310 relations: Acorn Archimedes, Acorn Atom, Acorn Electron, Address space, AIBO, All Media Network, Altair 8800, Amiga, Amiga 2000, Amiga 500, AmigaOS, Amstrad, Amstrad CPC, Amstrad PCW, Anchoring, Apple II, Apple II series, Apple IIc, Apple IIe, Apple IIGS, Apple III, Apple Inc., Apple TV, Application programming interface, Application-specific integrated circuit, ARM architecture, Ars Technica, ASCII Corporation, Atari 2600, Atari 8-bit family, Atari ST, Babysitting, Bank switching, BASIC, BASIC Computer Games, BASIC Programming, BBC BASIC, BBC Micro, Blinkenlights, Book report, Bulletin board system, Business software, Byte (magazine), C-One, C64 Direct-to-TV, Cable television, Car, Chiclet keyboard, Chipset, Clock rate, ..., Coleco, Coleco Adam, ColecoVision, Color Graphics Adapter, Command-line interface, Commodore 128, Commodore 1541, Commodore 64, Commodore Datasette, Commodore DOS, Commodore PC compatible systems, Commodore PET, Commodore Power/Play, Commodore VIC-20, Communication software, Compact Cassette, Composite video, CompuServe, Compute!, Computer magazine, Computer memory, Computer multitasking, Computer programming, Computing, Computing platform, Consumer electronics, Contiki, Coprocessor, Copy protection, Cord-cutting, CP/M, Crystal oscillator, Daewoo Electronics, Dan Gutman, Data entry clerk, Dell, Demoscene, DeskMate, Desktop computer, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Digital Research, Direct mode, Discount store, Disk operating system, Disk storage, Disk swapping, Dragon 32/64, Driving, East Germany, EBay, Educational toy, Electromagnetic compatibility, Electromagnetic interference, Electronic kit, Electronika, Electronika BK, Embedded system, Emulator, Enhanced Graphics Adapter, Epson Equity, Epson QX-10, Exatron Stringy Floppy, Expansion card, Fast loader, Federal Communications Commission, Floppy disk, FM-7, Forth (programming language), Fourth generation of video game consoles, Fujitsu, Geek, General Instrument, George Morrow (computers), Glue logic, Google TV, Graphical user interface, Graphics Environment Manager, Hacker, Hard disk drive, High fidelity, History of computing hardware (1960s–present), History of television, Home automation, Home server, Home theater PC, Homebuilt computer, Honeywell 316, Hula hoop, Hulu, IBM, IBM PC compatible, IBM PCjr, IBM Personal Computer, IBM Personal Computer XT, Inferior good, Influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market, Integrated circuit, Intel, Intel 8086, Intel 8087, Internet protocol suite, Interpreter (computing), Interrupt, Jeri Ellsworth, John Sculley, Joystick, Jupiter Ace, Kaypro, Ken Olsen, Killer application, Kilobaud Microcomputing, Laptop, Leading Edge Hardware Products, Leading Edge Model D, Line editor, List of early microcomputers, List of home computers, List of home computers by video hardware, List of video game consoles, Lotus 1-2-3, Macintosh, Macintosh IIsi, Macintosh LC, Magnavox Odyssey², Magnetic tape data storage, Mattel, McGraw-Hill Education, Mebibyte, Membrane keyboard, MicroBee, Microcomputer, Microprocessor, Microprocessor development board, Microsoft, MIDI, Mitsubishi, Mockumentary, Modem, Monochrome monitor, MOS Technology, MOS Technology 6502, MOS Technology SID, Motherboard, Motorola, Motorola 68000, Motorola 68008, Motorola 6809, MS-DOS, MSX, Multi Emulator Super System, NAPLPS, Nerd, Netflix, Nintendo Entertainment System, NTSC, Open architecture, Operating system, Oric, Original Chip Set, OS-9, Osborne Computer Corporation, Outsourcing, PAL, PC-File, PC-Talk, PC-Write, PC1512, PDF, PDP-11, Peripheral, Personal computer, Personal finance, Pirates of Silicon Valley, Plug and play, Printed circuit board, Public-domain software, Q-Bus, RadioShack, Random-access memory, Raspberry Pi, Read-only memory, Retrocomputing, RF modulator, Ribbon cable, Robot, Robotron KC 87, ROM