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Aari (also rendered Ari, Ara, Aro, Aarai) is an Omotic language of a tribe of Ethiopia.
Abasa is an ancient town in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.
Abatte Barihun (אבטה בריהון, born 1967) is an Israeli jazz saxophonist and composer.
Abba Seru Gwangul (died 1778) was a Wara Seh chieftain from Yejju, an ethnic group of Oromo.
Abdi Bile (Cabdi Bille Cabdi, عبد الله بلي عبد الله; born 28 December 1962) is a former middle distance runner who holds multiple Somali national records for various athletics disciplines.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
The Abyssinian–Adal war was a military conflict between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate that took place from 1529 until 1543.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
The Aden Ridge is a part of an active oblique rift system located in the Gulf of Aden, between Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula to the north.
The Afar language (Qafaraf) (also known as ’Afar Af, Afaraf, Qafar af) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Afar (Qafár), also known as the Danakil, Adali and Odali, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
The Afar Triangle (also called the Afar Depression) is a geological depression caused by the Afar Triple Junction, which is part of the Great Rift Valley in East Africa.
Afdera is an isolated stratovolcano in northeastern Ethiopia, located at the intersection of three fault systems between the Erta Ale, Tat Ali, and Alayta mountain ranges.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), also known as African hunting dog, African painted dog, painted hunting dog, or painted wolf, is a canid native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages.
The Agaw or Central Cushitic languages are spoken by small groups in Ethiopia and, in one case, Eritrea.
The Agaw (አገው Agäw, modern Agew) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and neighboring Eritrea.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
Ahmed Yusuf (Axmed Yuusuf, أحمد يوسف) was a Somali ruler.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
Aksumite currency was coinage produced and used within the Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum) centered in present-day Eritrea and the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.
Alfonso the Magnanimous KG (also Alphonso; Alfons; 1396 – 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), Sicily (as Alfonso I) and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416, and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death.
Ali I of Yejju (died 18 June 1788) was a Ras of Begemder, and following the death of Ras Mikael Sehul, Regent of the Emperor of Ethiopia.
The Ambassel scale is a pentatonic scale widely used in the Gonder and Wollo regions of Ethiopia.
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
Amharas (አማራ, Āmara; አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära), also known as Abyssinians, are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia, particularly the Amhara Region.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
The ammodile, walo or Somali gerbil (Ammodillus imbellis) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Amud or Amoud (Camuud, العامود) is an ancient, ruined town in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
The Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (known as the ACRPS) is an Arab research institute with particular interest in the social sciences, applied social sciences, regional history and geostrategic affairs.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.
Argobba is an Ethiopian Semitic language spoken in an area north-east of Addis Ababa by the Argobba people.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
The Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.
Armah (reigned 614–631), known in some Muslim sources as Al-Najashi (النجاشي), was a Christian king of the Kingdom of Aksum.
Asmara (ኣስመራ), known locally as Asmera (meaning "They made them unite" in Tigrinya), is the capital city and largest city of Eritrea.
Athlete of the Year is an award given by various sports organizations for the athlete whom they have determined to be deserving of such recognition.
Aṯtar (عثتر; Musnad: 𐩲𐩻𐩧) is an ancient Semitic deity whose role, name, and even gender varied by culture.
Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.
Ayub Daud (Ayuub Daaud, ايوب داؤود) (born 24 February 1990 in Mogadishu) is a Somali international footballer who plays for Budapest Honvéd FC and the Somalia national team as a forward or attacking midfielder.
The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Bajuni people are a minority clan mainly residing on the Bajuni Islands and surrounding coastal areas between the port city of Kismayo and Mombasa area of Kenya and Somalia.
The Bale Mountains (also known as the Urgoma Mountains), in the Oromia Region of southeast Ethiopia, south of the Awash River, are part of the Ethiopian Highlands.
Benaadir (Banaadir, بنادر) is an administrative region (gobol) in southeastern Somalia.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
Barawa (Baraawe, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة Madīna Barāwa), also known as Barawe and Brava, is a port town in the southwestern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.
Barbara, also referred to as Barbaria, referred to an ancient region in littoral Horn of Africa.
Barbeya oleoides is the only species of its family (Barbeyaceae).
Bardera City (بااردىرآ, Baardheere) is an important agricultural city in the Gedo region of Somalia.
Bari (Bari, باري) is an administrative region (gobol) in northeastern Somalia.
The Battle of Adwa (Amharic: አድዋ; Amharic translated: Adowa, or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was fought on 1 March 1896 between the Ethiopian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, Ethiopia, in Tigray.
Beachcombing is an activity that consists of an individual "combing" (or searching) the beach and the intertidal zone, looking for things of value, interest or utility.
The beira (Dorcatragus megalotis) is a small arid adapted antelope that inhabits arid regions of the Horn of Africa.
Berbera (Barbara, بربرة) is a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somaliland.
Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The black boubou, Somali boubou, Erlanger's boubou, or coastal boubou (Laniarius nigerrimus) is a medium-size bushshrike.
