259 relations: Academic Press, Acclimatization, Acid–base homeostasis, Acid–base imbalance, Actuary, Adenoma, Adipocyte, Adipose tissue, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adrenal medulla, Adrenaline, Afferent nerve fiber, Albedo, Aldosterone, Allostasis, Alpha cell, Alpha globulin, Amino acid, Ancient Greek, Anemia, Angiotensin, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Aorta, Aortic arch, Apnea, Apoptosis, Appetite, Arterial blood, Arterial tree, Arteriole, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Autonomic nervous system, Autopilot, Baroreceptor, Beta cell, Bicarbonate, Bicarbonate buffer system, Bile acid, Blood pressure, Blood sugar level, Blood sugar regulation, Blood volume, Body water, Bone, Bone marrow, Bone resorption, Bradycardia, Brain, Brainstem, ..., Calcitonin, Calcitriol, Calcium, Carbon dioxide, Carbonic acid, Carbonic anhydrase, Cardiac muscle cell, Carotid sinus, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Central chemoreceptors, Central nervous system, Centrifugal governor, Cerebral autoregulation, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chemical plant, Cholinergic, Chronic condition, Chronobiology, Circadian rhythm, Citric acid cycle, Classical compound, Claude Bernard, Cloud condensation nuclei, Collecting duct system, Common carotid artery, Concentration, Control system, Countercurrent exchange, Cruise control, Cybernetics, Depolarization, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diarrhea, Dimethyl sulfide, Distal convoluted tubule, Dizziness, Duodenum, Effector cell, Electrolyte, Enantiostasis, Endocrine gland, Endothelium, Erythropoietin, Extracellular fluid, Farnesoid X receptor, Feces, Fluid balance, Folate, Freediving, Gaia hypothesis, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene expression, Genetic disorder, Ghrelin, Glucagon, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glucose 6-phosphate, GLUT4, Glycine, Glycobiology, Glycogen, Glycogenolysis, Heart failure, Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, Homeorhesis, Hormesis, Hormone, Human body, Human body temperature, Hyperglycemia, Hypernatremia, Hyperparathyroidism, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Hyperventilation, Hypocalcaemia, Hypoglycemia, Hyponatremia, Hypotension, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, Hypothalamus, Hypothermia, Hypotonic hyponatremia, Hypovolemia, Inborn errors of metabolism, Information theory, Insulin, Internal carotid artery, Ion, James Lovelock, James Watt, Jean-François Lyotard, Jejunum, Juxtaglomerular apparatus, Juxtaglomerular cell, Kidney, Kidney failure, Lactic acid, Le Chatelier's principle, Lenz's law, Leptin, Limiting factor, Liver, Liver failure, Loop of Henle, Mammal, Mechanoreceptor, Median preoptic nucleus, Medulla oblongata, Menstrual cycle, Metabolism, Milieu intérieur, Molality, Motor neuron, Mucous membrane, Muscles of respiration, Myocyte, Na+/K+-ATPase, Negative feedback, Nephron, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuroendocrinology, Neuron, Neuropsychiatry, New Latin, Nuclear receptor, Nutrition, Oil refinery, Organism, Osmoreceptor, Osmoregulation, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Oxygen, Pancreatic islets, Parafollicular cell, Parasympathetic nervous system, Parathyroid gland, Parathyroid hormone, Partial pressure, PCO2, Peripheral chemoreceptors, Peripheral nervous system, Perspiration, PH, Phosphate, Phytoplankton, Potassium, Process control, Proteostasis, Proximal tubule, Pulmonary insufficiency, Pyruvic acid, Red blood cell, Regulation of gene expression, Renin, Renin–angiotensin system, Respiratory center, Respiratory compensation, Respiratory rate, Right-to-left shunt, Senescence, Sensory nerve, Setpoint (control system), Shivering, Skeleton, Sodium, Solitary nucleus, Spinal cord, Steady state (biochemistry), Steam engine, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Stress (biology), Stretch receptor, Superorganism, Sweat gland, Sympathetic nervous system, Syncope (medicine), Systems biology, Tachycardia, Temperature, The Postmodern Condition, Thermogenesis, Thermoreceptor, Thermoregulation, Thermostat, Thirst, Thoracic diaphragm, Thyroid, Tonicity, Transcriptional regulation, Transepidermal water loss, Triglyceride, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Vasopressin, Vena comitans, Very low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin B12, Vomiting, Walter Bradford Cannon, Zona glomerulosa. Expand index (209 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Acclimatization or acclimatisation (also called acclimation or acclimatation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment (such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions.
