249 relations: Activism, Ad hominem, Afghanistan, Al-Fatiha Foundation, Al-Muhajiroun, Alfred Kinsey, Alliant International University, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, American National Election Studies, American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, Amnesty International, Ancient Greece, Anti-discrimination law, Antipathy, Antisemitism, Anxiety, AP Stylebook, Apostasy, Apostasy in Islam, Arabic, Arizona State University, Association football, Attitude (psychology), Avert (HIV and AIDS organisation), Bay Area Reporter, Behavioural sciences, Belief, Bible, Biphobia, Bisexuality, Black people, Blend word, Book of Leviticus, Boris Yeltsin, Caliphate, Calvin Thomas (critical theorist), Canaan Banana, Capital punishment, Capitalism, Catharism, Catholic Church, Catholic Church and homosexuality, Christianity, Christine Quinn, Civil and political rights, Civil union, Class discrimination, Classical antiquity, Communism, ..., Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Conservatism, Consumerism, Contempt, Coretta Scott King, Corrective rape, Cultural Revolution, Democratic Party (United States), Discrimination, Discrimination against non-binary gender persons, Don't ask, don't tell, Economy of Spain, Education in the United States, Ego-dystonic sexual orientation, Egosyntonic and egodystonic, Enola Gay, Equality and Human Rights Commission, Faggot (slang), Fatwa, Fear, Flagellation, Fornication, Gay, Gay affirmative psychotherapy, Gay bashing, Gay media, Gay panic defense, Gay pride, Gay Talese, Gay-friendly, Gender identity, Gender role, Gender variance, General Synod of the Church of England, George Weinberg (psychologist), Gregory M. Herek, Gross domestic product, Hate crime, Hate speech, Hatred, Heteronormativity, Heteropatriarchy, Heterosexism, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Homophobia in ethnic minority communities, Homosexual agenda, Homosexual panic, Homosexuality, Homosexuality and Citizenship in Florida, Homosexuality and religion, Human rights, Human Rights Watch, Indecent assault, India, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia, International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, Intersectionality, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Iraq War, Islam, Jesus, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Joseph Stalin, Journal of Applied Philosophy, Journal of Homosexuality, Judith Butler, Kim Davis, Lavender scare, Lesbian, Lesbophobia, LGBT, LGBT culture, LGBT history, LGBT in Islam, LGBT rights in Zimbabwe, LGBT rights opposition, LGBT social movements, LGBT tourism, Major depressive disorder, Mao Zedong, Mauritania, Medieval Inquisition, Mental disorder, Michael Kimmel, Middle Ages, Minority group, Morpheme, Music video, Muslim, National Basketball Association, Natural law, New York City Council, New York Rangers, Nigeria, Non-heterosexual, North Korea, Old Testament, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Pejorative, Personality disorder, Peter Gay, Pew Research Center, Phobia, Pierre-André Taguieff, Pink money, Prejudice, Pride parade, Psychoanalysis, Psychology, Psychopathology, Qing dynasty, Queer migration, Queer theology, Racism, Reaction formation, Religion Dispatches, Religious denomination, Republican Party (United States), Reverse discrimination, Riddle scale, Right to privacy, Robert Mugabe, Roberta A. Kaplan, Routledge, Rugby football, Russian Empire, SAGE Publications, Same-sex marriage, Satanism, Saudi Arabia, School shooting, Screw (magazine), Sect, Self-image, Sexism, Sexology, Sexual orientation, Sexually transmitted infection, Sharia, Shmuley Boteach, Slate (magazine), Social class, Social issue, Social norm, Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Sodom and Gomorrah, Sodomy, Somalia, Southern Poverty Law Center, Southern United States, Soviet Union, Sport, State University of New York, Stereotype, Stop Murder Music, Subculture, Suburb, Sudan, Suicide among LGBT youth, Taiwan, Taliban, The Advocate, The Baltimore Sun, The Celluloid Closet, The Holocaust, The New York Times, The Times, Third gender, Thomas Aquinas, Tim Hardaway, Time (magazine), Transgender, Transphobia, Transsexual, Trials of the Knights Templar, United Arab Emirates, United Nations, United Nations Human Rights Committee, United Nations Human Rights Council, United States Army, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of California, Davis, University of Cincinnati, University of Massachusetts Amherst, University of Memphis, Violence against LGBT people, Vladimir Lenin, Waldensians, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), William O'Donohue, World Bank, Yemen, Yogyakarta Principles, Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe International Book Fair. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Ad hominem (Latin for "to the man" or "to the person"), short for argumentum ad hominem, is a fallacious argumentative strategy whereby genuine discussion of the topic at hand is avoided by instead attacking the character, motive, or other attribute of the person making the argument, or persons associated with the argument, rather than attacking the substance of the argument itself.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Al-Fatiha Foundation was an organization which advanced the cause of LGBTQ Muslims.
