164 relations: Abscisic acid, Adrenaline, Adrenocortical hormone, Alpha helix, Amine, Amino acid, Ancient Greek, Animal, Apoptosis, Arachidonic acid, Autocrine signalling, Autoimmune disease, Auxin, Behavior, Biological life cycle, Biosynthesis, Blood sugar level, Brown algae, Calcium in biology, Carbohydrate, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Chemical classification, Circadian rhythm, Circulatory system, Combat, Cortisol, Crustacean, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cytokine, Cytokinin, Cytoplasm, Dermatology, Diabetes mellitus, Downregulation and upregulation, Duct (anatomy), Eicosanoid, Endocrine disruptor, Endocrine system, Endocrinology, Environmental hormones, Estradiol, Estrogen, Ethylene, Excretion, Exocrine gland, Exocytosis, Extracellular fluid, Fight-or-flight response, ..., Follicle-stimulating hormone, Functional analog (chemistry), Fungus, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastric acid, Gene, Gene expression, Gibberellin, Gland, Globulin, Glucocorticoid, Glycoprotein, Growth factor, Growth hormone, Homeostasis, Hormonal contraception, Hormone, Human development (biology), Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, Hypothyroidism, Immune system, Inflammation, Insect, Insulin, Intracellular, Intracrine, Ion channel, Juvenile hormone, Lactation, Levothyroxine, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipoxin, List of investigational hormonal agents, Luteinizing hormone, Mating, Medication, Melatonin, Membrane protein, Menopause, Metabolism, Metabolomics, Mood (psychology), Mood swing, Motor coordination, Multicellular organism, Negative feedback, Neuroendocrinology, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Nuclear envelope, Nuclear receptor, Nucleic acid sequence, Organ (anatomy), Otorhinolaryngology, Ovary, Pancreas, Pancreatic juice, Paracrine signalling, Parathyroid hormone, Parenting, Peptide, Peptide hormone, Perception, Pharmacology, Phosphorylation, Physiology, Plant, Plant hormone, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Prehormone, Progestogen, Prostaglandin, Protein, Protein complex, Puberty, Pulmonology, Receptor (biochemistry), Red algae, Reproduction, Respiration (physiology), Second messenger system, Secretion, Semiochemical, Sesquiterpene, Sex steroid, Sex-hormonal agent, Sexual motivation and hormones, Signal transduction, Sleep, Small intestine, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Steroid hormone receptor, Stomach, Stress (biology), Structural analog, Testicle, Testosterone, Thyroid, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Thyroxine-binding globulin, Tissue (biology), Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transmembrane protein, Tropic hormone, Unicellular organism, Vasopressin, Vertebrate, Vitamin D. Expand index (114 more) » « Shrink index
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
In humans and other animals, the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth regulators) with some morphogen-like characteristics.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Combat (French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
In anatomy and physiology, a duct is a circumscribed channel leading from an exocrine gland or organ.
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Environmental hormones are chemical compounds that resembles endocrine hormones.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Exocrine glands are glands that produce and secrete substances onto an epithelial surface by way of a duct.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
In chemistry and pharmacology, functional analogs are chemical compounds that have similar physical, chemical, biochemical, or pharmacological properties.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, flower development and leaf and fruit senescence.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
The globulins are a family of globular proteins that have higher molecular weights than albumins and are insoluble in pure water but dissolve in dilute salt solutions.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell, regulating intracellular events.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a group of acyclic sesquiterpenoids that regulate many aspects of insect physiology.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Levothyroxine, also known as -thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lipoxins (LXs or Lxs), an acronym for lipoxygenase interaction products, are bioactive autacoid metabolites of arachidonic acid made by various cell types.
This is a list of investigational hormonal agents, or hormonal agents that are currently under development for clinical use but are not yet approved.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites, the small molecule intermediates and products of metabolism.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pancreatic juice is a liquid secreted by the pancreas, which contains a variety of enzymes, including trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, nucleases and amylase.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling, which is an ongoing process in which bone tissue is alternately resorbed and rebuilt over time.
Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
A prehormone is a biochemical substance secreted by glandular tissue and has minimal or no significant biological activity, but it is converted in peripheral tissues into an active hormone.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
A semiochemical, from the Greek σημεῖον (semeion) meaning "signal", is a chemical substance or mixture that carries a message for purpose of communication.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of three isoprene units and often have the molecular formula C15H24.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
A sex-hormonal agent, also known as a sex-hormone receptor modulator, is a type of hormonal agent which specifically modulates the effects of sex hormones and of their biological targets, the sex hormone receptors.
Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary.
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a globulin that binds thyroid hormones in circulation.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.
Tropic hormones are hormones that have other endocrine glands as their target.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
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