Acid–base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).
Acid–base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to deviate out of the normal range (7.35 to 7.45).
An actuary is a business professional who deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty.
An adenoma (from Greek αδένας, adeno-, "gland" + -ώμα, -oma, "tumor") (plural adenomas or adenomata) is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Allostasis is the process of achieving stability, or homeostasis, through physiological or behavioral change.
Alpha cells (more commonly alpha-cells or α-cells) are endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Alpha globulins are a group of globular proteins in plasma that are highly mobile in alkaline or electrically charged solutions.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
The aortic arch, arch of the aorta, or transverse aortic arch is the part of the aorta between the ascending and descending aorta.
Apnea or apnoea is suspension of breathing.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Arterial blood is the oxygenated blood in the circulatory system found in the pulmonary vein, the left chambers of the heart, and in the arteries.
In anatomy, arterial tree is used to refer to all arteries and/or the branching pattern of the arteries.
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An autopilot is a system used to control the trajectory of an aircraft without constant 'hands-on' control by a human operator being required.
Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate ion (HCO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to maintain pH in the blood and duodenum, among other tissues, to support proper metabolic function.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range.
Blood volume is the volume of blood (both red blood cells and plasma) in the circulatory system of any individual.
In physiology, body water is the water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and elsewhere.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone tissue to the blood.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid gland, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body.
Calcitriol (INN), also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, or 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and other variants, is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D which has three hydroxyl groups.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).
Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle).
In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor with a feedback system that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel (or working fluid) admitted, so as to maintain a near-constant speed, irrespective of the load or fuel-supply conditions.
Cerebral autoregulation is a process in mammals, which aims to maintain adequate and stable cerebral blood flow.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.
Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100th the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapor condenses.
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.
In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.
Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or autocruise, or tempomat in some countries) is a system that automatically controls the speed of a motor vehicle.
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or methylthiomethane is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2S.
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
An effector cell is any of various types of cell that actively responds to a stimulus and effects some change (brings it about).
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Enantiostasis is the ability of an open system, especially a living organism, to maintain and conserve its metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in an unstable environment.
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
The bile acid receptor (BAR), also known as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or NR1H4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4) is a nuclear receptor that is encoded by the NR1H4 gene in humans.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fluid balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Freediving, free-diving, free diving, breath-hold diving, or skin diving is a form of underwater diving that relies on breath-holding until resurfacing rather than the use of breathing apparatus such as scuba gear.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Robison ester) is a glucose sugar phosphorylated at the hydroxy group on carbon 6.
Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Defined in the narrowest sense, glycobiology is the study of the structure, biosynthesis, and biology of saccharides (sugar chains or glycans) that are widely distributed in nature.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
The hematocrit (Ht or HCT), also known by several other names, is the volume percentage (vol%) of red blood cells in blood.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
In chemistry, the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation describes the derivation of pH as a measure of acidity (using, the negative log of the acid dissociation constant) in biological and chemical systems.
Homeorhesis, derived from the Greek for "similar flow", is a concept encompassing dynamical systems which return to a trajectory, as opposed to systems which return to a particular state, which is termed homeostasis.
Hormesis is any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hyperparathyroidism is an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Hypoosmolar hyponatremia is a condition where hyponatremia associated with a low plasma osmolality.
Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.
