149 relations: Abstraction, ADH1B, Africa, Age of Discovery, Agouti signalling peptide, Akha people, Allopatric speciation, American Journal of Human Genetics, Amud 1, Angola, Archaeogenetics, Archaic human admixture with modern humans, Archaic humans, Arctic, Arrow, Art of the Upper Paleolithic, Atapuerca Mountains, Aurignacian, Australia, Bab-el-Mandeb, Behavioral modernity, Big-game hunting, Binomial nomenclature, Biogenic substance, Biological anthropology, Biological specimen, Brain size, Carl Linnaeus, Catabolism, Caucasian race, Cave painting, Caveman, Cline (biology), Common ostrich, Complement system, Dali Man, Denisovan, Desmond Morris, Directional selection, Domestication of animals, Early human expansions out of Africa, Early human migrations, East Asia, Ectodysplasin A receptor, European early modern humans, Eyebrow, Femur, Fibula, Forehead, Gene flow, ..., Genetic drift, Glacier, Haematopoiesis, Haplogroup L3 (mtDNA), High-altitude adaptation in humans, Holocene, Homo, Homo antecessor, Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo sapiens, Homo sapiens idaltu, Human, Human body, Human genetic variation, Human height, Human taxonomy, Human variability, Humerus, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Introgression, IUCN Red List, Jebel Irhoud, Khoisan, Lactase persistence, Last Glacial Maximum, Later Stone Age, Latin, Light skin, List of average human height worldwide, Lithic core, Malay race, Malays (ethnic group), Marine Isotope Stage 5, Megadrought, Melanesians, Mesolithic, Metabolome, Middle Awash, Middle Paleolithic, Middle Pleistocene, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrial Eve, Mongoloid, Multiregional origin of modern humans, Namibia, National Academy of Sciences, National Museum of Natural History, Natural History Museum, London, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nature Communications, Neanderthal, Neanderthal genetics, Neolithic, Neolithic Revolution, Neurocranium, North Asia, Occipital bun, Omo remains, Organic compound, Organic matter, Origin of language, Paleolithic Europe, Paleolithic religion, Pantheon Books, Peștera cu Oase, Population genetics, Prehistoric art, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Quartz (publication), Radius (bone), Raft, Recent African origin of modern humans, San people, Schöningen spears, Science (journal), Settlement of the Americas, Siberia, Skhul and Qafzeh hominins, Smithsonian Institution, Southern Africa, Southern Dispersal, Spear-thrower, Stem cell factor, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subspecies, Supraorbital foramen, Supraorbital ridge, Taxonomy (biology), The New York Times, Tibia, Type (biology), Ulna, Upper Paleolithic, Venus figurines, White people, Y-chromosomal Adam. Expand index (99 more) » « Shrink index
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADH1B gene.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Agouti signalling peptide, a product of the Agouti gene, is a peptide consisting of 131 amino acids.
The Akha are an indigenous hill tribe who live in small villages at higher elevations in the mountains of Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, and Yunnan Province in China.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
Amud 1 is a nearly complete but poorly preserved adult Southwest Asian Neanderthal skeleton thought to be about 55,000 years old.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Archaeogenetics is the study of ancient DNA using various molecular genetic methods and DNA resources.
There is evidence for interbreeding between archaic and modern humans during the Middle Paleolithic and early Upper Paleolithic.
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.
The art of the Upper Paleolithic is amongst the oldest art known (sometimes called prehistoric art).
The Atapuerca Mountains (Sierra de Atapuerca) is a karstic hill formation near the village of Atapuerca in Castile and León, northern Spain.
The Aurignacian is an archaeological tradition of the Upper Palaeolithic associated with European early modern humans (EEMH).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.
Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.
Big-game hunting is the hunting of large game, almost always large terrestrial mammals, for meat, other animal by-products (such as horn or bone), trophy or sport.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
A biogenic substance is a substance produced by life processes.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
A biological specimen (also called a biospecimen) is a biological laboratory specimen held by a biorepository for research.
The size of the brain is a frequent topic of study within the fields of anatomy and evolution.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
A caveman is a stock character representative of primitive man in the Paleolithic.
In biology, a cline (from the Greek “klinein”, meaning “to lean”) is a measurable gradient in a single character (or biological trait) of a species across its geographical range.
The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
The name Dali man refers to the remains of a late Homo erectus, or archaic Homo sapiens, who lived in the late-mid Pleistocene epoch.
The Denisovans or Denisova hominins) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo.
Desmond John Morris (born 24 January 1928) is an English zoologist, ethologist and surrealist painter, as well as a popular author in human sociobiology.
In population genetics, directional selection is a mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.
The domestication of animals is the mutual relationship between animals and the humans who have influence on their care and reproduction.
Homo erectus, or its immediate australopithecine-derived ancestors, are thought to have first dispersed out of Africa and into Eurasia shortly after 2 million years ago (also known as Out of Africa I), well before the emergence of anatomically modern humans some 300,000 years ago.
The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EDAR gene.
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
The eyebrow is an area of thick, delicate hairs above the eye that follows the shape of the lower margin of the brow ridges of some mammals.
The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
In human anatomy, the forehead is an area of the head bounded by three features, two of the skull and one of the scalp.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
High-altitude adaptation in humans is an instance of evolutionary modification in certain human populations, including those of Tibet in Asia, the Andes of the Americas, and Ethiopia in Africa, who have acquired the ability to survive at extremely high altitudes.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo antecessor is an extinct archaic human species (or subspecies) of the Lower Paleolithic, known to have been present in Western Europe (Spain, England and France) between about 1.2 million and 0.8 million years ago (Mya).
