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Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Adelaide of Italy (93116 December 999 AD) (Adelheid von Burgund; Adelaide di Borgogna), also called Adelaide of Burgundy, was a Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Otto the GreatCampbell, Thomas.
The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.
Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.
The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
An antipope (antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church.
John XVI (945 – 1001; born Ιωάννης Φιλάγαθος, Ioannis Philagathos; Giovanni Filagato; Johannes Philagathus) was an antipope from 997 to 998.
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն), also known as the Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia.
Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants.
The Army of the Holy Roman Empire (German Reichsarmee, Reichsheer or Reichsarmatur; Latin exercitus imperii) was created in 1422 and came to an end when the Holy Roman Empire dissolved in 1806 as the result of the Napoleonic Wars.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
The Aulic Council (Consilium Aulicum, Reichshofrat, literally meaning Court Council of the Empire) was one of the two supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire, the other being the Imperial Chamber Court.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Austria and Prussia had a long-standing conflict and rivalry for supremacy in Central Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, termed Deutscher Dualismus (German dualism) in the German language area.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austrian nobility (österreichischer Adel) is a status group that was officially abolished in 1919 after the fall of Austria-Hungary.
The Austrian–Hungarian War was a military conflict between the Kingdom of Hungary under Mathias Corvinus and the Habsburg Archduchy of Austria under Frederick V (also Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III).
Bad Lippspringe is a town in the district of Paderborn, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main.
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955) was a decisive victory for Otto I the Great, King of East Francia, over the Hungarian harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél (Lehel) and Súr.
The Battle of Riade or Battle of Merseburg was fought between the troops of East Francia under king Henry I and the Magyars at an unidentified location in northern Thuringia along the river Unstrut on 15 March 933.
The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Berengar I (Berengarius, Perngarius; Berengario; 845 – 7 April 924) was the King of Italy from 887, and Holy Roman Emperor after 915, until his death.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Charles III (13 June 839 – 13 January 888), also known as Charles the Fat, was the Carolingian Emperor from 881 to 888.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Cheb (Eger) is a town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic, with about 33,000 inhabitants.
Christendom has several meanings.
Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
The Cluniac Reforms (also called the Benedictine Reform) were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
The Cologne War (1583–88) devastated the Electorate of Cologne, a historical ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire, within present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany.
The Concordat of Worms (Concordatum Wormatiense), sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Callixtus II and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor on September 23, 1122, near the city of Worms.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis ("Treaty with the princes of the church") was decreed on 26 April 1220 by Frederick II as a concession to the German bishops in return for their co-operation in the election of his son Henry as King.
Conrad I (c. 881 – December 23, 918), called the Younger, was the king of East Francia from 911 to 918.
Conrad II (4 June 1039), also known as and, was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 until his death in 1039.
Conrad III (1093 – 15 February 1152) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
Conrad (25 April 1228 – 21 May 1254), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the only son of Emperor Frederick II from his second marriage with Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem.
Constantine VI (Κωνσταντῖνος Ϛ΄, Kōnstantinos VI; 771 – before 805Cutler & Hollingsworth (1991), pp. 501–502) was Byzantine Emperor from 780 to 797.
The Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor was a ceremony in which the ruler of Europe's then-largest political entity received the Imperial Regalia at the hands of the Pope, symbolizing both the pope's alleged right to crown Christian sovereigns and also the emperor's role as protector of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.
The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
Crescentius the Younger (or Crescentius II) (died 998), son of Crescentius the Elder, was a leader of the aristocracy of medieval Rome.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
At the Diet of Worms (Reichstag zu Worms) in 1495, the foundation stone was laid for a comprehensive reform (Reichsreform) of the Holy Roman Empire.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on 6 August 1806, when Emperor Francis II abdicated his title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire.
Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
The Duchy of Bavaria (German: Herzogtum Bayern) was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom.
The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Franconia (Herzogtum Franken) was one of the five stem duchies of East Francia and the medieval Kingdom of Germany emerging in the early 10th century.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
The Duchy of Saxony (Hartogdom Sassen, Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804.
The Duchy of Styria (Herzogtum Steiermark; Vojvodina Štajerska; Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia.
The Duchy of Swabia (German: Herzogtum Schwaben) was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne (Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the 10th to the early 19th century.
The Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz, Electoratus Moguntinus), also known in English by its French name, Mayence, was among most prestigious and the most influential states of the Holy Roman Empire from its creation to the dissolution of the HRE in the early years of the 19th century.
The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.
