326 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abil, Ablaq, Aftakin, Al Ghassania Private School, Al-Ahram Weekly, Al-Andalus University for Medical Sciences, Al-Ashraf Musa, Emir of Homs, Al-Baath University, Al-Bayadah, Al-Buwaydah al-Sharqiyah, Al-Dar al-Kabirah, Al-Ghantu, Al-Karamah SC, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Masudi, Al-Mushrifah, Al-Mutawakkil, Al-Naqirah, Al-Qusayr, Syria, Al-Rastan, Al-Rayyan, Syria, Al-Wathba SC, ALA-LC romanization, Alawites, Aleppo, Aleppo International Airport, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Ali, Ancient Greek, Antioch, Antoninus Pius, Apamea, Syria, Aq Sunqur al-Hajib, Arab cuisine, Arabic, Arabs, Arak (drink), Arethusa (see), Armenian Genocide, Armenians in Syria, Ashgate Publishing, Association football, Augustus, Aurelian, Ayyubid dynasty, Ba'ath Party, Baalbek, Baba Amr, ..., Baba ghanoush, Baetylus, Baibars, Banu Kalb, Banu Kilab, Bassel Al-Assad International Airport, Bassel al-Assad Stadium (Homs), Battle of Kadesh, Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, Battle of Yarmouk, Bedouin, Beirut, Belo Horizonte, Beqaa Valley, Bible, Bilad al-Sham, Book of Genesis, Brazil, Brill Publishers, Bronze Age, Byzantine Empire, Central Bureau of Statistics (Syria), Chariot, Christian, Christianity, Church (building), Church of Saint Elian, Citadel of Homs, Citadel of Salah Ed-Din, Cities and towns during the Syrian Civil War, City council, City-state, Client state, Colonia (Roman), Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney, County of Tripoli, Coup d'état, Crusades, Crypt, Damascus, Damascus International Airport, Deir Baalbah, Dinar, Diocese, Districts of Syria, Druze, Eastern Christianity, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Ecclesiastical province, Egypt, Elagabalium, Elagabalus, Elagabalus (deity), Encyclopædia Britannica, Eusebius, Eyalet, Fairouzeh, Falafel, Fatimid Caliphate, Fatteh, Fief, Firas Al-Khatib, First Battle of Homs, First Crusade, First Fitna, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, French people, Gaius Julius Alexio, Golden Age, Governorates of Syria, Great Mosque of al-Nuri (Homs), Great Syrian Revolt, Greek language, Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, Greeks, Greeks in Syria, Green belt, Hafez al-Assad, Hama, Hamath-zobah, Hamdanid dynasty, Harun al-Rashid, Heraclius, Himsi, Hisyah, Hittites, Homs District, Homs Gap, Homs Governorate, Homs Military Academy, Hookah, Hookah lounge, Hud (prophet), Hummus, Iamblichus (phylarch), Ibn Battuta, Ibn Jubayr, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, International School of Choueifat, Iran, Iran Khodro, Iraq, Islam, Israeli Air Force, Istanbul, Italian cuisine, Jableh, Jehad Al-Hussain, Jizya, John the Baptist, Jordan, Julian (emperor), Julius Caesar, Jund Hims, Jund Qinnasrin, Kadesh (Syria), Kafr Aya, Kayseri, Köppen climate classification, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Khalid ibn al-Walid Mosque, Khalid ibn al-Walid Stadium, Khirbet Tin Nur, Kibbeh, Kirkuk, Krak des Chevaliers, Kurds in Syria, Lake Homs, Lake Homs Dam, Latakia, Latin, Lebanon, Levantine cuisine, Liqueur, List of cities in Syria, List of people from Homs, List of Roman civil wars and revolts, Liturgy, Liwan, Maarrat al-Nu'man, Mamluk, Mamluk architecture, Manchester, Mardin, Mark Antony, Marmarita, Marwan II, Maskanah, Homs Governorate, Mediterranean climate, Metres above sea level, Meze, Military academy, Minibus, Mirdasid dynasty, Mohammad Amin Sheikho, Mongol Empire, Mosque, Mosul, Mount