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Hongwu Emperor

Index Hongwu Emperor

The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty. [1]

153 relations: Allah, Anhui, Artillery, Ashikaga shogunate, Banknote, Battle of Lake Poyang, Bayads, Beidi, Beijing, Beijing Media Network, Buddhism, Byzantine Empire, Cash (Chinese coin), Chang Yuchun, Chen Baoguo, Chen Youliang, China, Chinese classics, Chinese emperors family tree (late), Chinese era name, Chinese given name, Chinese literature, Chinese name, Chinese New Year, Chinese philosophy, Chuanqi Huangdi Zhu Yuanzhang, Collective punishment, Concubinage, Confucianism, Courtesy name, Ding Dexing, Dongyi, Emperor of China, Emperor Xiaozong of Song, Empress Ma (Hongwu), Equestrianism, Eunuch, Eurasian Steppe, Feng Sheng (general), Feng Xiaoning, Fengyang County, Flaying, Fordham University, Founding Emperor of Ming Dynasty, Frederick W. Mote, Fujian, Grand Canal (China), Grand chancellor (China), Grand Secretariat, Guangdong, ..., Guangzhou, Gunpowder, Guozijian, Haijin, Han Chinese, Hangzhou, Harvard University Press, History of Ming, History of the Ming dynasty, House of Zhu, Hu Dahai, Hu Jun, Hu Weiyong, Huai River, Huang-Ming Zuxun, Hui people, Huihui Lifa, Hunan, Huolongjing, Imperial examination, Jiangsu, Jianwen Emperor, Jiao Yu, Jin Yong, Jinjue Mosque, John of Montecorvino, John V Palaiologos, Köke Temür, Khanbaliq, King of Wu, Lan Yu (general), Largest naval battle in history, Lingchi, List of emperors of the Ming dynasty, Liu Bowen, Love Through Different Times, Mandate of Heaven, Matteo Ricci, Mediterranean Sea, Millenarianism, Ming dynasty, Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Monastery, Mongolia, Mongols, Mu Ying, Muhammad, Nanjing, National Palace Museum, Neo-Confucianism, Northern Yuan dynasty, Pierre Ryckmans (writer), Pope John XXII, Psychopathy, Purge, Purple Mountain, Qing dynasty, Qinhuai District, Rags to riches, Ray Huang, Red Turban Rebellion, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Beijing, Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor, Scholar-official, Shandong, Shanhaiguan District, Simon Yam, Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming dynasty, Song dynasty, Springer Science+Business Media, Stanford University Press, Styphnolobium japonicum, Sui dynasty, Suzhou, Taiwan Television, Tang dynasty, Tang Guoqiang, Tenant farmer, The Confusions of Pleasure, The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber, The Hundred-word Eulogy, The New York Review of Books, Three Departments and Six Ministries, Toghon Temür, TVB, University of California Press, Wade–Giles, White Lotus, Wokou, Wuxia, Xirong, Yangtze, Yangtze River Delta, Yongle Emperor, Yuan dynasty, Yunnan, Zhang Shicheng, Zhou (Zhang Shicheng's kingdom), Zhu (surname), Zhu Biao, Zhu Quan, Zij, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (103 more) »


Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.

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Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.

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Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Ashikaga shogunate

The, also known as the,Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric.

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A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Battle of Lake Poyang

The battle of Lake Poyang (鄱陽湖之戰) was a naval conflict which took place 30 August – 4 October 1363 between the rebel forces of Zhu Yuanzhang and Chen Youliang during the Red Turban Rebellion which led to the fall of the Yuan dynasty.

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The Bayad (Mongol: Баяд/Bayad, lit. "the Riches") is the third largest subgroup of the Mongols in Mongolia and they are a tribe in Four Oirats.

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The Beidi, Northern Di, or Northern Barbarians were various ethnic groups who lived north of the Chinese (Huaxia) realms during the Zhou dynasty.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Beijing Media Network

Beijing Media Network (BMN) is a government-owned television network in the People's Republic of China.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cash (Chinese coin)

Cash was a type of coin of China and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD.

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Chang Yuchun

Chang Yuchun (1330–1369), courtesy name Boren and art name Yanheng, was a Chinese military general of the Ming dynasty.

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Chen Baoguo

Chen Baoguo (born 9 March 1956) is an award winning Chinese actor.

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Chen Youliang

Chen Youliang (1320 – August 23, 1363) was the founder of the insurgent state of Da Han (大漢; literally: "Great Han") in the late Yuan Dynasty period of Chinese history.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese classics

Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".

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Chinese emperors family tree (late)

This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the Mongol conquest of 1279 to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

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Chinese era name

A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.