Esslingen am Neckar is a city in the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany, seat of the District of Esslingen as well as the largest city in the district.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
The following image is a family tree of every king, monarch, confederation president and emperor of Germany, from Charlemagne in 800 over Louis the German in 843 through to Wilhelm II in 1918.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Forchheim is a town in Upper Franconia (Oberfranken) in northern Bavaria, and also the seat of the administrative district of Forchheim.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Friesland is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
Fritzlar is a small German town (pop. 15,000) in the Schwalm-Eder district in northern Hesse, north of Frankfurt, with a storied history.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gelnhausen is a town and the capital of the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German mediatization (deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatization and secularization of a large number of Imperial Estates.
The German nobility (deutscher Adel) and royalty were status groups which until 1919 enjoyed certain privileges relative to other people under the laws and customs in the German-speaking area.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz (Diet of Metz (1356/57)) headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Golden Bull of Sicily (Zlatá bula sicilská, Bulla Aurea Siciliæ) was a decree issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in Basel on 26 September 1212 that confirmed the royal title obtained by Ottokar I of Bohemia in 1198, declaring him and his heirs Kings of Bohemia.
Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Henry II (Heinrich II; Enrico II) (6 May 973 – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
Henry the Fowler (Heinrich der Finkler or Heinrich der Vogler; Henricus Auceps) (876 – 2 July 936) was the duke of Saxony from 912 and the elected king of East Francia (Germany) from 919 until his death in 936.
Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180.
Henry V (Heinrich V.; 11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty.
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1275 – 24 August 1313)Kleinhenz, pg.
Henry the Proud (Heinrich der Stolze) (– 20 October 1139), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Bavaria (as Henry X) from 1126 to 1138 and Duke of Saxony (as Henry II) as well as Margrave of Tuscany and Duke of Spoleto from 1137 until his death.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.
A Hoftag (pl. Hoftage) was the name given to an informal and irregular assembly convened by the King of the Romans, the Holy Roman Emperor or one of the Princes of the Empire, with selected chief princes within the empire.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Lorraine (Haus Lothringen) originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz.
The House of Luxembourg (Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Hutterites (Hutterer) are an ethnoreligious group that is a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.
The Imperial Army (Kaiserliche Armee), Imperial Troops (Kaiserliche Truppen), Exercitus Imperatoris Romani, or Imperialists (Kaiserliche) for short, was a name used for several centuries, especially to describe soldiers recruited for the Holy Roman Emperor during the Early Modern Period.
During the Early Modern period the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles (Circuli imperii, Reichskreise; singular Circulus imperii, Reichskreis), administrative groupings whose primary purposes were the organization of common defensive structure and the collection of imperial taxes.
Imperial Count (Reichsgraf) was a title in the Holy Roman Empire.
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
The election of a Holy Roman Emperor was generally a two-stage process whereby, from at least the 13th century, the King of the Romans was elected by a small body of the greatest princes of the Empire, the Prince-electors.
An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (Status Imperii; Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag).
The Free Imperial knights (Reichsritter Eques imperii) were free nobles of the Holy Roman Empire, whose direct overlord was the Emperor.
Imperial Reform (Reformatio imperii, Reichsreform) is the name given to repeated attempts in the 15th and 16th centuries to adapt the structure and the constitutional order (Verfassungsordnung) of the Holy Roman Empire to the requirements of the early modern state and to give it a unified government under either the Imperial Estates or the emperor's supremacy.
The Imperial Villages (Reichsdörfer, singular Reichsdorf) were the smallest component entities of the Holy Roman Empire.
Ingelheim am Rhein is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany on the Rhine’s west bank.
An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.
The Investiture controversy or Investiture contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture.
Irene of Athens (Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία; 752 – 9 August 803 AD), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina (Εἰρήνη Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, Byzantine regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, and finally ruling Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress from 797 to 802.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, (10 May 1838 – 22 January 1922) was a British academic, jurist, historian and Liberal politician.
Joanna (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555), known historically as Joanna the Mad (Juana la Loca), was Queen of Castile from 1504, and of Aragon from 1516.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
The term Kaiserpfalz ("imperial palace") or Königspfalz ("royal palace", from Middle High German phalze to Old High German phalanza from Middle Latin palatia to Latin palatium "palace") refers to a number of castles and palaces across the Holy Roman Empire that served as temporary, secondary seats of power for the Holy Roman Emperor in the Early and High Middle Ages.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
The King of Hungary (magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
The Kingdom of Arles (also Kingdom of Arelat or Second Kingdom of Burgundy) was a Frankish dominion established from lands of the early medieval Kingdom of the Burgundians in 933 by the merger of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Burgundy under King Rudolf II.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom"; Deutsches Reich) developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.