Lebanon, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Muhammad Ali dynasty, Muslim, Muslim conquest of the Levant, Muslin, Muwatalli II, Nahiyah, National Evangelical School (Homs, Syria), New Kingdom of Egypt, Nur ad-Din (died 1174), Okra, Olive oil, Orontes River, Ottoman architecture, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Palestine Exploration Fund, Palmyra, Palmyra Airport, Persian Gulf, Play (theatre), Pompey, Qarmatians, Qatna, Qattinah, Qays–Yaman rivalry, Quwatli Street (Homs), Rail transport, Ramesses II, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rashidun army, Rashidun Caliphate, Red wine, Roman Empire, Rough Guides, Royal family of Emesa, Safir Hotels & Resorts, Sahabah, Saint Mary Church of the Holy Belt, Saladin, Sanjak, Saudi Arabia, Second Battle of Homs, Seleucid Empire, Seleucus I Nicator, Seljuq dynasty, Septimius Severus, Severan dynasty, Shawarma, Shia Islam, Shirkuh, Shish kebab, Shish taouk, Shukri al-Quwatli, Sidon, Siege of Emesa, Siege of Homs, Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), Sister city, SOAS, University of London, Sohaemus of Emesa, Souq, State of Damascus, Strabo, Sun, Sunni Islam, Syria, Syriac Orthodox Church, Syrian Army, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Coastal Mountain Range, Syrian Cup, Syrian Desert, Syrian Premier League, Syrian Railways, Syrian Turkmen, Tahini, Talbiseh, Talkalakh, Tanakh, Tartus, Teaching hospital, Teir Maalah, Tell (archaeology), The Independent, The Quarto Group, Timeline of Homs, Timur, Transport hub, Tribes of Arabia, Tripoli Eyalet, Tripoli, Lebanon, Tulunids, Turkey, Turkmens, Tyre, Lebanon, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United States, University of California Press, Wadi International University, Wednesday, World Heritage site, Ya'qubi, Yabroud, Yaqut al-Hamawi, Yazd, Yom Kippur War, Zaidal, Zengid dynasty, Zenobia, Zobah, 2006 AFC Champions League. Expand index (276 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abil (آبل, also spelled Abel or Aabel) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located 10 kilometers south of Homs.
Ablaq (أبلق; particolored; literally 'piebald') is an architectural style involving alternating or fluctuating rows of light and dark stone.
Aftakin (fl. about 975) was a Turkic general in Hamdanid service.
Al Ghassania Orthodox School Arabic: (المدرسة الغسَانيَة الاورثودكسيَة الخاصة) is a private school founded on 1887https://www.zamanalwsl.net/news/46142.html معالم حمص ومشيداتها الأثرية: المدرسة الغسانية..
Al-Ahram Weekly is an English-language weekly broadsheet printed by the Al-Ahram Publishing House in Cairo, Egypt.
Al-Andalus University for Medical Sciences (جامعة الأندلس الخاصة للعلوم الطبية) is a private university based in Qadmus, Syria.
Al-Ashraf Musa (1229–1263), fully Al-Ashraf Musa ibn al-Mansur Ibrahim ibn Shirkuh (الأشرف موسى بن المنصور ابراهيم بن شيركوه), was the last Ayyubid prince (emir) of Homs, a city located in the central region of modern-day Syria.
Al-Baath University (جامعة البعث), founded in 1979, is a public university located in the city of Homs, Syria, 180 km north of Damascus.
Al-Bayadah (البياضة, sometimes spelled Al-Bayada or Bayyada) is a quarter of Homs, the capital of Homs Governorate.
Al-Buwaidah al-Sharqiyah (البويضة الشرقية, also spelled al-Buwaideh al-Sharqiyeh) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located southeast of Homs.
Al-Dar al-Kabirah (Al-Dār al-Kabīrāh, Dar el-Kebir, also spelled Dar al-Kabera) is a town in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, forming a northwestern suburb of Homs.