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Chinese given name

Chinese given names are the given names adopted by native speakers of the Chinese language, both in majority-Sinophone countries and among the Chinese diaspora.

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Chinese literature

The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.

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Chinese name

Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas.

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Chinese New Year

Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar.

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Chinese philosophy

Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.

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Chuanqi Huangdi Zhu Yuanzhang

Chuanqi Huangdi Zhu Yuanzhang is a Chinese television series based on the life of Zhu Yuanzhang, the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty.

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Collective punishment

Collective punishment is a form of retaliation whereby a suspected perpetrator's family members, friends, acquaintances, sect, neighbors or entire ethnic group is targeted.

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Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.

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Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Courtesy name

A courtesy name (zi), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.

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Ding Dexing

Ding Dexing was a Chinese general of the Ming dynasty in service of the Hongwu Emperor.

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The Dongyi or Eastern Yi was a collective term, referring to ancient peoples who lived in eastern China during the prehistory of ancient China and in lands located in the Shandong peninsula and some other eastern parts of ancient China.

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Emperor of China

The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.

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Emperor Xiaozong of Song

Emperor Xiaozong of Song (27 November 1127 – 28 June 1194), personal name Zhao Shen, courtesy name Yuanyong, was the 11th emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the second emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.

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Empress Ma (Hongwu)

Empress Ma, formally Empress Xiaocigao (1332–1382) was a Chinese Empress Consort of the Ming Dynasty, married to the Hongwu Emperor and acting as his political adviser and secretary, exerting a large amount of influence during his reign.

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Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.

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The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.

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Eurasian Steppe

The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.

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Feng Sheng (general)

Feng Sheng, was a Chinese general of the Ming dynasty and the Hongwu Emperor.

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Feng Xiaoning

Feng Xiaoning (born 1954) is a Chinese film director, screenwriter and cinematographer.

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Fengyang County

Fengyang County is a county in north-central Anhui Province, China.

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Flaying, also known colloquially as skinning, is a method of slow and painful execution in which skin is removed from the body.

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Fordham University

Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.

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Founding Emperor of Ming Dynasty

Founding Emperor of Ming Dynasty is a Chinese television series based on the life of Zhu Yuanzhang, the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty.

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Frederick W. Mote

Frederick Wade "Fritz" Mote (June 2, 1922 – February 10, 2005), was an American Sinologist and a professor of History at Princeton University for nearly 50 years.

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Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

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Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.

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Grand chancellor (China)

The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government.

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Grand Secretariat

The Grand Secretariat was nominally a coordinating agency but de facto the highest institution in the imperial government of the Chinese Ming dynasty.

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Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.

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Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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The Guozijian,Yuan, 194.

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The Haijin or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trading and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty and some of the Qing.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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History of Ming

The History of Ming or the Ming History (Míng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories.

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History of the Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty (January 23, 1368 – April 25, 1644), officially the Great Ming or Empire of the Great Ming, founded by the peasant rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang, known as the Hongwu Emperor, was an imperial dynasty of China.

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House of Zhu

House of Zhu, also known as House of Chu, was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China.

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Hu Dahai

Hu Dahai (died 1362), courtesy name Tongfu (通甫), was a Chinese military general who lived in the 14th century.

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Hu Jun

Hu Jun (born March 18, 1968) is a Chinese actor best known for playing dramatic roles in various films and television series.

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Hu Weiyong

Hu Weiyong (? - 1380) was the first chancellor of the Ming dynasty, from 1373 to 1380.

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Huai River

The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.

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Huang-Ming Zuxun

The Huáng-Míng Zǔxùn (Instructions of the Ancestor of the August Ming) were admonitions left by the Hongwu Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Chinese Ming dynasty, to his descendants.

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Hui people

The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.

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Huihui Lifa

The Huihui Lifa (Traditional Chinese: 回回歷法; Simplified Chinese: 回回历法; pinyin: Huíhuí Lìfǎ) was a set of astronomical tables published throughout China from the time of the Ming Dynasty in the late 14th century through the early 18th century.

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Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.

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The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).

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Imperial examination

The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.

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Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

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Jianwen Emperor

The Jianwen Emperor (5 December 1377 – 13 July 1402?) was the second emperor of the Ming dynasty in China.

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Jiao Yu

Jiao Yu was a Chinese military officer, philosopher, and writer of the Ming dynasty under Zhu Yuanzhang, who founded the dynasty and became known as the Hongwu Emperor.

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Jin Yong

Louis Cha Leung-yung, (born 6 February 1924), better known by his pen name Jin Yong, is a Chinese wuxia ("martial arts and chivalry") novelist and essayist who co-founded the Hong Kong daily newspaper Ming Pao in 1959 and served as its first editor-in-chief.

