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Homology (biology)

Index Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa. [1]

176 relations: ABC model of flower development, Acer pseudoplatanus, Adaptation, Aloe, Ancient Greek, Arecaceae, Aristotle's biology, Arthropod, Astragalus, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Bat, Bat wing development, Beetle, Biology, Biomolecular structure, Bird, Bird flight, Body plan, Bulb, Cactus, Calcaneus, Canidae, Carrot, Centipede, Charles Darwin, Chelicerae, Chelicerata, Chromosome, Clade, Cladistics, Coccyx, Common descent, Convergent evolution, Cretaceous, Crustacean, Cuvier–Geoffroy debate, Deep homology, Deer, Developmental biology, Divergent evolution, Dog, Dominance hierarchy, Dragonfly, Eardrum, Early modern period, Elytron, Embryogenesis, Embryology, Equidae, Ethology, ..., Eusthenopteron, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary developmental biology, Family (biology), Femur, Fibula, Fin, Flight, Flower, Flowering plant, Fly, Fossil, Fouquieria splendens, Fraxinus excelsior, Frog, Gene, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Genome evolution, Georges Cuvier, Ginger, Great chain of being, Gynoecium, Halteres, Hand, Hemiptera, Hexapoda, Homeobox, Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, Homoplasy, Honey bee, Horse, Hox gene, Humerus, Hymenoptera, Ilium (bone), Incus, Inner ear, Insect, Insect mouthparts, Insect wing, Ischium, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Karl Ernst von Baer, Le Règne Animal, Leaf, Lior Pachter, List of related male and female reproductive organs, Lizard, Malleus, Mandible (arthropod mouthpart), Maxilla (arthropod mouthpart), Maximum parsimony (phylogenetics), McGraw-Hill Education, Meristem, Middle Ages, Middle ear, Molecular evolution, Mosaic (genetics), Musa acuminata, Myriapoda, Natural selection, Naturphilosophie, Nucleic acid sequence, Onion, Order (biology), Orthoptera, Ovary, Ovipositor, Ovule, Pachyrhachis, PAX6, Pedipalp, Petal, Petiole (botany), Phenotypic trait, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetic tree, Phylum, Pierre Belon, Pinnation, Pitcher plant, Plant stem, Potato, Primate, Primordium, Protein, Pterosaur, Pubis (bone), Radius (bone), Recapitulation theory, Richard Owen, Root, Sarcopterygii, Sepal, Sequence alignment, Sequence homology, Serial homology, Sex organ, Shrimp, Snake, Somite, Speciation, Spider, Stamen, Stapes, Stinger, Storage organ, Succulent plant, Sweet potato, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Taxon, Testicle, Tetrapod, Thorns, spines, and prickles, Tibia, Tree of life (biology), Trilobite, Ulna, Venus flytrap, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Von Baer's laws (embryology), Walter M. Fitch, Whale. Expand index (126 more) »

ABC model of flower development

The ABC model of flower development is a scientific model of the process by which flowering plants produce a pattern of gene expression in meristems that leads to the appearance of an organ oriented towards sexual reproduction, a flower.

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Acer pseudoplatanus

Acer pseudoplatanus, known as the sycamore in the United Kingdom and the sycamore maple in the United States, is a flowering plant species in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae.

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Aloe, also written Aloë, is a genus containing over 500 species of flowering succulent plants.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).

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Aristotle's biology

Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Astragalus is a large genus of about 3,000 species of herbs and small shrubs, belonging to the legume family Fabaceae and the subfamily Faboideae.

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Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire

Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (15 April 1772 – 19 June 1844) was a French naturalist who established the principle of "unity of composition".

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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Bat wing development

The order Chiroptera, comprising all bats, has evolved the unique mammalian adaptation of flight.

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Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bird flight

Bird flight is the primary mode of locomotion used by most bird species.

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Body plan

A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.

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In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.

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A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.

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In humans, the calcaneus (from the Latin calcaneus or calcaneum, meaning heel) or heel bone is a bone of the tarsus of the foot which constitutes the heel.

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The biological family Canidae (from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals.

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The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.

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Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda, an arthropod group which also includes Millipedes and other multi-legged creatures.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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The chelicerae are the mouthparts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod group that includes arachnids, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.

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The subphylum Chelicerata (New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela" and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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The coccyx, commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in humans and apes, and certain other mammals such as horses.