Al-Muhajiroun (المهاجرون, The Emigrants) is a banned terrorist Salafi jihadist organisation that is based in the United Kingdom and which has been linked to international terrorism, homophobia, and antisemitism.
Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956) was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University, previously known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction.
Alliant International University is a private, benefit corporation higher education institution based in San Diego, California.
The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering orthopsychiatry.
The American National Election Studies (ANES) are academically-run national surveys of voters in the United States, conducted before and after every presidential election.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Anti-discrimination law refers to the law on the right of people to be treated equally.
Antipathy is a voluntary or involuntary dislike for something or somebody, the opposite of sympathy.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually called the AP Stylebook, is an English grammar style and usage guide created by American journalists working for or connected with the Associated Press over the last century to standardize mass communications.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
In psychology, attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person.
Avert is an international HIV and AIDS charity based in Brighton, United Kingdom.
The Bay Area Reporter is a free weekly newspaper serving the LGBT communities in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biphobia is aversion toward bisexuality and toward bisexual people as a social group or as individuals.
Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.
Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
In linguistics, a blend word is one formed from parts of two or more other words.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Calvin Thomas is an American academic who works in the fields of critical theory, modern and postmodern literature and culture.
Canaan Sodindo Banana (5 March 193610 November 2003) served as the first President of Zimbabwe from 18 April 1980 until 31 December 1987.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church and homosexuality describes the relationship between the Christian denomination and the sexual orientation.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christine Callaghan Quinn (born July 25, 1966) is an American politician.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
A civil union, also referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage.
Class discrimination, also known as classism, is prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
Contempt, not classified among Paul Ekman's six basic emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, is a mixture of disgust and anger.
Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927January 30, 2006) was an American author, activist, civil rights leader, and the wife of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Corrective rape is a hate crime in which one or more people are raped because of their perceived sexual orientation or gender identity.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
Discrimination or prejudice against non-binary people, people who do not identify as exclusively masculine or feminine, is a form of sexism, as well as a specific type of transphobia.
"Don't ask, don't tell" (DADT) was the official United States policy on military service by gays, bisexuals, and lesbians, instituted by the Clinton Administration on February 28, 1994, when Department of Defense Directive 1304.26 issued on December 21, 1993, took effect, lasting until September 20, 2011.
The economy of Spain is the world's fourteenth-largest by nominal GDP, and it is also one of the largest in the world by purchasing power parity.
Education in the United States is provided by public, private and home schools.
Ego-dystonic sexual orientation is an ego-dystonic mental disorder characterized by having a sexual orientation or an attraction that is at odds with one's idealized self-image, causing anxiety and a desire to change one's orientation or become more comfortable with one's sexual orientation.
In psychoanalysis, egosyntonic refers to the behaviors, values, and feelings that are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs and goals of the ego, or consistent with one's ideal self-image.
The Enola Gay is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets, who selected the aircraft while it was still on the assembly line.
The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) is a non-departmental public body in England and Wales, established by the Equality Act 2006 with effect from 1 October 2007.
Faggot, often shortened to fag, is a pejorative term used chiefly in North America primarily to refer to a gay male.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.
Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other.
Gay is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual.
Gay affirmative psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy for non-heterosexuals, specifically gay and lesbian clients, which focuses on client comfort in working towards authenticity and self-acceptance regarding sexual orientation, and does not attempt to "change" them to heterosexual, or to "eliminate or diminish" same-sex "desires and behaviors".
Gay bashing and gay bullying is verbal or physical abuse against a person who is perceived by the aggressor to be gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, including persons who are actually heterosexual.
Gay media refers to media that predominantly targets a gay or lesbian audience.
The gay panic defense is a legal defense, usually against charges of assault or murder.
Gay pride or LGBT pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance.
Gay Talese (born February 7, 1932) is an American writer.
Gay-friendly or LGBT-friendly are the places, policies, people or institutions that are open and welcoming to gay people (to include all members of the LGBTQ community) to create an environment that is supportive of gay people and their relationships, respectful of all people, treat all people equally, and are non-judgmental.
Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gender variance, or gender nonconformity, is behavior or gender expression by an individual that does not match masculine and feminine gender norms.
The General Synod is the deliberative and legislative body of the Church of England.