Kleinstaaterei ("small-state-ery") is a German word used, often pejoratively, to denote the territorial fragmentation in Germany and neighboring regions during the Holy Roman Empire (especially after the end of the Thirty Years' War) and during the German Confederation in the first half of the 19th century.
Konrad I of Masovia (Konrad I Mazowiecki) (ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247), from the Polish Piast dynasty, was the sixth Duke of Masovia and Kujawy from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Poland from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243.
Konstanz (locally; formerly English: Constance, Czech: Kostnice, Latin: Constantia) is a university city with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland.
A Landfrieden or Landfriede (Latin: constitutio pacis, pax instituta or pax jurata) was, under medieval law of the Holy Roman Empire, a contractual waiver by rulers of specified territories of the use of (actually legitimate) force to assert their own legal claims.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
The Lexikon des Mittelalters ("Lexicon of the Middle Ages", LMA, LexMA) is a German encyclopedia on the history and culture of the Middle Ages.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Lindau (officially in German: Lindau (Bodensee)) is a major town and an island on the eastern side of Lake Constance (Bodensee in German).
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The Elector of the Palatinate (Kurfürst von der Pfalz) ruled the Palatinate of the Rhine in the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire from 915 to 1803.
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
The Holy Roman Empire was a highly decentralized state for most of its history, composed of hundreds of smaller states, most of which operated with some degree of independent sovereignty.
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria.
This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire.
This article lists dukes, electors, and kings ruling over different territories named Saxony from the beginning of the Saxon Duchy in the 9th century to the end of the Saxon Kingdom in 1918.
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).
Lothair II or Lothair III (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death.
Louis IV (Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.
Louis the Child (893 – 20/24 September 911), sometimes called Louis III or Louis IV, was the king of East Francia from 899 until his death in 911 and was the last ruler of Carolingian dynasty there.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death.
In politics and law, mediatisation is the loss of immediacy, the status of persons not subject to local lords but only to a higher authority directly, such as the Holy Roman Emperor.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
Merseburg is a town in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Minden is a town of about 83,000 inhabitants in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nikephoros I, or Nicephorus I (Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I; died July 26, 811), was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians (Old Prussian: Prūsai; Pruzzen or Prußen; Pruteni; Prūši; Prūsai; Prusowie; Prësowié) refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia.
The Old Swiss Confederacy (Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German or) within the Holy Roman Empire.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.
Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983.
Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.
Otto IV (1175 – 19 May 1218) was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215.
Ottokar I (Přemysl I. Otakar; c. 1155 – 1230) was Duke of Bohemia periodically beginning in 1192, then acquired the title King of Bohemia, first in 1198 from Philip of Swabia, later in 1203 from Otto IV of Brunswick and in 1212 from Frederick.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottonian dynasty (Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I. It is also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony.
Paderborn is a city in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district.
Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope.
Patchwork or "pieced work" is a form of needlework that involves sewing together pieces of fabric into a larger design.
The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (the predecessor of Ferdinand I) and the Schmalkaldic League, signed in September 1555 at the imperial city of Augsburg.
The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; Preßburger Frieden; Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 26 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December).
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.
Pope Gregory V, born Bruno of Carinthia (Gregorius V; c. 972 – 18 February 999) was Pope from 3 May 996 to his death in 999.
Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope John XII (Ioannes XII; c. 930/93714 May 964) was head of the Catholic Church from 16 December 955 to his death in 964.
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
Pope Leo VIII (died 1 March 965) was Pope from 23 June 964 to his death in 965; before that, he was an antipope from 963 to 964, in opposition to Pope John XII and Pope Benedict V. An appointee of the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.
Pope Paul IV, C.R. (Paulus IV; 28 June 1476 – 18 August 1559), born Gian Pietro Carafa, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 23 May 1555 to his death in 1559.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
The term Prince of the Church is today used nearly exclusively for Catholic cardinals.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.
Quedlinburg is a town situated just north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
Quierzy (also known as Quierzy-sur-Oise, formerly: Cariciacum, Carisiacum, Charisagum, Karisiacum) is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France, straddling the Oise River between Noyon and Chauny.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.
Regino of Prüm (Regino Prumiensis, Regino von Prüm; died 915) was a Benedictine monk, who served as abbot of Prüm (892–99) and later of Saint Martin's at Trier, and chronicler, whose Chronicon is an important source for late Carolingian history.