cartridge, Roomba, SAM Coupé, Second screen, Sega Genesis, Seiko Epson, Serial port, Shareware, Sheet metal, Sideloading, Sinclair QL, Sinclair Research, Slashdot, Solder, Sound card, Soviet Union, SpeedScript, Sprite (computer graphics), Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Synthesizer, Sysop, Tandy 1000, Tandy 2000, Tandy Corporation, Tandy Graphics Adapter, Television, Terrestrial television, Texas Instruments, Texas Instruments TI-99/4A, Texas Instruments TMS9900, The Phoenix (newspaper), Tiki 100, Tiki Data, Time-sharing, Timex Group USA, Timex Sinclair 1000, Timex Sinclair 2068, Triumph of the Nerds, TRS-80, TRS-80 Color Computer, TV Typewriter, Type-in program, Typewriter, User interface, Utility software, VEB Robotron, Video display controller, Video game, Video game console, Video game crash of 1983, Video Graphics Array, Videotex, Virtual Console, Virtual museum, VisiCalc, Visual editor, VTech Laser 200, Wayne Green, White box (computer hardware), Wii, Word processor, World Wide Web, YouTube, Zenith Data Systems, Zilog Z80, ZX Microdrive, ZX Spectrum, ZX80, ZX81, 16-bit, 1801 series CPU, 32-bit, 8-bit. 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The Acorn Archimedes is a family of personal computers designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge (England) and sold in the late-1980s to mid-1990s, Acorn's first general-purpose home computer based on its own ARM architecture (initially the CPU and architecture was known as Acorn RISC Machine, or ARM; it later became one of the most widely used CPU architectures in the world, used in most smartphones among many other uses).
The Acorn Atom is a home computer made by Acorn Computers Ltd from 1980 to 1982, when it was replaced by the BBC Micro.
The Acorn Electron is a budget version of the BBC Micro educational/home computer made by Acorn Computers Ltd.
In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.
AIBO (stylized aibo, Artificial Intelligence Robot, homonymous with, "pal" or "partner" in Japanese) is a series of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony.
All Media Network (formerly All Media Guide (AMG) and AllRovi) is an American company that owns and maintains AllMusic, AllMovie, AllGame (until its closure in 2014), SideReel and Celebified.
The Altair 8800 is a microcomputer designed in 1974 by MITS and based on the Intel 8080 CPU.
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.
The Amiga 2000, or A2000, is a personal computer released by Commodore in March 1987.
The Amiga 500, also known as the A500, is the first low-end Commodore Amiga 16/32-bit multimedia home/personal computer.
AmigaOS is a family of proprietary native operating systems of the Amiga and AmigaOne personal computers.
Amstrad is a British electronics company.
The Amstrad CPC (short for Colour Personal Computer) is a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad between 1984 and 1990.
The Amstrad PCW series is a range of personal computers produced by British company Amstrad from 1985 to 1998, and also sold under licence in Europe as the "Joyce" by the German electronics company Schneider in the early years of the series' life.
Anchoring or focalism is a cognitive bias that describes the tendency for an individual to rely too heavily on an initial piece of information offered (known as the "anchor") when making decisions.
The Apple II (stylized as Apple.
The Apple II series (trademarked with square brackets as "Apple.
The Apple IIc, the fourth model in the Apple II series of personal computers, is Apple Computer’s first endeavor to produce a portable computer.
The Apple IIe (styled as Apple //e) is the third model in the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer.
The Apple IIGS (styled as II), the fifth and most powerful model of the Apple II family, is a 16-bit personal computer produced by Apple Computer, Inc.
