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Adolf (c. 1255 – 2 July 1298) was Count of Nassau from about 1276 and elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1292 until his deposition by the prince-electors in 1298.
Albert I of Habsburg (Albrecht I.) (July 12551 May 1308), the eldest son of King Rudolf I of Germany and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenburg, was a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination.
Albert the Magnanimous KG (10 August 139727 October 1439) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1437 until his death and member of the House of Habsburg.
Guibert or Wibert of Ravenna (1029 – 8 September 1100) was an Italian prelate, archbishop of Ravenna, who was elected pope in 1080 in opposition to Pope Gregory VII.
Arnulf of Carinthia (850 – December 8, 899) was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The barbarian kingdoms were Germanic, Hunnic and other kingdoms established all over Europe and North Africa during Late Antiquity, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
Berengar I (Berengarius, Perngarius; Berengario; 845 – 7 April 924) was the King of Italy from 887, and Holy Roman Emperor after 915, until his death.
Berthold V (1160 – 18 February 1218 in Freiburg im Breisgau), also known as Bertold V or Berchtold V, was Duke of Zähringen until his death, succeeding his father Berthold IV in 1186.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Carlton Joseph Huntley Hayes (May 16, 1882 – September 2, 1964) was an American historian, educator, diplomat, devout Catholic and academic.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Charles III (13 June 839 – 13 January 888), also known as Charles the Fat, was the Carolingian Emperor from 881 to 888.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
Charles VII (7 April 1697 – 20 January 1745) was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745.
The Concordat of Worms (Concordatum Wormatiense), sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Callixtus II and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor on September 23, 1122, near the city of Worms.
Conrad I (c. 881 – December 23, 918), called the Younger, was the king of East Francia from 911 to 918.
Conrad II (4 June 1039), also known as and, was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 until his death in 1039.
Conrad (25 April 1228 – 21 May 1254), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the only son of Emperor Frederick II from his second marriage with Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor was a ceremony in which the ruler of Europe's then-largest political entity received the Imperial Regalia at the hands of the Pope, symbolizing both the pope's alleged right to crown Christian sovereigns and also the emperor's role as protector of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century.
The County of Luxemburg (Luxembourg, Lëtzebuerg) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle is a charge associated with the concept of Empire.
The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.
The Duchy of Bavaria (German: Herzogtum Bayern) was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom.
The Duchy of Luxemburg (Luxembourg, Lëtzebuerg) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, the ancestral homeland of the noble House of Luxembourg.
The Duchy of Teschen (Herzogtum Teschen), also Duchy of Cieszyn (Księstwo Cieszyńskie) or Duchy of Těšín (Těšínské knížectví, was one of the Duchies of Silesia centered on Cieszyn (Teschen) in Upper Silesia. It was split off the Silesian Duchy of Opole and Racibórz in 1281 during the feudal division of Poland and was ruled by Silesian dukes of the Piast dynasty from 1290 until the line became extinct with the death of Duchess Elizabeth Lucretia in 1653. The ducal lands initially comprised former Lesser Polish territories east of the Biała River, which in about 1315 again split off as the Polish Duchy of Oświęcim, while the remaining duchy became a fiefdom of the Bohemian kings in 1327 and was incorporated into the Lands of the Bohemian Crown by 1347. While the bulk of Silesia was conquered by the Prussian king Frederick the Great in the Silesian Wars of 1740–1763, Teschen together with the duchies of Troppau (Opava), Krnov and Nysa remained with the Habsburg Monarchy and merged into the Austrian Silesia crown land in 1849. The so-called "commander line" of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, a cadet branch descending from Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen, held the title "Duke of Teschen" until 1918.
Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.
The Duke of Parma was the ruler of the Duchy of Parma, a small historical state which existed between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1859.
The Duke of Spoleto was the ruler of Spoleto and most of central Italy outside the Papal States during the Early and High Middle Ages (c. 500 – 1300).
The dukes and margraves of Friuli were the rulers of the Duchy and March of Friuli in the Middle Ages.
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
An electoral capitulation was a written agreement in parts of mediaeval Europe in which an imperial candidate made commitments about what he would do in the event of his election, but which could also specify how his responsibilities would be regulated and place limitations on his authority to exercise power.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne (Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the 10th to the early 19th century.
The Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz, Electoratus Moguntinus), also known in English by its French name, Mayence, was among most prestigious and the most influential states of the Holy Roman Empire from its creation to the dissolution of the HRE in the early years of the 19th century.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
The Electorate of Trier (Kurfürstentum Trier or Kurtrier), traditionally known in English by its French name of Trèves, was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the end of the 9th to the early 19th century.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The following image is a family tree of every king, monarch, confederation president and emperor of Germany, from Charlemagne in 800 over Louis the German in 843 through to Wilhelm II in 1918.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).
Ferdinand III (13 July 1608 – 2 April 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.
The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of Ecumenical councils by the Catholic Church.
Francis I (Franz Stefan, François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death.
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.
German mediatization (deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatization and secularization of a large number of Imperial Estates.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz (Diet of Metz (1356/57)) headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
Guy of Spoleto (died 12 December 894), sometimes known by the Italian version of his name, Guido, or by the German version, Wido, was the Margrave of Camerino from 880 (as Guy I or Guy II) and then Duke of Spoleto and Camerino (as Guy III) from 883.
Henry II (Heinrich II; Enrico II) (6 May 973 – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children.
Henry III (28 October 1016 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
Henry the Fowler (Heinrich der Finkler or Heinrich der Vogler; Henricus Auceps) (876 – 2 July 936) was the duke of Saxony from 912 and the elected king of East Francia (Germany) from 919 until his death in 936.
Henry V (Heinrich V.; 11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty.
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1275 – 24 August 1313)Kleinhenz, pg.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Lorraine (Haus Lothringen) originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz.
The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.
Imperial Majesty (His/Her Imperial Majesty, abbreviated as HIM) is a style used by Emperors and Empresses.
There was no emperor of the Holy Roman Empire between 1245 and 1312, and again during 1378–1433 and 1437–1452.
The Investiture controversy or Investiture contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture.
Joseph I (26 July 1678 – 17 April 1711) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1705 until his death in 1711.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
Julius NeposMartindale 1980, s.v. Iulius Nepos (3), pp.
The King of Hungary (magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom"; Deutsches Reich) developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.
Lambert (c. 880 – 15 October 898) was the King of Italy from 891, Holy Roman Emperor, co-ruling with his father from 892, and Duke of Spoleto and Camerino (as Lambert II) from his father's death in 894.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
Leopold II (Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790.
The Lexikon des Mittelalters ("Lexicon of the Middle Ages", LMA, LexMA) is a German encyclopedia on the history and culture of the Middle Ages.
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
Holy Roman Empress or Empress of the Holy Roman Empire is the title given to the consort (wife) or regent of the Holy Roman Emperor.
The following is a list of the kings of the two Kingdoms of Burgundy, and a number of related political entities devolving from Carolingian machinations over family relations.
In 1382, the Kingdom of Naples was heired by Charles III, King of Hungary, Great grandson of King Charles II of Naples After this, the House of Anjou of Naples was renamed House of Anjou-Durazzo, like Charles III married his first cousin Margaret of Durazzo, member of a prominent Neapolitan noble family.
The following is a list of rulers of Sardinia, in particular, of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica from 1323 and then of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1479 to 1861.
The monarchs of Sicily ruled from the establishment of the County of Sicily in 1071 until the "perfect fusion" in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816.
Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg from 1282 to 1918.
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria.
The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented: c.626, Croats migrate from White Croatia (around what is now Galicia) at the invitation of Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius.
The rulers of Lorraine have held different posts under different governments over different regions.
This article lists dukes, electors, and kings ruling over different territories named Saxony from the beginning of the Saxon Duchy in the 9th century to the end of the Saxon Kingdom in 1918.
The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).
Lothair II or Lothair III (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death.
Louis II, sometimes called the Younger (825 – 12 August 875), was the King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 844, co-ruling with his father Lothair I until 855, after which he ruled alone.
Louis IV (Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.
Louis the Blind (880 – 5 June 928) was the king of Provence from 11 January 887, King of Italy from 12 October 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905.
Louis the Child (893 – 20/24 September 911), sometimes called Louis III or Louis IV, was the king of East Francia from 899 until his death in 911 and was the last ruler of Carolingian dynasty there.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Matthias (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death.
Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
Monza (Mùnscia; Modoetia) is a city and comune on the River Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about north-northeast of Milan.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.
Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983.
Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.
Otto IV (1175 – 19 May 1218) was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
Pope Benedict IV (Benedictus IV; d. 30 July 903) was Pope from 1 February 900 to his death in 903.