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Jinjue Mosque

The Jinjue Mosque is a mosque in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

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John of Montecorvino

John of Montecorvino or Giovanni da Montecorvino in Italian (1247–1328) was an Italian Franciscan missionary, traveller and statesman, founder of the earliest Roman Catholic missions in India and China, and archbishop of Peking.

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John V Palaiologos

John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos; 18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at age of eight.

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Köke Temür

Köke Temür (died 1375), also known as Wang Baobao, was a Bayad general of the Yuan dynasty.

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Khanbaliq or Dadu was the capital of the Yuan dynasty, the main center of the Mongol Empire founded by Kublai Khan in what is now Beijing, also the capital of China today.

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King of Wu

King or Prince of Wu was an ancient and medieval Chinese title referring to ruler of the area originally controlled by the Gou Wu tribes around Wuxi on the lower Yangtze, generally known as the Wu region.

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Lan Yu (general)

Lan Yu (died 1393) was a Chinese general who contributed to the founding of the Ming Dynasty.

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Largest naval battle in history

The title of "largest naval battle in history" is disputed between adherents of different criteria which include the numbers of personnel and/or vessels involved in the battle, and the total tonnage of the vessels involved.

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Lingchi, translated variously as the slow process, the lingering death, or slow slicing, and also known as death by a thousand cuts, was a form of torture and execution used in China from roughly 900 CE until it was banned in 1905.

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List of emperors of the Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, succeeding the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty and falling amidst much peasant turmoil to the Manchu-ruled Qing dynasty.

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Liu Bowen

Liu Ji (July 1, 1311 — May 16, 1375),Jiang, Yonglin.

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Love Through Different Times

Love Through Different Times, also known as Funniest Stories of the Ming's Royalists, is a 2002 Chinese television comedy-drama.

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Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.

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Matteo Ricci

Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum

The Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum is the tomb of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty.

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A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Mu Ying

Mu Ying (1345-1392) was a general during the Ming Dynasty, and an adopted son of its founder, the Hongwu Emperor (aka Zhu Yuanzhang).

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.

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National Palace Museum

The National Palace Museum, located in Taipei and Taibao, Taiwan, has a permanent collection of nearly 700,000 pieces of ancient Chinese imperial artifacts and artworks, making it one of the largest of its type in the world.

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Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.

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Northern Yuan dynasty

The Northern Yuan dynasty, was a Mongol régime based in the Mongolian homeland.

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Pierre Ryckmans (writer)

Pierre Ryckmans (28 September 1935 – 11 August 2014), who also used the pen-name Simon Leys, was a Roman Catholic Belgian-Australian writer, essayist and literary critic, translator, art historian, sinologist, and university professor.

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Pope John XXII

Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.

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Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally defined as a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.

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In history, religion and political science, a purge is a removal of people who are considered undesirable by those in power from a government, another organization, their team owners, or society as a whole.

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Purple Mountain

Purple Mountain or Zijin Shan (Chinese: 紫金山, Zĭjīnshān, lit. "Purple-Gold Mountain") is located on the eastern side of Nanjing in Jiangsu province, China.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qinhuai District

Qinhuai District is one of 11 districts of Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province, China.

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Rags to riches

Rags to riches refers to any situation in which a person rises from poverty to wealth, and in some cases from absolute obscurity to heights of fame—sometimes instantly.

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Ray Huang

Ray Huang (25 June 19188 January 2000) was a Chinese historian and philosopher.

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Red Turban Rebellion

The Red Turban Rebellion was an uprising influenced by the White Lotus Society members that, between 1351 and 1368, targeted the ruling Mongol Yuan dynasty, eventually leading to the overthrowing of Mongol rule in China.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Beijing

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Beijing (Archidioecesis Pechimensis) is a Metropolitan Latin archdiocese in PR China.

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Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor

In 1670, when the Kangxi Emperor was sixteen years old, he issued the Sacred Edict 聖諭 (Sheng Yu), consisting of sixteen maxims, each seven characters long, to instruct the average citizen in the basic principles of Confucian orthodoxy.

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Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.

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Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

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Shanhaiguan District

Shanhaiguan District, formerly Shan-hai-kwan or Shan-hai-kuan, is a district of the city of Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, China, named after the pass of the Great Wall within the district, Shanhai Pass.

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Simon Yam

Simon Yam Tat-wah (born 19 March 1955) is a Hong Kong actor and film producer.

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Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming dynasty

The exact nature of relations between Tibet and the Ming dynasty of China (1368–1644) is unclear.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Styphnolobium japonicum

Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott, the Japanese pagoda tree (Chinese scholar tree, pagoda tree; syn. Sophora japonica) is a species of tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae.

