80 relations: Affine space, Alternating group, Arthur Cayley, Automorphism, Bijection, Biquaternion, Block design, Cengage, Characteristic (algebra), Collineation, Commutative ring, Conformal symmetry, Cross-ratio, D. Reidel, Desargues's theorem, Diagonalizable matrix, Division algebra, Dual quaternion, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Electromagnetic field, Euclidean geometry, Euclidean space, Field (mathematics), Finite field, Fixed point (mathematics), Function composition, General linear group, Group (mathematics), Group action, Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter, Homogeneous coordinates, Hyperplane, Identity function, Incidence geometry, Integer, Invariant (mathematics), Inverse function, Invertible matrix, Isomorphism, Karl Georg Christian von Staudt, Line (geometry), Linear algebra, Mathematical Reviews, Möbius transformation, Messenger of Mathematics, Michel Chasles, Modular arithmetic, Modular group, Oxford, Oxford University Press, ..., Pappus of Alexandria, Pappus's hexagon theorem, Partial function, Patrick du Val, Periodic function, Permutation, Perspective (graphical), Perspectivity, Point at infinity, Projection (mathematics), Projective frame, Projective geometry, Projective harmonic conjugate, Projective line, Projective linear group, Projective range, Projective space, Quaternionic analysis, Quotient group, Restriction (mathematics), Riemann sphere, Ring (mathematics), Simplex, Synthetic geometry, Trace (linear algebra), Unit (ring theory), Up to, Vector space, W-curve, Walter Benz. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
In mathematics, an affine space is a geometric structure that generalizes the properties of Euclidean spaces in such a way that these are independent of the concepts of distance and measure of angles, keeping only the properties related to parallelism and ratio of lengths for parallel line segments.
In mathematics, an alternating group is the group of even permutations of a finite set.
Arthur Cayley F.R.S. (16 August 1821 – 26 January 1895) was a British mathematician.
In mathematics, an automorphism is an isomorphism from a mathematical object to itself.
In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.
In abstract algebra, the biquaternions are the numbers, where, and are complex numbers, or variants thereof, and the elements of multiply as in the quaternion group.
In combinatorial mathematics, a block design is a set together with a family of subsets (repeated subsets are allowed at times) whose members are chosen to satisfy some set of properties that are deemed useful for a particular application.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
In mathematics, the characteristic of a ring R, often denoted char(R), is defined to be the smallest number of times one must use the ring's multiplicative identity (1) in a sum to get the additive identity (0) if the sum does indeed eventually attain 0.
In projective geometry, a collineation is a one-to-one and onto map (a bijection) from one projective space to another, or from a projective space to itself, such that the images of collinear points are themselves collinear.
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a commutative ring is a ring in which the multiplication operation is commutative.
In mathematical physics, the conformal symmetry of spacetime is expressed by an extension of the Poincaré group.
In geometry, the cross-ratio, also called the double ratio and anharmonic ratio, is a number associated with a list of four collinear points, particularly points on a projective line.
In projective geometry, Desargues's theorem, named after Girard Desargues, states: Denote the three vertices of one triangle by and, and those of the other by and.
In linear algebra, a square matrix A is called diagonalizable if it is similar to a diagonal matrix, i.e., if there exists an invertible matrix P such that P−1AP is a diagonal matrix.
In the field of mathematics called abstract algebra, a division algebra is, roughly speaking, an algebra over a field in which division, except by zero, is always possible.
In mathematics and mechanics, the set of dual quaternions is a Clifford algebra that can be used to represent spatial rigid body displacements.
In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.
In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.
In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (so-named in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements.
In mathematics, a fixed point (sometimes shortened to fixpoint, also known as an invariant point) of a function is an element of the function's domain that is mapped to itself by the function.
In mathematics, function composition is the pointwise application of one function to the result of another to produce a third function.
In mathematics, the general linear group of degree n is the set of invertible matrices, together with the operation of ordinary matrix multiplication.
In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.
In mathematics, an action of a group is a formal way of interpreting the manner in which the elements of the group correspond to transformations of some space in a way that preserves the structure of that space.
Harold Scott MacDonald "Donald" Coxeter, FRS, FRSC, (February 9, 1907 – March 31, 2003) was a British-born Canadian geometer.
In mathematics, homogeneous coordinates or projective coordinates, introduced by August Ferdinand Möbius in his 1827 work Der barycentrische Calcül, are a system of coordinates used in projective geometry, as Cartesian coordinates are used in Euclidean geometry.
In geometry, a hyperplane is a subspace whose dimension is one less than that of its ambient space.
Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation or identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the same value that was used as its argument.
In mathematics, incidence geometry is the study of incidence structures.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
In mathematics, an invariant is a property, held by a class of mathematical objects, which remains unchanged when transformations of a certain type are applied to the objects.
In mathematics, an inverse function (or anti-function) is a function that "reverses" another function: if the function applied to an input gives a result of, then applying its inverse function to gives the result, and vice versa.
In linear algebra, an n-by-n square matrix A is called invertible (also nonsingular or nondegenerate) if there exists an n-by-n square matrix B such that where In denotes the n-by-n identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication.