The Reichskammergericht (Imperial Chamber Court; Iudicium imperii) was one of two highest judicial institutions in the Holy Roman Empire, the other one being the Aulic Council in Vienna.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
Rhens is a municipality in the district Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Richard (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272), second son of John, King of England, was the nominal Count of Poitou (1225-1243), Earl of Cornwall (from 1225) and King of Germany (from 1257).
Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks (Latin: Ripuarii or Ribuarii) were one of the two main groupings of early Frankish people, and specifically it was the name eventually applied to the tribes who settled in the old Roman territory of the Ubii, with its capital at Cologne on the Rhine river in modern Germany.
The so-called Rittersturm ("Assault on the Knights") was the seizure of the hitherto imperially immediate territories of the Imperial Knights within the Holy Roman Empire by the major powers in 1802–03.
The Road to Canossa, sometimes called the Walk to Canossa (Gang nach Canossa/Kanossa) or Humiliation of Canossa (L'umiliazione di Canossa), refers to Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV's trek to Canossa Castle, Italy, where Pope Gregory VII was staying as the guest of Margravine Matilda of Tuscany, at the height of the investiture controversy in January 1077 to seek absolution of his excommunication.
The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).
Rudolf of Rheinfelden (– 15 October 1080) was Duke of Swabia from 1057 to 1079.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The Salian dynasty (Salier; also known as the Frankish dynasty after the family's origin and position as dukes of Franconia) was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages.
The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Schwarzenau Brethren, the German Baptist Brethren, Dunkers, Dunkards, Tunkers, or simply the German Baptists, are an Anabaptist group that originally dissented from several Lutheran and Reformed churches that were officially established in some German-speaking states in western and southwestern parts of the Holy Roman Empire as a result of the Radical Pietist ferment of the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
Schwäbisch Hall, or Hall for short is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg and capital of the district of Schwäbisch Hall.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
The Sorbian languages (Serbska rěč, Serbska rěc) are two closely related, but only partially mutually intelligible, West Slavic languages spoken by the Sorbs, a West Slavic minority in the Lusatia region of eastern Germany.
Speyer (older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
The Statutum in favorem principum ("Statute in favour of the princes") of 1231, reaffirmed in 1232, counts as one of the most important sources of law of the Holy Roman Empire on German territory.
A stem duchy (Stammesherzogtum, from Stamm, meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians and Swabians) was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911) and through the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The term territorial state (Territorialstaat) has been used since the High Middle Ages to refer to a state, typically in the Holy Roman Empire, in which the sovereignty or 'claim to power' (Herrschaftsanspruch) of the territorial prince, extended over a specific territory and its people.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Theophanu (Θεοφανώ, Theophano; Theophanu, Theofana; 955June 15, 990 AD), also spelled Theophania, Theophana or Theophano, was an Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, and regent of the Holy Roman Empire during the minority of her son from 983 until her death in 990.
Thionville (Diedenhofen) is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Translatio imperii (Latin for "transfer of rule") is a historiographical concept, originating in the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor" (or sometimes even several emperors, i.e., the Eastern Byzantine Empire and the Western Holy Roman Empire).
Trebur is a community in Groß-Gerau district in Hessen, Germany.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
The War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) was a major European war sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Würzburg (Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany.
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Wetzlar is a city located in the state of Hesse, Germany.
William II (February 1227 – 28 January 1256) was a Count of Holland and Zeeland from 1234 until his death.
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
12th century in Germany, 13th century in Germany, 14th century in Germany, 15th century in Germany, 15th-century Germany, 1st Reich, Czech Republic/Sacrum, Empire of the german nation, Empire of the germans, First German Empire, First German Reich, First Reich, German Late Middle Ages, Germany in the 15th century, HREGN, Heiliges Roemisches Reich Deutscher Nation, Heiliges Romisches Reich Deutscher Nation, Heiliges Römisches Reich, Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation, Holy Empire, Holy Reich, Holy Roman, Holy Roman Empire (of the German nation), Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, Holy Roman Realm of the German Nation, Holy Roman empire, Holy Rome, Holy roman, Holy roman empire, Holy-Roman Empire, I Reich, Imperial court (Holy Roman Empire), Imperium Romanum Sacrum, Interregnum (Holy Roman Empire), Late Medieval Germany, Late medieval Germany, Ottonian empire, Roman Empire of the German Nation, Roman Holy Empire, Roman-German Empire, Sacro Romano Impero, Sacrum Romanum Imperium, Teutonic Empire, The Holy Roman Empire.