George Weinberg (May 17, 1929 – March 20, 2017) was an American psychologist.
Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D. (born 1954 in Omaha, Nebraska) is a researcher, author, and professor of psychology at the University of California at Davis (UCD).
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership (or perceived membership) in a certain social group or race.
Hate speech is speech that attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as race, religion, ethnic origin, national origin, gender, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity.
Hatred or hate is a deep and extreme emotional dislike, especially invoking feelings of anger or resentment.
Heteronormativity is the belief that people fall into distinct and complementary genders (male and female) with natural roles in life.
Heteropatriarchy (etymologically from heterosexuality and patriarchy) is a socio-political system where cisgendered males and heterosexuality have authority over cisgendered females and over other sexual orientations.
Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Homophobia in ethnic minority communities refers to any negative prejudice or form of discrimination within the ethnic minority communities worldwide towards people who identify as – or are perceived as being – lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT), known as homophobia.
Homosexual agenda (or gay agenda) is a term introduced by sectors of the Christian religious right (primarily in the United States) as a disparaging way to describe the advocacy of cultural acceptance and normalization of non-heterosexual orientations and relationships.
Homosexual panic is a term coined by psychiatrist Edward J. Kempf in 1920 for a condition of "panic due to the pressure of uncontrollable perverse sexual cravings".
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Homosexuality and Citizenship in Florida, also known as the Purple Pamphlet, was published in January 1964 by the Florida Legislative Investigation Committee of the Florida legislature led by Senator Charley Johns.
The relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and denominations, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Indecent assault is an offence of aggravated assault in some common law-based jurisdictions.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
The International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia is an observed on May 17 and aims to coordinate international events that raise awareness of LGBT rights violations and stimulate interest in LGBT rights work worldwide.
The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) is an international organization bringing together more than 750 LGBTI groups from around the world.
Intersectionality is an analytic framework which attempts to identify how interlocking systems of power impact those who are most marginalized in society.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Journal of Applied Philosophy is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Society for Applied Philosophy and edited by Suzanne Uniacke (University of Hull).
The Journal of Homosexuality is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research into sexual practices and gender roles in their cultural, historical, interpersonal, and modern social contexts.
Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.
Kimberly Jean Davis (née Bailey; born September 17, 1965) is the county clerk for Rowan County, Kentucky.
The lavender scare refers to a witch hunt and the mass firings of homosexual people in the 1950s from the United States government.
A lesbian is a homosexual woman.
Lesbophobia (sometimes lesbiphobia) comprises various forms of negativity towards lesbians as individuals, as couples, or as a social group.
LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
LGBT culture is a culture shared by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (and may also include lesser-known identities, such as pansexual).
LGBT history dates back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality of ancient civilizations, involving the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, and transgender (LGBT) peoples and cultures around the world.
LGBT in Islam is influenced by the religious, legal, social, and cultural history of the nations with a sizable Muslim population, along with specific passages in the Quran and hadith, statements attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Zimbabwe face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.
LGBT rights opposition is the opposition to legal rights, proposed or enacted, for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT+ people in society.
Gay tourism or LGBT tourism is a form of niche tourism marketed to gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
The Medieval Inquisition was a series of Inquisitions (Catholic Church bodies charged with suppressing heresy) from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184–1230s) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s).
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Michael Scott Kimmel (born February 26, 1951) is an American sociologist specializing in gender studies.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, and is produced for promotional or artistic purposes.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
The New York City Council is the lawmaking body of the City of New York.
The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in New York City.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Non-heterosexual is a sexual orientation or sexual identity that is not heterosexual.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
Peter Gay (born Peter Joachim Fröhlich; June 20, 1923 – May 12, 2015) was a German-American historian, educator and author.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.
Pierre-André Taguieff (born 4 August 1946) is a philosopher and director of research at the French National Centre for Scientific Research in an Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris laboratory, the CEVIPOF.
Pink money describes the purchasing power of the gay community, often especially with respect to political donations.
Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership.
Pride parades (also known as pride marches, pride events, and pride festivals) are events celebrating lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) culture and pride.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
LGBTQ migration is the movement of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people around the world and domestically, often to escape discrimination or ill treatment due to their sexuality.
Queer theology is a theological method that has developed out of the philosophical approach of queer theory, built upon scholars such as Michel Foucault, Gayle Rubin, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, and Judith Butler.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
In psychoanalytic theory, reaction formation (Reaktionsbildung) is a defense mechanism in which emotions and impulses which are anxiety-producing or perceived to be unacceptable are mastered by exaggeration of the directly opposing tendency.