In mathematics, an isomorphism (from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος isos "equal", and μορφή morphe "form" or "shape") is a homomorphism or morphism (i.e. a mathematical mapping) that can be reversed by an inverse morphism.
Karl Georg Christian von Staudt (24 January 1798 – 1 June 1867) was a German mathematician who used synthetic geometry to provide a foundation for arithmetic.
The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects (i.e., having no curvature) with negligible width and depth.
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.
Mathematical Reviews is a journal published by the American Mathematical Society (AMS) that contains brief synopses, and in some cases evaluations, of many articles in mathematics, statistics, and theoretical computer science.
In geometry and complex analysis, a Möbius transformation of the complex plane is a rational function of the form of one complex variable z; here the coefficients a, b, c, d are complex numbers satisfying ad − bc ≠ 0.
The Messenger of Mathematics is a defunct mathematics journal.
Michel Floréal Chasles (15 November 1793 – 18 December 1880) was a French mathematician.
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).
In mathematics, the modular group is the projective special linear group PSL(2,Z) of 2 x 2 matrices with integer coefficients and unit determinant.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pappus of Alexandria (Πάππος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 290 – c. 350 AD) was one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, known for his Synagoge (Συναγωγή) or Collection (c. 340), and for Pappus's hexagon theorem in projective geometry.
In mathematics, Pappus's hexagon theorem (attributed to Pappus of Alexandria) states that given one set of collinear points A, B, C, and another set of collinear points a, b, c, then the intersection points X, Y, Z of line pairs Ab and aB, Ac and aC, Bc and bC are collinear, lying on the Pappus line.
In mathematics, a partial function from X to Y (written as or) is a function, for some subset X ′ of X.
Patrick du Val (March 26, 1903 – January 22, 1987) was a British mathematician, known for his work on algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and general relativity.
In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods.
In mathematics, the notion of permutation relates to the act of arranging all the members of a set into some sequence or order, or if the set is already ordered, rearranging (reordering) its elements, a process called permuting.
Perspective (from perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.
In geometry and in its applications to drawing, a perspectivity is the formation of an image in a picture plane of a scene viewed from a fixed point.
In geometry, a point at infinity or ideal point is an idealized limiting point at the "end" of each line.
In mathematics, a projection is a mapping of a set (or other mathematical structure) into a subset (or sub-structure), which is equal to its square for mapping composition (or, in other words, which is idempotent).
In the mathematical field of projective geometry, a projective frame is an ordered collection of points in projective space which can be used as reference points to describe any other point in that space.
Projective geometry is a topic in mathematics.
In projective geometry, the harmonic conjugate point of an ordered triple of points on the real projective line is defined by the following construction: The point D does not depend on what point L is taken initially, nor upon what line through C is used to find M and N. This fact follows from Desargues theorem.
In mathematics, a projective line is, roughly speaking, the extension of a usual line by a point called a point at infinity.
In mathematics, especially in the group theoretic area of algebra, the projective linear group (also known as the projective general linear group or PGL) is the induced action of the general linear group of a vector space V on the associated projective space P(V).
In mathematics, a projective range is a set of points in projective geometry considered in a unified fashion.
In mathematics, a projective space can be thought of as the set of lines through the origin of a vector space V. The cases when and are the real projective line and the real projective plane, respectively, where R denotes the field of real numbers, R2 denotes ordered pairs of real numbers, and R3 denotes ordered triplets of real numbers.
In mathematics, quaternionic analysis is the study of functions with quaternions as the domain and/or range.
A quotient group or factor group is a mathematical group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation that preserves the group structure.
In mathematics, the restriction of a function f is a new function f\vert_A obtained by choosing a smaller domain A for the original function f. The notation f is also used.
In mathematics, the Riemann sphere, named after Bernhard Riemann, is a model of the extended complex plane, the complex plane plus a point at infinity.
In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.
In geometry, a simplex (plural: simplexes or simplices) is a generalization of the notion of a triangle or tetrahedron to arbitrary dimensions.
Synthetic geometry (sometimes referred to as axiomatic or even pure geometry) is the study of geometry without the use of coordinates or formulas.
In linear algebra, the trace of an n-by-n square matrix A is defined to be the sum of the elements on the main diagonal (the diagonal from the upper left to the lower right) of A, i.e., where aii denotes the entry on the ith row and ith column of A. The trace of a matrix is the sum of the (complex) eigenvalues, and it is invariant with respect to a change of basis.
In mathematics, an invertible element or a unit in a (unital) ring is any element that has an inverse element in the multiplicative monoid of, i.e. an element such that The set of units of any ring is closed under multiplication (the product of two units is again a unit), and forms a group for this operation.
In mathematics, the phrase up to appears in discussions about the elements of a set (say S), and the conditions under which subsets of those elements may be considered equivalent.
A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.
In geometry, a W-curve is a curve in projective ''n''-space that is invariant under a 1-parameter group of projective transformations.
Walter Benz (May 2, 1931 Lahnstein – January 13, 2017 Ratzeburg) was a German mathematician, an expert in geometry.
Anti-homography, Fundamental theorem of projective geometry, Homographic function, Projective linear transformation, Projective map, Projective transform, Projective transformation, Projective transformation matrix, Projective transformations, Projectivity.