Al-Ghantoo (الغنطو, also spelled Ganto, Ghāntoo) or al-Ghantu, ALA-LC: al-Ghānṭū: but the original name is spelled: الغُنْثُر/ Al-Ghonthor, which means the land of fountains) is a town in the west of Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located north of Homs. Nearby towns include Talbisa to the northeast and Taldou further to the northwest. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), al-Ghantu had a population of 9,412 in 2004.. Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Homs Governorate. Its inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims, many of whom are Turkmens. Most of its residents work in agriculture, and many farmers specialize in vegetables such as lettuce, cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, peppers and others. Olive groves have increased annually. There are many places of interest in the village including old Ancient Roman bridges and water mills on the al-Assali River which passes through the west side of the village. On 11 June 2012, anti-government fighters from the Free Syrian Army (FSA) attacked the small military airbase situated in al-Ghantu, as part of the ongoing 2011-2012 Syrian uprising against President Bashar al-Assad. The FSA was quickly repelled by a Syrian Army counterattack, but managed to withdraw with hundreds of looted weapons and ammunition. According to FSA officials, they were able to enter the base after being aided by 22 sympathetic soldiers and officers stationed at the base.
Al-Karamah Sports Club (نادي الكرامة الرياضي) is a Syrian football club based in the city of Homs.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.
Al-Mushrifah (المشرفة, also spelled al-Mishirfeh, el-Mishrife or Musharrfeh) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located northeast of Homs, with a population of 14,868 in 2004.
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Mutawakkil ʿAlā ’llāh (المتوكل على الله, "He who relies on God") was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861.
Al-Naqirah (النقيرة, also spelled al-Nuqayrah) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located south of Homs.
Al-Qusayr (القصير) is a city in western Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate.
ar-Rastan (الرستن) is the third largest city in the Homs Governorate, located north of its administrative capital Homs and from Hama.
Al-Rayyan (الريان) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located southeast of Homs.
Al-Wathba Sports Club (نادي الوثبة الرياضي) is a Syrian football club based in Homs, Syria.
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo International Airport (مطار حلب الدولي) is an international airport serving Aleppo, Syria.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
Apamea (Ἀπάμεια, Apameia; آفاميا, Afamia), on the right bank of the Orontes River, was an ancient Greek and Roman city.
Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib (also Qasim ad-Dawla or Aksungur al-Hajib) was the Seljuk governor of Aleppo under Sultan Malik Shah I. He was considered the de facto ruler of most of Syria from 1087.
Arab cuisine (مطبخ عربي) is the cuisine of the Arabs, defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab world, from the Maghreb to the Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arak or araq (عرق, ערק) is a Levantine alcoholic spirit (~40–63% Alc. Vol./~80–126 proof, commonly 50% Alc. Vol./100 proof) in the anise drinks family.
Arethusa (or Aretusa) is a Roman Catholic titular see in the former Roman province of Syria, near Apameia.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenians in Syria are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.
Baba Amr (بابا عمرو/ALA-LC: Bâba ʿAmr) is a city district (hayy) in southwestern Homs in central Syria.
Baba ghanoush (bābā ghannūj, also appears as baba ganoush or baba ghanouj) is a Levantine or Syrian dish of mashed, cooked eggplant that is mixed with tahina (made from sesame seeds), olive oil, and various seasonings.
Baetylus (also Baetyl, Bethel, or Betyl, from Semitic bet el "house of god") is a word denoting sacred stones that were supposedly endowed with life.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
The Banu Kalb or Kalb ibn Wabara was an Arab tribe.
Banu Kilab (/ALA-LC: Banū Kilāb) was an Arab tribe that dominated central Arabia during the late pre-Islamic era.
Bassel al-Assad International Airport (مطار باسل الأسد الدولي) is an airport serving Latakia, the principal port city of Syria.
Bassel al-Assad Stadium is a multi-use stadium located in the Baba Amr district in the city of Homs, Syria.
The Battle of Kadesh or Battle of Qadesh took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, just upstream of Lake Homs near the modern Syrian-Lebanese border.