Religion Dispatches is a daily non-profit online magazine covering religion, politics, and culture.
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Reverse discrimination is discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group, in favor of members of a minority or historically disadvantaged group.
The Riddle scale (also known as Riddle homophobia scale or Riddle scale of homophobia) was a psychometric scale that measured the degree to which a person is or is not homophobic.
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
Roberta A. "Robbie" Kaplan (born 1966) is an American lawyer focusing on commercial litigation and public interest matters.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Satanism is a group of ideological and philosophical beliefs based on Satan.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A school shooting is an attack at an educational institution, such as a school or university, involving the use of a firearm(s).
Screw was a weekly pornographic tabloid newspaper published in the United States aimed at heterosexual men; according to a statement on the cover, it offered "Jerk-Off Entertainment for Men".
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.
Self-image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, etc.), but also items that have been learned by that person about themself, either from personal experiences or by internalizing the judgments of others.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexology is the scientific study of human sexuality, including human sexual interests, behaviors and functions.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shmuel "Shmuley" Boteach (שמואל (שמולי) בוטח,; born November 19, 1966) is an American Orthodox Jewish rabbi, author, TV host and public speaker.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
The Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS, or "quad-S"), formed in 1957, is a non-profit, international professional membership organization, based in the United States, that says it is "the oldest professional society dedicated to the advancement of knowledge about sexuality." It reports to have more than 1,000 members and has a quarterly newsletter, Sexual Science.
Sodom and Gomorrah were cities mentioned in the Book of Genesis and throughout the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and in the deuterocanonical books, as well as in the Quran and the hadith.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American nonprofit legal advocacy organization specializing in civil rights and public interest litigation.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
The State University of New York (SUNY) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States.
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
Stop Murder Music is a campaign to oppose Caribbean artists that produce music with lyrics alleged to glorify murder of homosexual men.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Researchers have found that attempted suicide rates and suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth is comparatively higher than among the general population.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Advocate is an American LGBT-interest magazine, printed bi-monthly and available by subscription.
The Baltimore Sun is the largest general-circulation daily newspaper based in the American state of Maryland and provides coverage of local and regional news, events, issues, people, and industries.
The Celluloid Closet is a 1995 American documentary film directed and written by Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Timothy Duane Hardaway (born September 1, 1966) is an American retired basketball player, currently serving as an assistant coach for the Detroit Pistons of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
Transphobia is a range of negative attitudes, feelings or actions toward transgender or transsexual people, or toward transsexuality.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
The Knights Templar trace their beginnings to the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in when eight Christian knights, under the auspices of King Baldwin II and the Patriarch Warmund, were given the task of protecting pilgrims on the roads to Jerusalem, which they did for nine years until elevated to a military order at the Council of Troyes in 1129.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts that meets three times a year for four-week sessions (spring session at UN headquarters in New York, summer and fall sessions at the UN Office in Geneva) to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by 169 UN member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR, and any individual petitions concerning 116 States parties to the Optional Protocol.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UCD, UC Davis, or Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university as well as one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (UC) system.
The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.
The University of Massachusetts Amherst (abbreviated UMass Amherst and colloquially referred to as UMass or Massachusetts) is a public research and land-grant university in Amherst, Massachusetts, United States, and the flagship campus of the University of Massachusetts system.
The University of Memphis, also called The U of M, is an American public research university located in the Normal Station neighborhood of Memphis, Tennessee.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people can face violence motivated by hateful attitudes towards their sexuality or gender identity.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
William T. "Bill" O'Donohue (born August 18, 1957) is an American psychologist who focuses on human sexuality, especially child sexual abuse.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Yogyakarta Principles is a 35-page document about human rights in the areas of sexual orientation and gender identity, published as the outcome of an international meeting of human rights groups in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in November 2006.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The Zimbabwe International Book Fair was held for the first time in 1983 in Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe.
Anti-homosexual activist, Anti-homosexualism, Antihomophobia, Gaycism, Gayphobia, Heteroerotophobia, Heteronegativity, Heterophobe, Heterophobia, Heterophobic, Hetrophobia, Homist, Homoerotophobia, Homonegativism, Homonegativity, Homophobe, Homophobes, Homophobi, Homophobic, Homophobic hate speech, Homophobics, Homosexophobia, Homphobia, Institutional homophobia, Internalised homophobia, Internalized homophobia, Interpersonal homophobia, LBGT Teen Suicide Awareness due to homophobic bullying, Queerphobia, Religious homophobia, Straight supremacism, Transbiphobia.