The Apple III (often styled as apple ///) is a business-oriented personal computer produced and released by Apple Computer in 1980.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Apple TV is a digital media player and microconsole developed and sold by Apple Inc. It is a small network appliance and entertainment device that can receive digital data from a number of sources and stream to a capable television.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
Ars Technica (a Latin-derived term that the site translates as the "art of technology") is a website covering news and opinions in technology, science, politics, and society, created by Ken Fisher and Jon Stokes in 1998.
was a publishing company based in Tokyo, Japan.
The Atari 2600 (or Atari Video Computer System before November 1982) is a home video game console from Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and games contained on ROM cartridges, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F in 1976.
The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992.
The Atari ST is a line of home computers from Atari Corporation and the successor to the Atari 8-bit family.
Babysitting is temporarily caring for a child.
Bank switching is a technique used in computer design to increase the amount of usable memory beyond the amount directly addressable by the processor.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
BASIC Computer Games is a compilation of type-in computer games in the BASIC programming language collected by David H. Ahl.
BASIC Programming (Model# CX2620) is an Atari 2600 cartridge that teaches simple computer programming.
BBC BASIC is a programming language, developed in 1981 as a native programming language for the MOS Technology 6502 based Acorn BBC Micro home/personal computer.
The British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, is a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Blinkenlights is a neologism for diagnostic lights usually on the front panels on old mainframe computers, minicomputers, many early microcomputers, and modern network hardware.
A book report is an essay discussing the contents of a book, written as part of a class assignment issued to students in schools, particularly at the elementary school level.
A bulletin board system or BBS (also called Computer Bulletin Board Service, CBBS) is a computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program.
Business software or a business application is any software or set of computer programs used by business users to perform various business functions.
Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.
The C-One is a single-board computer (SBC) created in 2002 as an enhanced version of the Commodore 64, a home computer popular in the 1980s.
The C64 Direct-to-TV, called C64DTV for short, is a single-chip implementation of the Commodore 64 computer, contained in a joystick (modeled after the mid-1980s Competition Pro joystick), with 30 built-in games.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
A chiclet keyboard, or island-style keyboard, is a type of input device for electronic systems such as personal computers, calculators and remote controls that uses keys in the shape of small squares with rounded corners and straight sides, in the style of Chiclets, an American chewing gum brand.
In a computer system, a chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit known as a "Data Flow Management System" that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals.
The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.
Coleco Industries, Inc. was an American company founded in 1932 by Maurice Greenberg as The Connecticut Leather Company.
The Coleco Adam is a home computer, and expansion for the ColecoVision (port 3), released in 1983 by American toy and video game manufacturer Coleco Industries, Inc..
The ColecoVision is Coleco Industries' second-generation home video-game console that was released in August 1982.
The Color Graphics Adapter (CGA), originally also called the Color/Graphics Adapter or IBM Color/Graphics Monitor Adapter, introduced in 1981, was IBM's first graphics card and first color display card for the IBM PC.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
The Commodore 128, also known as the C128, C-128, C.
The Commodore 1541 (also known as the CBM 1541 and VIC-1541) is a floppy disk drive which was made by Commodore International for the Commodore 64 (C64), Commodore's most popular home computer.
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).
The Commodore 1530 (C2N) Datasette, later also Datassette (a portmanteau of data and cassette) is Commodore's dedicated magnetic tape data storage device.
Commodore DOS, aka CBM DOS, is the disk operating system used with Commodore's 8-bit computers.
The Commodore PC compatible systems are a range of IBM PC compatible personal computers introduced in 1984 by home computer manufacturer Commodore Business Machines.
The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) is a line of home/personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International.
Commodore Power/Play was one of a pair of computer magazines published by Commodore Business Machines in the United States in support of their 8-bit home computer lines of the 1980s.
The VIC-20 (in Germany: VC-20; In Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer that was sold by Commodore Business Machines.
Communication software is used to provide remote access to systems and exchange files and messages in text, audio and/or video formats between different computers or users.
The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.
Composite video (one channel) is an analog video transmission (without audio) that carries standard definition video typically at 480i or 576i resolution.