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Sui dynasty

The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.

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Suzhou (Wu Chinese), formerly romanized as Soochow, is a major city located in southeastern Jiangsu Province of East China, about northwest of Shanghai.

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Taiwan Television

Taiwan Television Enterprise, Ltd., commonly known as TTV and formerly known as Central Television and Voice of Taiwan, is the first television broadcast station in Taiwan.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tang Guoqiang

Tang Guoqiang (born 4 May 1952) is a Chinese actor best known for portraying historical figures in several films and television series.

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Tenant farmer

A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord.

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The Confusions of Pleasure

The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China is an influential Passim, but states that the book is "now-influential": "...

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The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber

The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber, also translated as The Sword and the Knife, is a wuxia novel by Jin Yong (Louis Cha).

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The Hundred-word Eulogy

The Hundred-word Eulogy (百字讃 bǎizìzàn) is a 100-character praise of Islam and the Islamic prophet Muhammad written by the Hongwu Emperor of China (r. 1368-1398).

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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Three Departments and Six Ministries

The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the main central government structure in imperial China from the Sui dynasty (581–618) to the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368).

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Toghon Temür

Toghon Temür (Тогоонтөмөр, Togoontömör; 25 May 1320 – 23 May 1370), also known by the temple name Emperor Huizong bestowed by the Northern Yuan dynasty in Mongolia and by the posthumous name Shundi bestowed by the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty China, was a son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala who ruled as emperor of the Yuan dynasty.

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Television Broadcasts Limited, commonly known as TVB, was the first wireless commercial television station in Hong Kong and commenced broadcasting on 19 November 1967.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.

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White Lotus

The White Lotus was a religious and political movement that appealed to many Han Chinese who found solace in worship of Wusheng Laomu ("Unborn Venerable Mother"), who was to gather all her children at the millennium into one family.

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Wokou (Japanese: Wakō; Korean: 왜구 Waegu), which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea.

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Wuxia (武俠, IPA), which literally means "martial heroes", is a genre of Chinese fiction concerning the adventures of martial artists in ancient China.

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Xirong or Rong were various people who lived primarily in and around the extremities of ancient China known as early as the Shang dynasty (1765–1122 BCE).

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The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yangtze River Delta

The Yangtze River Delta or YRD is a triangle-shaped metropolitan region generally comprising the Wu Chinese-speaking areas of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province.

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Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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Zhang Shicheng

Zhang Shicheng (1321-1367)was one of the leaders of the Red Turban Rebellion in the late Yuan dynasty of China.

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Zhou (Zhang Shicheng's kingdom)

Kingdom of Great or Greater Zhou (Chinese: 大周, pinyin: Dà Zhōu; 1354–1367), was a state established in 1354 by Zhang Shicheng, one of the leaders of the Red Turban Rebellion.

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Zhu (surname)

Zhu is the pinyin romanization of four Chinese surnames: 朱, 祝, 竺, and 諸. It is alternatively spelled Chu in the Wade-Giles romanization system (primarily used in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), and Choo (predominantly adopted in Singapore and Malaysia).

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Zhu Biao

Zhu Biao (Chinese: t 標, s 标, p Zhū Biāo; 10 October 1355 17 May 1392) was the Hongwu Emperor's first son and crown prince of the Ming Empire.

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Zhu Quan

Zhu Quan (Chinese: t 權, s 权, p Zhū Quán; 27 May 1378 – 12 October 1448), Prince of Ning (t 寧王, s 宁王, Nìngwáng) was the 17th son of Ming Hongwu Emperor.

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A zīj (زيج) is an Islamic astronomical book that tabulates parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets.

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Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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Redirects here:

Chu Yuan-chang, Chu Yuean-chang, Chu Yüan-chang, Emperor Hongwu, Emperor Taizu of Ming, Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, Empress Chun, Hong Wu, Hongwu, Hongwu Emperor of China, Hongwu Era, Hongwu emperor, Hongwu era, Hongwu period, Hongwu's Northern Expeditions, Hung-wu, Hung-wu Emperor, Hung-wu period, Hóngwǔ, Ming T'ai-tsu, Ming Tai Zu, Ming Taizu, Noble Consort Cheng Mu, The Hongwu Emperor, Yuan Chang Chu, Zhu Chongba, Zhu Hongwu, Zhu Nan, Zhu Shuang, Zhu Shuang, Prince of Qin, Zhu Xingzhong, Zhu Xingzong, Zhu Yuan Zhang, Zhu Yuanzhang, 朱元璋.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hongwu_Emperor

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