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Cuvier–Geoffroy debate

The Cuvier–Geoffroy debate of 1830 was a scientific debate between the two French naturalists Georges Cuvier and Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

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Deep homology

In evolutionary developmental biology, the concept of deep homology is used to describe cases where growth and differentiation processes are governed by genetic mechanisms that are homologous and deeply conserved across a wide range of species.

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Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Divergent evolution

Divergent evolution is the accumulation of differences between groups, leading to the formation of new species.

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The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.

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Dominance hierarchy

Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system.

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A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera (from Greek ἄνισος anisos, "uneven" and πτερόν pteron, "wing", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).

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In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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An elytron (from Greek ἔλυτρον "sheath, cover"; plural: elytra) is a modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and a few of the true bugs (Hemiptera); in most true bugs, the forewings are instead called hemelytra (sometimes misspelled as "hemielytra"), as only the basal half is thickened while the apex is membranous.

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Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.

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Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

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Equidae (sometimes known as the horse family) is the taxonomic family of horses and related animals, including the extant horses, donkeys, and zebras, and many other species known only from fossils.

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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

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Eusthenopteron is a genus of prehistoric sarcopterygian (often called lobe-finned fishes) which has attained an iconic status from its close relationships to tetrapods.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Evolutionary developmental biology

Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.

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The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.

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A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.

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Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.

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A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Fouquieria splendens

Fouquieria splendens (commonly known as ocotillo, but also referred to as coachwhip, candlewood, slimwood, desert coral, Jacob's staff, Jacob cactus, and vine cactus) is a plant indigenous to the Sonoran Desert and Chihuahuan Desert in the Southwestern United States (southern California, southern Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas), and northern Mexico (as far south as Hidalgo and Guerrero).

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Fraxinus excelsior

Fraxinus excelsior, known as the ash, or European ash or common ash to distinguish it from other types of ash, is a flowering plant species in the olive family Oleaceae.

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A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene duplication

Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genome evolution

Genome evolution is the process by which a genome changes in structure (sequence) or size over time.

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Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".

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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.

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Great chain of being

The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.

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Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.

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In dipterous insects, halteres (singular halter or haltere) are minute dumbbell-shaped organs which have been modified from hindwings to provide a means of encoding body rotations during flight.

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A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.

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The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs.

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The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest number of species of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura (all of these were once considered insects).

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A homeobox is a DNA sequence, around 180 base pairs long, found within genes that are involved in the regulation of patterns of anatomical development (morphogenesis) in animals, fungi and plants.

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Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures

A homogeneous mixture is a solid, liquid, or gaseous mixture that has the same proportions of its components throughout any given sample.

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Homoplasy in biological systematics is when a trait has been gained or lost independently in separate lineages during evolution.

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Honey bee

A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Hox gene

Hox genes, a subset of homeotic genes, are a group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the head-tail axis.

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The humerus (plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.

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Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.

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Ilium (bone)

The ilium (plural ilia) is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.

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The anvil or incus is a bone in the middle ear.

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Inner ear

The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Insect mouthparts

Insects have a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.

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Insect wing

Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.

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The ischium forms the lower and back part of the hip bone (os coxae).

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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Karl Ernst von Baer

Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer, Edler von Huthorn (Карл Эрнст фон Бэр; –) was an Estonian scientist and explorer.

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Le Règne Animal

Le Règne Animal (The Animal Kingdom) is the most famous work of the French naturalist Georges Cuvier.

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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Lior Pachter

Lior Pachter is a computational biologist.

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List of related male and female reproductive organs

This list of related male and female reproductive organs shows how the male and female reproductive organs of the human reproductive system are related, sharing a common developmental path.

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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

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The malleus or hammer is a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum.

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Mandible (arthropod mouthpart)

The mandibles of a bull ant The mandible (from mandibula or mandĭbŭ-lum, a jaw) of an arthropod is a pair of mouthparts used either for biting or cutting and holding food.

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Maxilla (arthropod mouthpart)

In arthropods, the maxillae (singular maxilla) are paired structures present on the head as mouthparts in members of the clade Mandibulata, used for tasting and manipulating food.

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Maximum parsimony (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, maximum parsimony is an optimality criterion under which the phylogenetic tree that minimizes the total number of character-state changes is to be preferred.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle ear

The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear.

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Molecular evolution

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations.

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Mosaic (genetics)

In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, involves the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg.