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo of the Middle Pleistocene (between about 700,000 and 200,000-300,000 years ago), known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe.
Homo rhodesiensis is the species name proposed by Arthur Smith Woodward (1921) to classifiy Kabwe 1 (the "Kabwe skull" or "Broken Hill skull", also "Rhodesian Man"), a fossil recovered from a cave at Broken Hill, or Kabwe, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia).
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Homo sapiens idaltu (Idaltu; "elder" or "first born"), also called Herto Man, is the name given to a number of hominin fossils found in 1997 in Herto Bouri, Ethiopia.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human genetic variation is the genetic differences in and among populations.
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.
Human variability, or human variation, is the range of possible values for any characteristic, physical or mental, of human beings.
The humerus (plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by the repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
Jebel Irhoud (žbəl iġud) is an archaeological site located just north of the locality known as Tlet Ighoud, about south-east of the city of Safi in Morocco.
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).
Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the lactase enzyme in adulthood.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The Later Stone Age (or LSA) is a period in African prehistory that follows the Middle Stone Age.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Light skin is a naturally occurring human skin color, which has little eumelanin pigmentation and which has been adapted to environments of low UV radiation.
Below are average adult human heights by country or geographical region.
In archaeology, a lithic core is a distinctive artifact that results from the practice of lithic reduction.
The concept of a Malay race was originally proposed by the German physician Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752–1840), and classified as a brown race.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Marine Isotope Stage 5 or MIS 5 is a Marine Isotope Stage in the geologic temperature record, between 130,000 and 80,000 years ago.
A megadrought (or mega-drought) is a prolonged drought lasting two decades or longer.
Melanesians are the predominant indigenous inhabitants of Melanesia.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample.
The Middle Awash is an archaeological site along the Awash River in Ethiopia's Afar Depression.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Middle Pleistocene is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.
Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.
The multiregional hypothesis, multiregional evolution (MRE), or polycentric hypothesis is a scientific model that provides an alternative explanation to the more widely accepted "Out of Africa" model of monogenesis for the pattern of human evolution.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
The Natural History Museum in London is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Genetic studies on Neanderthal ancient DNA became possible in the late 1990s.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
In human anatomy, the neurocranium, also known as the braincase, brainpan, or brain-pan is the upper and back part of the skull, which forms a protective case around the brain.
North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.
An occipital bun is a prominent bulge or projection of the occipital bone at the back of the skull.
The Omo remains are a collection of homininThis article quotes historic texts that use the terms 'hominid' and 'hominin' with meanings that may be different from their modern usages.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
The evolutionary emergence of language in the human species has been a subject of speculation for several centuries.
Paleolithic Europe, the Lower or Old Stone Age in Europe encompasses the era from the arrival of the first archaic humans, about 1.4 million years ago until the beginning of the Mesolithic (also Epipaleolithic) around 10,000 years ago.
Paleolithic religions are a set of spiritual beliefs thought to have appeared during the Paleolithic time period.
Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.
Peștera cu Oase (meaning "The Cave with Bones") is a system of 12 karstic galleries and chambers located near the city Anina, in the Caraș-Severin county, southwestern Romania, where some of the oldest European early modern human (EEMH) remains, between 37,000 42,000 years old, have been found.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Quartz (qz.com) is a news website owned by Atlantic Media.
The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna.
A raft is any flat structure for support or transportation over water.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
The Schöningen spears are a set of eight wooden throwing spears from the Palaeolithic Age that were excavated between 1994 and 1998 in the open-cast lignite mine in Schöningen, Helmstedt district, Germany, together with an associated cache of approximately 16,000 animal bones.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Skhul/Qafzeh hominins or Qafzeh–Skhul early modern humans are hominin fossils discovered in the Qafzeh and Es Skhul Caves in Israel.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
In the context of the recent African origin of modern humans, the Southern Dispersal scenario (also the coastal migration hypothesis) refers to the early migration along the southern coast of Asia, from the Arabian peninsula via Persia and India to Southeast Asia and Oceania.
A spear-thrower or atlatl (or; ahtlatl) is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to store energy during the throw.
Stem cell factor (also known as SCF, KIT-ligand, KL, or steel factor) is a cytokine that binds to the c-KIT receptor (CD117).
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
The supraorbital foramen is a bony elongated path located above the orbit (eye socket) and under the forehead.
The supraorbital ridge or brow ridge, known as superciliary arches in medicine, refers to a bony ridge located above the eye sockets of all primates.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
A Venus figurine is any Upper Paleolithic statuette portraying a woman,Fagan, 740 although the fewer images depicting men or figures of uncertain sex, and those in relief or engraved on rock or stones are often discussed together.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
In human genetics, the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (Y-MRCA, informally known as Y-chromosomal Adam) is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living men are descended patrilineally.
Alternative views on the origin of mankind, Anatomically Modern Human, Anatomically Modern Humans, Anatomically modern Homo sapiens, Anatomically modern human, Anatomically modern humans, Anatomically-modern human, Anatomically-modern humans, Early modern human, Early modern humans, East African Plains Ape, H Sapiens, H. Sapiens, H. sapiens, Homo Sapien, Homo Sapiens, Homo sapein, Homo sapian, Homo sapien, Homo sapien sapiens, Homo sapiens (Middle Paleolithic), HomoSapiens, Homosapian, Homosapiens, Human Origins, Ihminen, Modern Human, Modern homo sapiens, Modern human, Modern humans, Origin of modern humans, Theories of the origin of humans.