169 relations: Acyrthosiphon pisum, Agrobacterium, Alphaproteobacteria, Amoeba, Antimicrobial resistance, Aphid, Archaea, Archaeoglobus, Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, Bacillus subtilis, Bacteria, Bacterial conjugation, Bacteriophage, Bdelloidea, Bioinformatics, Biosynthesis, Biotechnology, Bombyx mori, Bracovirus, Caenorhabditis, Caister Academic Press, Callosobruchus chinensis, Campylobacter jejuni, Carl Woese, Carotenoid, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Chagas disease, Chloroplast, Chromosomal rearrangement, Cladogenesis, Clostridium perfringens, Coalescent theory, Coffee borer beetle, Confounding, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Cyanobacteria, Cyclase, Cysteine synthase, Deoxyribonuclease, Diphtheria, DNA, DNA transposon, Drosophila, Drug resistance, Elysia chlorotica, Endogenous retrovirus, Endosymbiont, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, ..., Eudicots, Eukaryote, Exoenzyme, Exotoxin, Fertility factor (bacteria), Filariasis, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Frederick Griffith, Fungus, Gene delivery, Gene expression, Gene therapy, Gene transfer agent, Genetic engineering, Genetic marker, Genetically modified organism, Genetics, Genome, Genome Biology, Germ cell, Glycoside, Gonorrhea, Green sulfur bacteria, Griffith's experiment, Herbivore, HhMAN1, HMG-CoA reductase, Homologous recombination, Hornwort, Inferring horizontal gene transfer, Integron, Jeffrey D. Palmer, Johann Peter Gogarten, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Last universal common ancestor, Lepidoptera, Life, LINE1, Locus (genetics), Lycopene, Lysogenic cycle, Malaria, Mamavirus, Methods in Molecular Biology, Microbiology (journal), Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Mimivirus, Mite, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrion, Mobile genetic elements, Molecular biology, Molecule, Monarch butterfly, Most recent common ancestor, Multicellular organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Natural competence, Nematode, New Scientist, Nuclear DNA, Nucleic acid sequence, Organelle, Organism, Oryza sativa, Parasitism, Pathogen, Patrick J. Keeling, Phaseolus, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetic network, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Pilus, Plasmid, Plasmodium vivax, Prokaryote, Prophage, Protist, Provirus, Rafflesiaceae, Reduviidae, Retrotransposon, Rhodobacterales, RNA, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salmonella, Satellite (biology), Scientific American, Sequence, Shiga toxin, Shigella, Sleeping Beauty transposon system, Sorghum, Species, Sputnik virophage, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Striga hermonthica, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Symbiogenesis, Tardigrade, Tetracycline, The Economist, Thermophile, Transduction (genetics), Transformation (genetics), Transposable element, Transposase, Tree of life (biology), Trypanosoma, Ultraviolet, Unicellular organism, Vaucheria litorea, Virulence, Virus, Wolbachia, Xenobiology, 16S ribosomal RNA. Expand index (119 more) » « Shrink index
Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family.
Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria established by H. J. Conn that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants.
Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria (See also bacterial taxonomy).
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Archaeoglobus is a genus of the phylum Euryarchaeota.
The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information (with the very word protein itself coined to indicate a belief that its function was primary).
Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Bdelloidea (Greek βδελλα, bdella, "leech-like") is a class of rotifers found in freshwater habitats all over the world.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
Bracovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Polydnaviridae.
Caenorhabditis is a genus of nematodes which live in bacteria-rich environments like compost piles, decaying dead animals and rotting fruit.
Caister Academic Press is an independent academic publishing company that produces books and ebooks on microbiology, and molecular biology.
Callosobruchus chinensis is a common species of beetle found in the bean weevil subfamily, and is known to be a pest to many stored legumes.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States and in Europe.
Carl Richard Woese (July 15, 1928 – December 30, 2012) was an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
In genetics, a chromosomal rearrangement is a mutation that is a type of chromosome abnormality involving a change in the structure of the native chromosome.
Cladogenesis is an evolutionary splitting event where a parent species splits into two distinct species, forming a clade.
Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium.
Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor.
The coffee borer beetle or coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is a small beetle native to Africa.
In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
A cyclase is an enzyme, almost always a lyase, that catalyzes a chemical reaction to form a cyclic compound.
In enzymology, a cysteine synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are O3-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide, whereas its two products are L-cysteine and acetate.
A deoxyribonuclease (DNase, for short) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA backbone, thus degrading DNA.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA transposons (also called Class II elements) are a group of transposable elements (TEs) that can move in the DNA of an organism via a single- or double-stranded DNA intermediate.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
Elysia chlorotica (common name the eastern emerald elysia) is a small-to-medium-sized species of green sea slug, a marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusc.
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are endogenous viral elements in the genome that closely resemble and can be derived from retroviruses.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
An exoenzyme, or extracellular enzyme, is an enzyme that is secreted by a cell and functions outside of that cell.
An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria.