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Musa acuminata

Musa acuminata is a species of banana native to Southeast Asia.

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Myriapoda is a subphylum of arthropods containing millipedes, centipedes, and others.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Naturphilosophie ("philosophy of nature" or "nature-philosophy" in German) is a term used in English-language philosophy to identify a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism, as applied to the study of nature in the earlier 19th century.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Orthoptera is an order of insects that comprises the grasshoppers, locusts and crickets, including closely related insects such as the katydids and wetas.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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The ovipositor is an organ used by some animals for the laying of eggs.

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In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.

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Pachyrhachis is an extinct genus of snake with well developed hind legs known from fossils discovered Ein Yabrud, near Ramallah, in the central West Bank.

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Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX6 gene.

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Pedipalps (commonly shortened to palps or palpi) are the second pair of appendages of chelicerates – a group of arthropods including spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.

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Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.

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Petiole (botany)

In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

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Phenotypic trait

A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Pierre Belon

Pierre Belon (1517–1564) was a French traveler, naturalist, writer and diplomat.

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Pinnation (also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather-like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis.

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Pitcher plant

Pitcher plants are several different carnivorous plants which have modified leaves known as pitfall traps—a prey-trapping mechanism featuring a deep cavity filled with digestive liquid.

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Plant stem

A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.

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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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A primordium (plural: primordia; synonym: anlage) in embryology, is defined as an organ or tissue in its earliest recognizable stage of development.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.

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Pubis (bone)

In vertebrates, the pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis.

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Radius (bone)

The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna.

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Recapitulation theory

The theory of recapitulation, also called the biogenetic law or embryological parallelism—often expressed using Ernst Haeckel's phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"—is a historical hypothesis that the development of the embryo of an animal, from fertilization to gestation or hatching (ontogeny), goes through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of the animal's remote ancestors (phylogeny).

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Richard Owen

Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.

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In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.

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The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.

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A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants).

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Sequence alignment

In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.

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Sequence homology

Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the evolutionary history of life.

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Serial homology

Serial homology is a special type of homology, defined by Owen as "representative or repetitive relation in the segments of the same organism." Ernst Haeckel preferred the term "homotypy" for the same phenomenon.

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Sex organ

A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.

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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Somites (outdated: primitive segments) are divisions of the body of an animal or embryo.

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.

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The stapes or stirrup is a bone in the middle ear of humans and other mammals which is involved in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear.

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A stinger, or sting, is a sharp organ found in various animals (typically arthropods) capable of injecting venom, usually by piercing the epidermis of another animal.

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Storage organ

A storage organ is a part of a plant specifically modified for storage of energy (generally in the form of carbohydrates) or water.

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Succulent plant

In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.

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Sweet potato

The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.

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Synapomorphy and apomorphy

In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.

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The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.

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Thorns, spines, and prickles

In plant morphology, thorns, spines, and prickles, and in general spinose structures (sometimes called spinose teeth or spinose apical processes), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves, roots, stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant material.

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The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.

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Tree of life (biology)

The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm.

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Venus flytrap

The Venus flytrap (also referred to as Venus's flytrap or Venus' flytrap), Dionaea muscipula, is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical wetlands on the East Coast of the United States in North Carolina and South Carolina.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Von Baer's laws (embryology)

Von Baer's laws of embryology (or laws of development) are four rules discovered by Karl Ernst von Baer to explain the observed pattern of embryonic development in different species.

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Walter M. Fitch

Walter M. Fitch (May 21, 1929 – March 10, 2011) was a pioneering American researcher in molecular evolution.

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Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.

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Amino acid sequence homology, Arthropod homology, Biological analogy, Biological homology, DNA homology, Developmental homology, Homolog, Homologies, Homologous Structures, Homologous gene, Homologous organ, Homologous pair, Homologous structure, Homologous structures, Homology (evolution), Homology (evolutionary biology), Homology (trait), Homology in arthropods, Homology in behavior, Homology in mammals, Homology in plants, Mammal homology, Nucleic acid sequence homology, Ohnologous, Ortholog, Orthologs, Orthologues, Paralog, Paralogous gene, Paralogous genes, Paralogs, Paralogues, Paralogy regions, Parology, Phylogenetic homology, Plant homology, Principle of connections, Sequence Family, Sequence similarity, Xenologs.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homology_(biology)

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