CompuServe (CompuServe Information Service, also known by its initialism CIS) was the first major commercial online service provider in the United States.
Compute!, often stylized as COMPUTE!, was an American home computer magazine that was published from 1979 to 1994.
Computer magazines are about computers and related subjects, such as networking and the Internet.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
Contiki is an operating system for networked, memory-constrained systems with a focus on low-power wireless Internet of Things devices.
A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU).
Copy protection, also known as content protection, copy prevention and copy restriction, is any effort designed to prevent the reproduction of software, films, music, and other media, usually for copyright reasons.
In broadcast television, cord-cutting refers to the pattern of viewers, referred to as cord cutters, cancelling their subscriptions to multichannel subscription television services available over cable, dropping pay television channels or reducing the number of hours of subscription TV viewed in response to competition from rival media available over the Internet such as Amazon Prime, Crunchyroll, Hulu, Netflix and YouTube Premium.
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.
Daewoo Electronics is a home electronics company.
Dan Gutman (born October 19, 1955) is an American writer, primarily of children's fiction.
A data entry clerk is a member of staff employed to enter or update data into a computer system.
Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.
The demoscene is an international computer art subculture focused on producing demos: self-contained, sometimes extremely small, computer programs that produce audio-visual presentations.
DeskMate was a software application that provided an operating environment that competed with early versions of Microsoft Windows.
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
Digital Research, Inc. (also known as DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
Direct mode, also known as immediate mode is a computing term referring to the input of textual commands outside the context of a program.
A discount store or discount shop is a retail shop which sells products at prices that are lower than the typical market price.
A disk operating system (abbreviated DOS) is a computer operating system that can use a disk storage device, such as a floppy disk, hard disk drive, or optical disc.
Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.
Disk swapping refers to the practice of inserting and removing, or swapping, floppy disks in a floppy disk drive-based computer system.
The Dragon 32 and Dragon 64 are home computers that were built in the 1980s.
Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motor vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
eBay Inc. is a multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website.
Educational toys (sometimes called "instructive toys") are objects of play, generally designed for children, which are expected to stimulate learning.
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the branch of electrical engineering concerned with the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy which may cause unwanted effects such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even physical damage in operational equipment.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
An electronic kit is a package of electrical components used to build an electronic device.
Electronika, also spelt Electronica, (Электроника) is the brand name used for many different electronic products built by factories belonging to the Soviet Ministry of Electronic Industry, including calculators, electronic watches, portable games, and radios.
The Electronika BK is a series of 16-bit PDP-11-compatible Soviet home computers developed under the Electronika brand by NPO Scientific Center, the leading Soviet microcomputer design team at the time.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).
The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) is an IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987.
The Epson Equity series of IBM Compatible Personal Computers was manufactured from 1985 until the early '90s by Epson Inc.
The Epson QX-10 is a microcomputer running CP/M or TPM-III (CP/M-80 compatible) which was introduced in 1983.
The Exatron Stringy Floppy (or ESF) is a continuous loop tape drive developed by Exatron.
In computing, the expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector, or expansion slot, on a computer motherboard, backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus.
A fast loader is a software program for a home computer, such as the Commodore 64 or ZX Spectrum, that accelerates the speed of file loading from floppy disk or compact cassette.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.
The FM-7 ("Fujitsu Micro 7") is a home computer created by Fujitsu, first released in 1982, sold in Japan and Spain.
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.
In the history of computer and video games, the fourth generation (more commonly referred to as the 16-bit era) of games consoles began on October 30, 1987 with the Japanese release of NEC Home Electronics' PC Engine (known as the TurboGrafx-16 in North America).
is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
The word geek is a slang term originally used to describe eccentric or non-mainstream people; in current use, the word typically connotes an expert or enthusiast or a person obsessed with a hobby or intellectual pursuit, with a general pejorative meaning of a "peculiar person, especially one who is perceived to be overly intellectual, unfashionable, boring, or socially awkward".