The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, also known as the Third Battle of Homs, was a Mongol victory over the Mamluks in 1299.
The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Belo Horizonte ("Beautiful Horizon") is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth-largest in South America and the eighteenth-largest in the Americas.
The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bilad al-Sham (بِـلَاد الـشَّـام Bilād a'š-Šām) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) (المكتب المركزي للإحصاء) is the statistical agency responsible for the gathering of "information relating to economic, social and general activities and conditions" in the Syrian Arab Republic.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
The Church of Saint Elian (كنيسة مار اليان, Kaneesat Mar Elian) is a church in Homs, Syria, located along Tarafa bin al-Abd Street near the Gate of Palmyra.
Homs Castle (قلعة حمص) is located in Homs, Syria.
The Citadel of Salah Ed-Din (قلعة صلاح الدين, Qal'at Salah al-Din), also known as Sahyun or Saladin Castle, is a medieval castle in northwestern Syria.
Syria is subdivided in a hierarchical manner into.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it.
Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney (3 February 175725 April 1820) was a French philosopher, abolitionist, historian, orientalist, and politician.
The County of Tripoli (1109–1289) was the last of the Crusader states.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
A crypt (from Latin crypta "vault") is a stone chamber beneath the floor of a church or other building.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Damascus International Airport (مطار دمشق الدولي) is the international airport of Damascus, the capital of Syria.
Deir Ba'albah (دير بعلبة, also spelled Dayr Baalbeh) is the north-easternmost neighborhood of the city of Homs in central Syria.
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The 14 governorates of Syria, or muhafazat (sing. muhafazah), are divided into 65 districts, or manatiq (sing. mintaqah), including the city of Damascus.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
An ecclesiastical province is one of the basic forms of jurisdiction in Christian Churches with traditional hierarchical structure, including Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Elagabalium was a temple built by the Roman emperor Elagabalus, located on the north-east corner of the Palatine Hill.
Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 203 – 11 March 222), was Roman emperor from 218 to 222.
Elagabalus, Aelagabalus, or Heliogabalus is a Syro-Roman sun god.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.
Fairouzeh (Arabic: فيروزه) is a village 3 miles southeast of the city of Homs in Syria.
Falafel or felafelOxford University Press,, Oxford Dictionaries Online, Retrieved 2017-06-26.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Fatteh (فتّة meaning crushed or crumbs, also romanized as fette, fetté, fatta or fattah)Patai, 1998, p. 98.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Firas Mohamad Al Khatib (فراس محمد الخطيب; born 9 June 1983 in Homs, Syria) is a Syrian footballer who predominantly plays as a forward.
The first Battle of Homs was fought on December 10, 1260, between the Ilkhanates of Persia and the forces of Egypt, in Syria. After the historic Mamluk victory over the Ilkhanates at the Battle of Ain Jalut in September 1260, Hulagu Khan of the Ilkhanate had the Ayyubid Sultan of Damascus and other Ayyubid princes executed in revenge, thus effectively ending the dynasty in Syria. However, the defeat at Ain Jalut forced the Ilkhanate armies out of Syria and the Levant. The main cities of Syria, Aleppo and Damascus were thus left open to Mamluk occupation. But Homs and Hama remained in the possession of minor Ayyubid princes. These princes, rather than the Mamluks of Cairo themselves, actually fought and won the First Battle of Homs. Due to the open war between Hulagu and his cousin Berke of the Golden Horde during the civil war of the Mongol Empire, the Ilkhanate could only afford to send 6,000 troops back into Syria to retake control of the lands. This expedition was initiated by Ilkhanate generals such as Baidu who was forced to leave Gaza when the Mamluks advanced just before the battle of Ain Jalut. After quickly recapturing Aleppo, the force travelled southwards to Homs, but were decisively defeated. This ended the first campaign into Syria by the Ilkhanate, though there were several later incursions, none of which ended with conquests lasting more than a year.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
The First Fitna (فتنة مقتل عثمان fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Gaius Julius Alexio also known as Alexio II (Γάϊος Ἰούλιος Άλεξιὣνος., flourished 1st century) was a Syrian Prince and Roman Client Priest King of Emesa.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
Syria is a unitary state, but for administrative purposes, it is divided into fourteen governorates, also called provinces in English (Arabic muḥāfaẓāt, singular muḥāfaẓah).