Pope Benedict VIII (Benedictus VIII; ca. 980 – 9 April 1024) reigned from 18 May 1012 to his death in 1024.
Pope Celestine III (Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198.
Pope Clement II (Clemens II; born Suidger von Morsleben; died 9 October 1047), was Pope from 25 December 1046 until his death in 1047.
Pope Clement V (Clemens V; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Guoth and de Goth), was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314.
Pope Clement VII (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.
Pope Eugene IV (Eugenius IV; 1383 – 23 February 1447), born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447.
Pope Formosus (896) was Cardinal-bishop and Pope, his papacy lasting from 6 October 891 to his death in 896.
Pope Gregory V, born Bruno of Carinthia (Gregorius V; c. 972 – 18 February 999) was Pope from 3 May 996 to his death in 999.
Pope Honorius III (1150 – 18 March 1227), born as Cencio Savelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.
Pope Innocent II (Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Pope Innocent VI (Innocentius VI; 1282 or 1295 – 12 September 1362), born Étienne Aubert, was Pope from 18 December 1352 to his death in 1362.
Pope John VIII (Ioannes VIII; died 16 December 882) was Pope from 14 December 872 to his death in 882.
Pope John X (Ioannes X; d. 28 May 928) was Pope from March 914 to his death in 928.
Pope John XII (Ioannes XII; c. 930/93714 May 964) was head of the Catholic Church from 16 December 955 to his death in 964.
Pope John XIII (Ioannes XIII; d. 6 September 972) was Pope from 1 October 965 to his death in 972.
Pope John XIX (Ioannes XIX; died October 1032) was Pope from May 1024 to his death in 1032.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
Pope Saint Leo IV (790 – 17 July 855) was pope from 10 April 847 to his death in 855.
Pope Nicholas V (Nicholaus V) (13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death.
Pope Saint Paschal I (Paschalis I; born Pascale Massimi; died 824) was Pope from 25 January 817 to his death in 824.
Pope Paschal II (Paschalis II; 1050 1055 – 21 January 1118), born Ranierius, was Pope from 13 August 1099 to his death in 1118.
Pope Stephen IV (Stephanus IV; c. 770 – 24 January 817) was Pope from June 816 to his death in 817.
Pope Stephen V (Stephanus V; died 14 September 891) was Pope from September 885 to his death in 891.
Pope Urban IV (Urbanus IV; c. 1195 – 2 October 1264), born Jacques Pantaléon,Steven Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean Word in the Later Thirteenth Century, (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 54.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
Prince of the Holy Roman Empire (Reichsfürst, princeps imperii, see also: Fürst) was a title attributed to a hereditary ruler, nobleman or prelate recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).
In many historical societies, the position of kingship carries a sacral meaning, that is, it is identical with that of a high priest and of judge.
The Salian dynasty (Salier; also known as the Frankish dynasty after the family's origin and position as dukes of Franconia) was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages.
Giacomo Colonna (1270-1329), more commonly known by his bynames Sciarrillo or Sciarra, was a member of the powerful Colonna family.
The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.
A stem duchy (Stammesherzogtum, from Stamm, meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians and Swabians) was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911) and through the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century.
Theophanu (Θεοφανώ, Theophano; Theophanu, Theofana; 955June 15, 990 AD), also spelled Theophania, Theophana or Theophano, was an Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, and regent of the Holy Roman Empire during the minority of her son from 983 until her death in 990.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Time immemorial (temps immémorial) is a phrase meaning time extending beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition, indefinitely ancient, "ancient beyond memory or record".
Translatio imperii (Latin for "transfer of rule") is a historiographical concept, originating in the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor" (or sometimes even several emperors, i.e., the Eastern Byzantine Empire and the Western Holy Roman Empire).
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Emperor (HRR), Emperor of the West, Emperor-elect, Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, Holy Kaiser, Holy Roman Emperor-Elect, Holy Roman Emperors, Holy Roman Emperors (table), Holy Roman emperor, Holy Roman emperors, Holy roman emperor, Holy roman emporer, Imperator electus, List of Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, List of Holy Roman Emperors, List of emperors of Holy Roman Empire, List of holy roman emperors, Liste of Holy Roman Emperors, Roman-German Emperor, Roman-German emperor, Romanorum Imperator, Western Emperor.