General Instrument (GI) was an American electronics manufacturer based in Horsham, Pennsylvania, specializing in semiconductors and cable television equipment.
George Morrow (January 30, 1934 – May 7, 2003) was part of the early microcomputer industry in the United States.
In electronics, glue logic is the custom logic circuitry used to interface a number of off-the-shelf integrated circuits.
Google TV is a discontinued smart TV platform from Google co-developed by Intel, Sony, and Logitech that was launched in October 2010 with official devices initially made by Sony and Logitech.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
Graphics Environment Manager (GEM) was an operating environment created by Digital Research (DRI) for use with the DOS operating system on Intel 8088 and Motorola 68000 microprocessors.
A computer hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
High fidelity (often shortened to hi-fi or hifi) is a term used by listeners, audiophiles and home audio enthusiasts to refer to high-quality reproduction of sound.
The history of computing hardware starting at 1960 is marked by the conversion from vacuum tube to solid-state devices such as the transistor and later the integrated circuit.
The invention of the television was the work of many individuals in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Home automation or domotics is building automation for a home, called a smart home or smart house.
A home server is a computing server located in a private residence providing services to other devices inside or outside the household through a home network or the Internet.
A home theater PC (HTPC) or media center computer is a convergence device that combines some or all the capabilities of a personal computer with a software application that supports video, photo, audio playback, and sometimes video recording functionality.
A custom-built or homebuilt computer is a computer assembled from available components, usually commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, rather than purchased as a complete system from a computer system supplier, also known as pre-built systems.
The Honeywell 316 was a popular 16-bit minicomputer built by Honeywell starting in 1969.
A hula hoop is a toy hoop that is twirled around the waist, limbs or neck.
Hulu (stylized as hulu) is an American entertainment company that provides over-the-top media services owned by Hulu LLC, a joint venture with The Walt Disney Company (through Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International) (30%), 21st Century Fox (30%), Comcast (through NBCUniversal) (30%),Although NBC Universal is also a major shareholder (30%) of Hulu, by the Federal Communications Commission, NBC Universal and Comcast are required not to exercise any right to influence the conduct or operation of Hulu.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.
The IBM PCjr (read "PC junior") was IBM's first attempt to enter the home computer market.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
The IBM Personal Computer XT, often shortened to the IBM XT, PC XT, or simply XT, is a version of the IBM PC with a built-in hard drive.
In economics, an inferior good is a good whose demand decreases when consumer income rises (or demand rises when consumer income decreases), unlike normal goods, for which the opposite is observed.
Following the introduction of the IBM Personal Computer, or IBM PC, many other personal computer architectures became extinct within just a few years.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.
The Intel 8087, announced in 1980, was the first x87 floating-point coprocessor for the 8086 line of microprocessors.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
Jeri Janet Ellsworth is an American entrepreneur and an autodidact computer chip designer and inventor.
John Sculley III (born April 6, 1939) is an American businessman, entrepreneur and investor in high-tech startups.
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling.
The Jupiter Ace was a British home computer of the early 1980s.
Kaypro Corporation was an American home/personal computer manufacturer of the 1980s.
Kenneth Harry "Ken" Olsen (February 20, 1926 – February 6, 2011) was an American engineer who co-founded Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1957 with colleague Harlan Anderson and his brother Stan Olsen.
In marketing terminology, a killer application (commonly shortened to killer app) is any computer program that is so necessary or desirable that it proves the core value of some larger technology, such as computer hardware, a gaming console, software, a programming language, a software platform, or an operating system.
Kilobaud Microcomputing was a magazine dedicated to the computer homebrew hobbyists from 1977 to 1983.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
Leading Edge Hardware Products, Inc., was a computer manufacturer in the 1980s and the 1990s.
The Leading Edge Model D was an IBM clone computer first released by Leading Edge Hardware in July 1985.
In computing, a line editor is a text editor in which each editing command applies to one or more complete lines of text designated by the user.
This is a list of early microcomputers sold to hobbyists and developers.
The home computers between 1977 and about 1990 were different from today's uniform and predictable machines.