The Great Mosque of al-Nuri (جامع النوري الكبير) also called al-Nouri Mosque, is a mosque in Homs, Syria.
The Great Syrian Revolt (الثورة السورية الكبرى) or Great Druze Revolt (1925–1927) was a general uprising across Mandatory Syria and Lebanon aimed at getting rid of the French, who had been in control of the region since the end of World War I.Miller, 1977, p. 547.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Greek presence in Syria began in the 7th century BC and became more prominent during the Hellenistic period and when the Seleucid Empire was centered there.
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Hamath-zobah was a place in ancient Aramea, related to the Aramean state of Zobah which extended from the Beqaa Valley along the eastern side of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains reaching Hamath to the north and Damascus to the south.
The Hamdanid dynasty (حمدانيون Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004).
Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional The Book of One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam (Musa ibn Ja'far).
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Himsi or Homsi is an Arabic locational surname, which means a person from Homs, Syria.
Hisyah (حسياء, also spelled Hasya, Hasiyah, Hesa or Hessia) is a town in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located about 35 kilometers south of Homs.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Homs District (manṭiqat Ḥimṣ) is a district of the Homs Governorate in central Syria.
The Homs Gap (فتحة حمص) (also called the Akkar Gap) is a relatively flat passage in the Orontes River Valley of southern Syria.
Homs Governorate (مُحافظة حمص / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥimṣ) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Homs Military Academy is a military educational and training institution located in Homs, Syria.
A hookah (from Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA:; also see other names), also known as the ḡalyān (Persian: قلیان), is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes cannabis or opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
A hookah lounge (also called a shisha bar or den, especially in Britain and parts of Canada, or a hookah bar) is an establishment where patrons share shisha from a communal hookah or which is placed at each table or a bar.
Hud (هود) was a prophet of ancient Arabia mentioned in the Qur’an.
Hummus (or; حُمُّص, full Arabic name: hummus bi tahini حمص بالطحينة) is a Levantine dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic.
Iamblichus I (flourished 1st century BC, died 31 BC) was one of the phylarchs, or petty princes of the Arab tribe of the Emesenes in Emesa (now Homs, Syria).
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Ibn Jubayr (1 September 1145 –29 November 1217; ابن جبير), also written Ibn Jubair, Ibn Jobair, and Ibn Djubayr, was an Arab geographer, traveller and poet from al-Andalus.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The International School of Choueifat (ISC) is a collection of international private schools run by the SABIS school system in various countries of the Middle East.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iran Khodro (ایرانخودرو), branded as IKCO, is an Iranian multinational automaker headquartered in Tehran. The company's original name was Iran National (ایران ناسیونال). IKCO was founded in 1962 and it produced 688,000 passenger cars in 2009. IKCO manufactures vehicles, including Samand, Peugeot and Renault cars, and trucks, minibuses and buses.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italian cuisine is food typical from Italy.
Jableh (جبلة;, also spelt Jebleh, Jabala, Jablah, Gabala or Gibellum) is a coastal city on the Mediterranean in Syria, north of Baniyas and south of Latakia, with c. 80,000 inhabitants (2008).
Jehad Al Hussain (جهاد الحسين, born July 30, 1982 in Homs, Syria) is a Syrian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Al-Taawon FC, which competes in the Saudi Professional League, wearing the number 10 jersey.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Jund ḤimṣAlthough the modern district and the city are known in English as "Homs", the military districts of the Caliphate are known by their transliterated names.
Jund Qinnasrīn (جُـنْـد قِـنَّـسْـرِيْـن, "military district of Qinnasrin") was one of five sub-provinces of Syria under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate, organized soon after the Muslim conquest of Syria in the 7th century CE.
Kadesh (also Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on or near the headwaters or a ford of the Orontes River.