Inborn errors of metabolism form a large class of genetic diseases involving congenital disorders of metabolism.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
James Ephraim Lovelock, (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, environmentalist, and futurist who lives in Dorset, England.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Jean-François Lyotard (10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus (also known as the juxtaglomerular complex) is a structure in the kidney that regulates the function of each nephron, the functional units of the kidney.
The juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells, or granular cells) are cells in the kidney that synthesize, store, and secrete the enzyme renin.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Le Chatelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on some chemical equilibria.
Lenz's law (pronounced), named after the physicist Heinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz who formulated it in 1834, states that the direction of current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field due to induction is such that it creates a magnetic field that opposes the change that produced it.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
A limiting factor is a variable of a system that, if subject to a small change, causes a non-negligible change in an output or other measure of the system.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.
In the kidney, the loop of Henle (or Henle's loop, Henle loop, nephron loop or its Latin counterpart ansa nephroni) is the portion of a nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.
The median preoptic nucleus is located dorsal to the other three nuclei of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Milieu intérieur or interior milieu, from the French, milieu intérieur (the internal environment), is a phrase coined by Claude Bernard to refer to the extra-cellular fluid environment, more particularly the interstitial fluid, and its physiological capacity to ensure protective stability for the tissues and organs of multicellular organism.
Molality, also called molal concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution in terms of amount of substance in a specified amount of mass of the solvent.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The muscles of respiration are those muscles that contribute to inhalation and exhalation, by aiding in the expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.
Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An osmoreceptor is a sensory receptor primarily found in the hypothalamus of most homeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
Parafollicular cells (also called C cells) are neuroendocrine cells in the thyroid which primary function is to secrete calcitonin.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling, which is an ongoing process in which bone tissue is alternately resorbed and rebuilt over time.
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.
The pCO2, PCO2, p_\ceor P_\ce is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), often used in reference to blood, but also used in oceanography to describe the partial pressure of CO2 in the Ocean, and in life support systems engineering and underwater diving to describe the partial pressure in a breathing gas.
Peripheral chemoreceptors (of the carotid and aortic bodies) are so named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Automatic process control in continuous production processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety which could not be achieved purely by human manual control.
Proteostasis, a portmanteau of the words protein and homeostasis, is the concept that there are competing and integrated biological pathways within cells that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking and degradation of proteins present within and outside the cell.
The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.
Pulmonary insufficiency (or incompetence, or regurgitation) is a condition in which the pulmonary valve is incompetent and allows backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle of the heart during diastole.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem.
Respiratory compensation is a mechanism of the respiratory center by which plasma pH can be altered by varying the respiratory rate.
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs.
A right-to-left shunt is a cardiac shunt which allows blood to flow from the right heart to the left heart.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
A sensory nerve, also called an afferent nerve, is a nerve that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS).
In cybernetics and control theory, a setpoint (also set point, set-point) is the desired or target value for an essential variable, or process value of a system.
Shivering (also called shuddering) is a bodily function in response to cold in warm-blooded animals.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
In the human brainstem, the solitary nucleus (SN) (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii) is a series of purely sensory nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
In ionic steady state, cells maintain different internal and external concentrations of various ionic species.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors responsive to distention of various organs and muscles, and are neurologically linked to the medulla in the brain stem via afferent nerve fibers.
A superorganism or supraorganism (the latter is less frequently used but more etymologically correct) is a group of synergetically interacting organisms of the same species.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (La condition postmoderne: rapport sur le savoir) is a 1979 book by Jean-François Lyotard, in which Lyotard analyzes the notion of knowledge in postmodern society as the end of 'grand narratives' or metanarratives, which he considers a quintessential feature of modernity.
Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms.
A thermoreceptor is a non-specialised sense receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature, primarily within the innocuous range.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA (transcription), thereby orchestrating gene activity.
Transepidermal water loss (TEWL or TWL) is the loss of water that passes from inside a body (animal or plant) through the epidermis (that is, either the epidermal layer of animal skin or the epidermal layer of plants) to the surrounding atmosphere via diffusion and evaporation processes.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Vena comitans is Latin for accompanying vein.
Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), density relative to extracellular water, is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.
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