This is a list of home computers, sorted alphanumerically, which lists all relevant details of their video hardware.
Lists of video game consoles is split into the following articles.
Lotus 1-2-3 is a discontinued spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (later part of IBM).
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
The Macintosh IIsi is a personal computer designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1990 to March 1993.
The Macintosh LC is a personal computer designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1990 to March 1992.
The Magnavox Odyssey², also known as Philips Odyssey² is a second generation home video game console released in 1978.
Magnetic tape data storage is a system for storing digital information on magnetic tape using digital recording.
Mattel, Inc. is an American multinational toy manufacturing company founded in 1945 with headquarters in El Segundo, California.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
A membrane keyboard is a computer keyboard whose "keys" are not separate, moving parts, as with the majority of other keyboards, but rather are pressure pads that have only outlines and symbols printed on a flat, flexible surface.
MicroBee (Micro Bee) was a series of home computers by Applied Technology, later known as MicroBee Systems.
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
A microprocessor development board is a printed circuit board containing a microprocessor and the minimal support logic needed for an engineer to become acquainted with the microprocessor on the board and to learn to program it.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.
The is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.
A mockumentary (a portmanteau of mock and documentary) or docucomedy is a type of movie or television show depicting fictional events but presented as a documentary.
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.
A monochrome monitor is a type of CRT computer monitor which was very common in the early days of computing, from the 1960s through the 1980s, before color monitors became popular.
MOS Technology, Inc. ("MOS" being short for Metal Oxide Semiconductor), also known as CSG (Commodore Semiconductor Group), was a semiconductor design and fabrication company based in Norristown, Pennsylvania, in the United States.
The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".
The MOS Technology 6581/8580 SID (Sound Interface Device) is the built-in Programmable Sound Generator chip of Commodore's CBM-II, Commodore 64, Commodore 128 and Commodore MAX Machine home computers.
A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems.
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.
The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.
The Motorola 68008 is an 8/16/32-bit microprocessor made by Motorola.
The Motorola 6809 ("sixty-eight-oh-nine") is an 8-bit microprocessor CPU with some 16-bit features from Motorola.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
MSX is a standardized home computer architecture, first announced by Microsoft on June 16, 1983, and marketed by Kazuhiko Nishi, then Vice-president at Microsoft Japan and Director at ASCII Corporation.
Multi Emulator Super System (MESS) is an emulator for many game consoles and computer systems, based on the MAME core and now a part of MAME.
NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax) is a graphics language for use originally with videotex and teletext services.
A nerd is a person seen as overly intellectual, obsessive, introvert or lacking social skills.
Netflix, Inc. is an American over-the-top media services provider, headquartered in Los Gatos, California.
The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo.
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.
Open architecture is a type of computer architecture or software architecture that is designed to make adding, upgrading and swapping components easy.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Oric was the name used by Tangerine Computer Systems for a series of home computers, including the original Oric-1, its successor the Oric Atmos and the later Oric Stratos/IQ164 and Oric Telestrat models (model names stylized in upper case).
The Original Chip Set (OCS) is a chipset used in the earliest Commodore Amiga computers and defined the Amiga's graphics and sound capabilities.
OS-9 is a family of real-time, process-based, multitasking, multi-user operating systems, developed in the 1980s, originally by Microware Systems Corporation for the Motorola 6809 microprocessor.
The Osborne Computer Corporation (OCC) was a pioneering maker of portable computers.
In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).
PC-File was a flat file database computer application most often run on DOS.
PC-Talk was a communications software program.
PC-Write was a computer word processor and was one of the first three widely popular software products sold via the marketing method that became known as shareware.
The Amstrad PC1512 was Amstrad's mostly IBM PC-compatible computer system, first manufactured in 1986.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Personal finance is the financial management which an individual or a family unit performs to budget, save, and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events.
Pirates of Silicon Valley is an original 1999 American made for television biographical drama film, directed by Martyn Burke and starring Noah Wyle as Steve Jobs and Anthony Michael Hall as Bill Gates.