Kafr 'Aya (كفر عايا, also spelled Kfar Aaya or Kafr Aia) is a village in the Homs Governorate in central Syria, just south of Homs.
Kayseri is a large and industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎; 585–642), also known as Sayf ullah al-Maslūl (سيف الله المسلول; Drawn Sword of God) was a companion of Muhammad.
The Khalid ibn al-Walid Mosque (مسجد خالد ابن الوليد) is a mosque in Homs, Syria, located in a park along Hama Street in ash-Shuhada Square.
Khalid ibn al-Walid Stadium is a multi-use stadium located in the Syrian city of Homs.
Khirbet Tin Nur (خربة تين نور, also spelled Khirbat at-Teen Nour) is a town in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, west of Homs.
Kibbeh (كبة.), (also spelled and pronounced kibbe, kebbah, kubbeh, kubbah or kubbi depending on region, and known in Egypt as kobeiba and in Turkey as içli köfte) is a Levantine dish made of bulgur, minced onions, and finely ground lean beef, lamb, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, allspice).
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
Krak des Chevaliers (حصن الفرسان), also Crac des Chevaliers, Ḥoṣn al-Akrād (rtl, literally "Castle of the Kurds"), formerly Crac de l'Ospital is a Crusader castle in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval castles in the world.
Kurds in Syria refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin.
Lake Homs (بحيرة حمص) (also called Lake Qattinah, بحيرة قطينة) is a lake near Homs, Syria, fed by the Orontes River.
The Lake Homs Dam, also known as Quatinah Barrage, is a Roman-built dam near the city of Homs, Syria, which is in use to this day.
Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Levant, known in Arabic as the Bilad ash-Sham and Mashriq, which covers a large area of the Eastern Mediterranean.
A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that has been flavored with either fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts, and is bottled with added sugars and other sweeteners (such as high-fructose corn syrup).
The country of Syria is administratively subdivided into 14 governorates, which are sub-divided into 65 districts, which are further divided into 284 sub-districts.
The following is a list of notable people from Homs and ancient Emesa.
This is a list of civil wars and organized civil unrest in ancient Rome (753 BC – AD 476).
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Liwan (ليوان, from Persian eyvān) is a word used since ancient times into the present to refer to a long narrow-fronted hall or vaulted portal found in Levantine homes that is often open to the outside.
Maarat al-Numaan (مَعَرَّة النُّعْمَان, Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān), also known as al-Maʿarra, is a city in northwestern Syria, south of Idlib and north of Hama, with a population of about 58,008 before the Civil War (2004 census).
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Mamluk architecture was a flowering of Islamic art during the reign of the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517), which is most visible in medieval Cairo.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Marmarita (مرمريتا, ܡܪܡܪܝܬܐ) is a village in northwestern Syria, located west of Homs.
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (691 – 6 August 750; Arabic: مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم / ALA-LC: Marwān bin Muḥammad bin Marwān bin al-Ḥakam) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed.
Maskanah (مسكنة) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located just south of Homs.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Meze or mezze (also spelled mazzeh or mazze; maze; meze; məzə; mezés; мезe / meze; мезе; мезе; muqabbilāt; Meze; мезе) is a selection of small dishes served to accompany alcoholic drinks in the Near East, the Balkans, and parts of Central Asia.
A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus.
The Mirdasid dynasty was an Arab dynasty that controlled the Emirate of Aleppo more or less continuously from 1024 until 1080.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Muslin, also mousseline, is a cotton fabric of plain weave.
Muwatalli II (also Muwatallis, or Muwatallish) was a king of the New Kingdom of the Hittite empire (c. 1295–1272 BC (short chronology)).
A nāḥiyah (ناحية, plural nawāḥī نواحي), or nahia, is a regional or local type of administrative division that usually consists of a number of villages and/or sometimes smaller towns.
The National Evangelical School is a private school located in Homs, Syria.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
Nūr ad-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿImād ad-Dīn Zengī (February 1118 – 15 May 1174), often shortened to his laqab Nur ad-Din (نور الدين, "Light of the Faith"), was a member of the Oghuz Turkish Zengid dynasty which ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire.