The fertility factor (first named F by one of its discoverers Esther Lederberg) (also called the sex factor in E. Coli or the F sex factor) allows genes to be transferred from one bacterium carrying the factor to another bacterium lacking the factor by conjugation. The F factor is carried on the F episome, the first episome to be discovered. Unlike other plasmids, F factor is constitutive for transfer proteins due to the gene traJ. The F plasmid belongs to a class of conjugative plasmids that control sexual functions of bacteria with a fertility inhibition (Fin) system.
Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity.
Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist whose focus was the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gene delivery is the process of introducing foreign genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, into host cells.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
A gene transfer agent (GTA) is a phage-like element produced by several bacteria and archaea that mediates horizontal gene transfer.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genome Biology is a fully open access scientific journal that publishes original, peer-reviewed research in genomics.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond.
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.
Griffith's experiment, reported in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, was the first experiment suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
HhMAN1 is a gene in the genome of Hypothenemus hampei, a.k.a. Coffee borer beetle, which codes for mannanase, an enzyme used to digest galactomannan, a complex polysaccharide that is found in coffee beans.
HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, officially abbreviated HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent,; NADPH-dependent) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Hornworts are a group of non-vascular plants constituting the division Anthocerotophyta.
Horizontal or lateral gene transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance.
Integrons are genetic mechanisms that allow bacteria to adapt and evolve rapidly through the acquisition, stockpiling and differential expression of new genes.
Jeffrey Donald Palmer is a Distinguished Professor of Biology at Indiana University Bloomington.
Johann Peter Gogarten is a German-American biologist studying the early evolution of life.
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy is a peer-reviewed medical journal which covers antimicrobial chemotherapy, including laboratory aspects and clinical use of antimicrobial agents.
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
LINE1 (also L1 and LINE-1) are transposable elements in the DNA of some organisms and belong to the group of Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs).
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Lycopene (from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species) is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, gac, and papayas, but it is not in strawberries or cherries.
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other).
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Mamavirus is a large and complex virus in the Group I family mimiviridae.
Methods in Molecular Biology is a book series published by Humana Press that covers molecular biology research methods and protocols.
Microbiology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research in all aspects of microbiology, including the biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, developmental biology, physiology, pathogenicity, biodiversity, biotechnology, evolution, and genetics of microorganisms and viruses.
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews (published as MMBR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.
Mimivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Mimiviridae.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are a type of genetic materials that can move around within a genome, or that can be transferred from one species or replicon to another.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Mycobacterium smegmatis is an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Mycobacterium.
In microbiology, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology, competence is the ability of a cell to alter its genetics by taking up extracellular ("naked") DNA from its environment in the process called transformation.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Patrick John Keeling is a biologist and professor in the Department of Botany at the University of British Columbia.
Phaseolus (bean, wild bean) is a genus in the family Fabaceae containing about 70 plant species, all native to the Americas, primarily Mesoamerica.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A phylogenetic network or reticulation is any graph used to visualize evolutionary relationships (either abstractly or explicitly)Huson, DH and Scornavacca, C (2011).
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
A pilus (Latin for 'hair'; plural: pili) is a hair-like appendage found on the surface of many bacteria.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Plasmodium vivax is a protozoal parasite and a human pathogen.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell.
The Rafflesiaceae are a family of rare parasitic plants found in the tropical forests of east and southeast Asia, including Rafflesia arnoldii, which has the largest flowers of all plants.
The Reduviidae are a large cosmopolitan family of the order Hemiptera (true bugs).
Retrotransposons (also called transposons via RNA intermediates) are genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms.
Rhodobacterales are an order of the Alphaproteobacteria.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper virus for its replication.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.
Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, expressed by genes considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages.
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is a synthetic DNA transposon designed to introduce precisely defined DNA sequences into the chromosomes of vertebrate animals for the purposes of introducing new traits and to discover new genes and their functions.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sputnik virophage (from Russian cпутник "satellite", Latin "virus" and Greek φάγειν phagein "to eat") is a subviral agent that reproduces in amoeba cells that are already infected by a certain helper virus; Sputnik uses the helper virus's machinery for reproduction and inhibits replication of the helper virus.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
Striga hermonthica, commonly known as purple witchweed or giant witchweed, is a hemiparasitic plant that belongs to the family Orobanchaceae.
Sulfolobus solfataricus is a species of thermophilic archaeon.
Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.
Tardigrades (also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Transposase is an enzyme that binds to the end of a transposon and catalyzes the movement of the transposon to another part of the genome by a cut and paste mechanism or a replicative transposition mechanism.
The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).
Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
Vaucheria litorea is a species of yellow-green algae (Xanthophyceae).
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Wolbachia is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria which infects arthropod species, including a high proportion of insects, but also some nematodes.
Xenobiology (XB) is a subfield of synthetic biology, the study of synthesizing and manipulating biological devices and systems.
16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome that binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence.
Gene flow between species, Gene swapping, Gene transfer, Gene transfer, horizontal, HGT, Horizontal DNA transfer, Horizontal Gene Transfer, Horizontal gene flow, Horizontal gene transmission, Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer, Horizontal origin, Lateral gene transfer, Transfer of genes, Transposition (horizontal gene transfer), Xenolog.