulation and warfare during the Warring States period (5th to 3rd centuries).
Zhuolu is a town and the county seat of Zhuolu County, northwestern Hebei province, Northern China.
Zong Zoua Her (alternate spelling Tsong Zua Heu; RPA: Zoov Zuag Hawj) was an ethnic Hmong.