Okra or okro, known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
The Orontes (Ὀρόντης) or Asi (العاصي, ‘Āṣī; Asi) is a northward-flowing river which begins in Lebanon and flows through Syria and Turkey before entering the Mediterranean Sea.
Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
Palmyra Airport (مطار تدمر) is an airport serving Tadmur (ancient Palmyra), a city in Syria.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.
Qatna (modern: تل المشرفة, Tell al-Mishrifeh) is an ancient city located in Homs Governorate, Syria.
Qattinah (قطينة, also spelled Kattineh) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located south of Homs.
The Qays–Yaman rivalry refers to the historical rivalry and blood feud between the factions of the Qays (who were Adnanites or northern Arabians) and Yaman (who were Qahtanites or southern Arabians) in the Arab world.
Shoukri al-Quwatly Street or simply Quwatly Street (شارع القوتلي) is the main street of central Homs, Syria.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rough Guides Ltd is a British travel guidebook and reference publisher, since November 2017 owned by APA Publications.
The Emesani dynasty or the Sempsigerami of Emesa, sometimes known as the Sampsiceramids (Arabic: آل شميس غرام) were a ruling Roman client dynasty of priest-kings in Emesa, Syria Province (modern Homs, Syria).
Safir Hotels & Resorts (also known as Safir International Hotels Management) is a Kuwaiti-owned luxury hotel chain in the Arabic world.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Saint Mary Church of the Holy Belt is a historical Syriac Orthodox Church in Homs, Syria.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Second Battle of Homs was fought in western Syria on 29 October 1281, between the armies of the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt and the Ilkhanate, a division of the Mongol Empire centered on Iran. The battle was part of Abaqa Khan's attempt at taking Syria from the Mamluks. After the Mamluk victories over Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and Albistan in 1277, the Il-khan Abaqa sent his brother Möngke Temur at the head of a large army which numbered about 40-50,000 men, chiefly Armenians under Leo II and Georgians under Demetrius II. The two armies met south of Homs, a city in western Syria. In a pitched battle, the Armenians, Georgians and Oirats under King Leo II and Mongol generals routed and scattered the Mamluk left flank, but the Mamluks personally led by Sultan Qalawun destroyed the Mongol centre. Möngke Temur was wounded and fled, followed by his disorganized army. However, Qalawun chose to not pursue the defeated enemy, and the Armenian-Georgian auxiliaries of the Mongols managed to withdraw safely. The following year, Abaqa died and his successor, Tekuder, reversed his policy towards the Mamluks. He converted to Islam and forged an alliance with the Mamluk sultan.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.
Shawarma (شاورما), also spelled shawurma or shawerma, is a Levantine meat preparation, where thin cuts of lamb, chicken, turkey, beef, veal, or mixed meats are stacked in a cone-like shape on a vertical rotisserie.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Asad ad-Dīn Shīrkūh bin Shādhī (in أسد الدين شيركوه بن شاذي), also known as Shirkuh, Shêrkoh, or Shêrko (meaning "lion of the mountains" in Kurdish) (died 22 February 1169) was a Kurdish military commander, and uncle of Saladin.
Shish kebab (Armenian: խորոված; şiş kebap; Persian/Mazandarani: شیش کباب, shish kebab) is a popular meal of skewered and grilled cubes of meat.
Shish taouk (or tavuk şiş) is a traditional marinated chicken shish kebab of Middle Eastern cuisine.
Shukri al-Quwatli (6 May 189130 June 1967; شكري القوتلي, Şükrü el Kuvvetli) was the first president of post-independence Syria.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
The Siege of Emesa was laid by the forces of Rashidun Caliphate from December 635 up until March 636.
The Siege of Homs was a military confrontation between the Syrian military and the Syrian opposition in the city of Homs as a part of the Syrian Civil War.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
SOAS University of London (the School of Oriental and African Studies), is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Gaius Julius Sohaemus Philocaesar Philorhomaeus, also known as Sohaemus of Emesa and Sohaemus of Sophene (Γαίος Ιούλιος Σόαιμος Φιλόκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος., Sohaemus is Arabic for little dagger, Philocaesar Philoromaios, means in Greek lover of Caesar, lover of Rome) was a prince and a Roman Client Priest King from Syria who lived in the 1st century.