In computing, a plug and play (PnP) device or computer bus, is one with a specification that facilitates the discovery of a hardware component in a system without the need for physical device configuration or user intervention in resolving resource conflicts.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Public-domain software is software that has been placed in the public domain: in other words, there is absolutely no ownership such as copyright, trademark, or patent.
The Q-bus (also known as the LSI-11 Bus) is one of several bus technologies used with PDP and MicroVAX computer systems previously manufactured by the Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts.
RadioShack, formally RadioShack Corporation, is the trade name of an American retailer founded in 1921, which operates a chain of electronics stores.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
Retrocomputing is the use of older computer hardware and software in modern times.
An RF modulator (or radio frequency modulator) is an electronic device whose input is a baseband signal which is used to modulate a radio frequency source.
A ribbon cable (also known as multi-wire planar cable) is a cable with many conducting wires running parallel to each other on the same flat plane.
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.
The Robotron KC 87, fully known as the Kleincomputer robotron KC 87 (KC standing for Kleincomputer, lit. "small computer"), was an 8-bit home computer released in 1987 and produced in East Germany by the VEB Robotron-Meßelektronik "Otto Schön" Dresden, part of the Kombinat Robotron.
A ROM cartridge, sometimes referred to simply as a cartridge or cart, is a removable enclosure containing ROM designed to be connected to a consumer electronics device such as a home computer, video game console and to a lesser extent, electronic musical instruments.
Roomba is a series of autonomous robotic vacuum cleaners sold by iRobot.
The SAM Coupé (pronounced /sæm ku:peɪ/ from its original British English branding) is an 8-bit British home computer that was first released in late 1989.
A second screen involves the use of a computing device (commonly a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet) to provide an enhanced viewing experience for content on another device, such as a television.
The Sega Genesis, known as the in regions outside of North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega.
(Epson being an abbreviation for "Son of Electronic Printer"), or simply Epson, is a Japanese electronics company and one of the world's largest manufacturers of computer printers, and information and imaging related equipment.
In computing, a serial port is a serial communication interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time (in contrast to a parallel port).
Shareware is a type of proprietary software which is initially provided free of charge to users, who are allowed and encouraged to make and share copies of the program.
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces.
Sideloading is a term used mostly on the Internet, similar to "upload" and "download", but in reference to the process of transferring files between two local devices, in particular between a computer and a mobile device such as a mobile phone, smartphone, PDA, tablet, portable media player or e-reader.
The Sinclair QL (for Quantum leap), is a personal computer launched by Sinclair Research in 1984, as an upper-end counterpart to the Sinclair ZX Spectrum.
Sinclair Research Ltd is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair in Cambridge.
Slashdot (sometimes abbreviated as /.) is a social news website that originally billed itself as "News for Nerds.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
A sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
SpeedScript is a word processor originally printed as a type-in machine language listing in 1984-85 issues of Compute! and Compute!'s Gazette magazines.
In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene.
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (officially abbreviated the Super NES or SNES, and colloquially shortened to Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit home video game console developed by Nintendo that was released in 1990 in Japan and South Korea, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe and Australasia (Oceania), and 1993 in South America.
A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.
A sysop (an abbreviation of system operator) is an administrator of a multi-user computer system, such as a bulletin board system (BBS) or an online service virtual community.
The Tandy 1000 was the first in a line of more-or-less IBM PC compatible home computer systems produced by the Tandy Corporation for sale in its RadioShack chain of stores.
The Tandy 2000 is a personal computer introduced by Radio Shack in September 1983 based on the 8 MHz Intel 80186 microprocessor running MS-DOS.
Tandy Corporation was an American family-owned leather goods company based in Fort Worth, Texas.
Tandy Graphics Adapter (TGA) is a computer display standard for an IBM PC compatible video subsystem that improved on IBM's Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) technology.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Terrestrial or broadcast television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
The Texas Instruments TI-99/4A is a home computer, released June 1981 in the United States at a price of $525 ($ adjusted for inflation).