A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).
The State of Damascus (1920–1924; État de Damas; دولة دمشق) was one of the six states established by the French General Henri Gouraud in the French Mandate of Syria which followed the San Remo conference and the defeat of King Faisal's short-lived monarchy in Syria.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Coastal Mountain Range (سلسلة الجبال الساحلية Silsilat al-Jibāl as-Sāḥilīyah) is a mountain range in northwestern Syria running north-south, parallel to the coastal plain.
The Syrian Cup is Syria's premier knockout tournament in men's football.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
The Syrian Premier League (الدوري السوري الممتاز) is the highest division in football in Syria.
General Establishment of Syrian Railways (المؤسسة العامة للخطوط الحديدية, Chemins de fer syriens, CFS) is the national railway operator for the state of Syria, subordinate to the Ministry of Transportation.
Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) (تركمان سوريا, Suriye Türkmenleri or Suriye Türkleri), are Syrian citizens of mainly Turkish origin whose families had migrated to Syria from Anatolia during the centuries of Ottoman rule (1516-1918).
Tahini (also tahina; طحينة), also known as Ardeh (Persian: ارده), is a condiment made from toasted ground hulled sesame seeds.
Talbiseh (Telbise, تلبيسة, also spelled Talbisa, Tell Bisa, Talbeesa) is a large town in northwestern Syria administratively part of the Homs Governorate, about 10 kilometers north of Homs.
Talkalakh or Tel Kalah (تلكلخ) is a city in western Syria administratively belonging to the Homs Governorate as the capital of the Talkalakh District just north of the border with Lebanon and west of Homs.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tartus (طرطوس / ALA-LC: Ṭarṭūs; also transliterated Tartous) is a city on the Mediterranean coast of Syria.
A teaching hospital is a hospital or medical center that provides medical education and training to future and current health professionals.
Teir Maalah (تير معلة, also spelled Teir Maela or Ter Maala or Ter Maaleh) is a town in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, just north of Homs.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Quarto Group is a global illustrated book publishing group founded in 1976.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Homs, Syria.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
A transport hub (also transport interchange) is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes.
The tribes of Arabia are the clans that originated in the Arabian Peninsula.
Tripoli Eyalet (Eyālet-i Ṭrāblus-ı Şām; طرابلس الشام) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.
Tripoli (طرابلس / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus; Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos; Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country.
The Tulunids, were a dynasty of Turkic origin and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Wadi International University (جامعة الوادي الدولية الخاصة), commonly referred to as the German Syrian University, is a private, internationally oriented university, located in Wadi al-Nasara in Syria.
Wednesday is the day of the week between Tuesday and Thursday.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi (اليعقوبي), was a Muslim geographer and perhaps the first historian of world culture in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Yabroud or Yabrud (يبرود) is a city in Syria, located in the Rif Dimashq (i.e. Damascus' countryside) governorate about north of the capital Damascus.
Yāqūt ibn-'Abdullah al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) (ياقوت الحموي الرومي) was an Arab biographer and geographer of Greek origin, renowned for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world.
Yazd (یزد), formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Zaidal (زيدل, also spelled Zaydal) is a town in the Homs Governorate of central Syria, just east of Homs, forming a part of its suburbs.
The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.
Septimia Zenobia (Palmyrene: (Btzby), pronounced Bat-Zabbai; 240 – c. 274 AD) was a third-century queen of the Syria-based Palmyrene Empire.
Zobah or Aram-Zobah (Hebrew צובה or ארם צובא) was an early Aramean state which extended from the Beqaa Valley along the eastern side of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains reaching Hamath to the north and Damascus to the south, at one time of considerable importance.
The 2006 AFC Champions League was the 25th edition of the top-level Asian club football tournament and the 4th edition under the current AFC Champions League title.