Introduced in June 1976, the TMS9900 was one of the first commercially available, single-chip 16-bit microprocessors.
The Phoenix (stylized as The Phœnix) was the name of several alternative weekly periodicals published in the United States of America by Phoenix Media/Communications Group of Boston, Massachusetts, including the Portland Phoenix and the now-defunct Boston Phoenix, Providence Phoenix and Worcester Phoenix.
Tiki-100 was a desktop home/personal computer manufactured by Tiki Data of Oslo, Norway.
Tiki Data was a manufacturer of microcomputers, located in Oslo, Norway.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
Timex Group USA, Inc. (formerly known as Timex Corporation) is an American manufacturing company founded in 1854.
The Timex Sinclair 1000 (TS1000) was the first computer produced by Timex Sinclair, a joint venture between Timex Corporation and Sinclair Research.
The Timex Sinclair 2068 (TS2068), released in November 1983, was Timex Sinclair's fourth and last home computer for the United States market.
Triumph of the Nerds is a 1996 British/American television documentary, produced by John Gau Productions and Oregon Public Broadcasting for Channel 4 and PBS.
The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their Radio Shack stores.
The RadioShack TRS-80 Color Computer (also marketed as the Tandy Color Computer and sometimes nicknamed the CoCo) is a line of home computers based on the Motorola 6809 processor.
The TV Typewriter was a video terminal that could display two pages of 16 lines of 32 upper case characters on a standard television set.
A type-in program, type-in listing, or sometimes just type-in, is a listing of source code printed in a computer magazine or book, meant to be entered on the computer's keyboard by the reader and then saved to cassette or disk.
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
Utility software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer.
VEB Kombinat Robotron was the biggest East German electronics manufacturer.
A video display controller or VDC (also regularly called display engine, display interface) is an integrated circuit which is the main component in a video signal generator, a device responsible for the production of a TV video signal in a computing or game system.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
The video game crash of 1983 (known as the Atari shock in Japan) was a large-scale recession in the video game industry that occurred from 1983 to 1985, primarily in North America, because of market saturation.
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers.
Videotex (or "interactive videotex") was one of the earliest implementations of an end-user information system.
, also abbreviated as VC, is a line of downloadable video games (mostly unaltered) for Nintendo's Wii and Wii U home gaming consoles and the Nintendo 3DS portable gaming console.
A museum is defined by the International Council of Museums (ICOM) as a ‘non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment’.
VisiCalc (for "visible calculator") was the first spreadsheet computer program for personal computers, originally released for the Apple II by VisiCorp.
A visual editor, or full-screen editor is computer software for editing text files using a textual or graphical user interface which displays the content (text) in an easy to look at and good view; that is, it displays a portion of the opened file and updates it in real time.
The VTech Laser 200 was an early 8-bit home computer from 1983, also sold as the Salora Fellow (mainly in Fennoscandia, particularly Finland), the Seltron 200 in Hungary and Italy, the Texet TX8000 (in the United Kingdom), and the Dick Smith VZ 200 (in Australia and New Zealand).
Wayne Sanger Green II (September 3, 1922 – September 13, 2013) was an American publisher, writer, and consultant.
In computer hardware, a white box is a personal computer or server without a well-known brand name.
The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006.
A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zenith Data Systems (ZDS) was a division of Zenith Electronics founded in 1979 after Zenith acquired Heathkit, which had, in 1977, entered the personal computer market.
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.
The ZX Microdrive is a magnetic tape data storage system launched in July 1983 by Sinclair Research for its ZX Spectrum home computer.
The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research.
The Sinclair ZX80 is a home computer brought to market in 1980 by Science of Cambridge Ltd.
The ZX81 is a home computer that was produced by Sinclair Research and manufactured in Dundee, Scotland by Timex Corporation.
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
The 1801 series CPUs were a family of 16-bit Soviet microprocessors based on the indigenous Elektronika NC microarchitecture cores, but binary compatible with DEC's PDP-11 machines.
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.