The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Ruth (מגילת רות, Ashkenazi pronunciation:, Megilath Ruth, "the Scroll of Ruth", one of the Five Megillot) is included in the third division, or the Writings (Ketuvim), of the Hebrew Bible; in most Christian canons it is treated as a history book and placed between Judges and 1 Samuel, as it is set "in the days when the judges judged", although the Syriac Christian tradition places it later, between Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs.
The Bravanese people, also known as the Barawani, are a group inhabiting southern coast of Somalia.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Carlsberg Ridge is the northern section of the Central Indian Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary between the African Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate, traversing the western regions of the Indian Ocean.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cavefish or cave fish is a generic term for fresh and brackish water fish adapted to life in caves and other underground habitats.
The Central Indian Ridge (CIR) is a north-south-trending mid-ocean ridge in the western Indian Ocean.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA; Amharic: ማዕከላዊ ስታቲስቲክስ ኤጀንሲ) is an agency of the government of Ethiopia designated to provide all surveys and censuses for that country used to monitor economic and social growth, as well as to act as an official training center in that field.
Chapter XII of the United Nations Charter deals with the international trusteeship system.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is a free trade area with nineteen member states stretching from Libya to Swaziland.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
The Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD; Arabic:; French: Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens; Portuguese: Comunidade dos Estados Sahelo-Saarianos) aims to create a free trade area within Africa.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Cordeauxia edulis is a plant in the Fabaceae family and the sole species in the genus Cordeauxia.
A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.
Cyclamen is a genus of 23 species of perennial flowering plants in the family Primulaceae.
Dabbahu Volcano (also Boina, Boyna or Moina) is an active volcano located in the remote Afar Region of Ethiopia.
The Danakil Depression is the northern part of the Afar Triangle or Afar Depression in Ethiopia, a geological depression that has resulted from the divergence of three tectonic plates in the Horn of Africa.
The Danakil Desert is a desert in northeast Ethiopia, southern Eritrea, and northwestern Djibouti.
The Darod (Daarood, دارود) is a Somali clan.
Dawit II (ዳዊት), also known as Wanag Segad (wanag sagad, 'to whom lions bow'), better known by his birth name Lebna Dengel (ልብነ ድንግል; 1501 – September 2, 1540), was nəgusä nägäst (1508–1540) of the Ethiopian Empire.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
Derartu Tulu (Amharic: ደራርቱ ቱሉ; Afaan Oromo:Daraartuu Tulluu; born March 21, 1972) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner, who competed in track, cross country running, and road running up to the marathon distance.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
The Dervish state (Dawlada Daraawiish, دولة الدراويش Dawlat ad-Darāwīsh) was an early 20th-century Somali Muslim kingdom.
The desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) is a species of even-toed ungulate in the pig family (Suidae), found in northern Kenya and Somalia, and possibly Djibouti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.
Dʿmt (South Arabian alphabet: 𐩩𐩣𐩲𐩵; Unvocalized Ge'ez: ደዐመተ, DʿMT theoretically vocalized as ዳዓማት Daʿamat or ዳዕማት Daʿəmat) was a kingdom located in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia that existed during the 10th to 5th centuries BC.
The dibatag (Ammodorcas clarkei), or Clarke's gazelle, is a medium-sized slender antelope native to Ethiopia and Somalia.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
Dirachma is the sole genus of the family Dirachmaceae.
Dizin (often called “Dizi” or “Maji” in the literature) is an Omotic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by the Dizi people, primarily in the Maji woreda of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, located in southwestern Ethiopia.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Djibouti City (also called Djibouti; مدينة جيبوتي, Ville de Djibouti, Magaalada Jabuuti, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti.
The Djibouti francolin (Pternistis ochropectus) or Djiboutian francolin is one of over forty species of francolins, a group of birds in the Phasianidae family.
The Djiboutian franc (فرنك) is the currency of Djibouti.
Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The economy of Ethiopia is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector. The Ethiopian government is in the process of privatizing many of the state-owned businesses and moving toward a market economy. However, the banking, telecommunication and transportation sectors of the economy are dominated by government-owned companies. Ethiopia has one of the fastest-growing economies in the world and is Africa’s second most populous country. Many properties owned by the government during the previous regime have now been privatized and are in the process of privatization. However, certain sectors such as telecommunications, financial and insurance services, air and land transportation services, and retail, are considered as strategic sectors and are expected to remain under state control for the foreseeable future. Almost 50% of Ethiopia's population is under the age of 18, and even though education enrollment at primary and tertiary level has increased significantly, job creation has not caught up with the increased output from educational institutes. The country must create hundreds of thousands of jobs every year just to keep up with population growth. The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may only lease land (up to 99 years), and are unable to mortgage, sell, or own it. Various groups and political parties have sought for full privatization of land, while other opposition parties are against privatization and favor communal ownership. The current government has embarked on a program of economic reform, including privatization of state enterprises and rationalization of government regulation. While the process is still ongoing, the reforms have begun to attract much-needed foreign investment.
Somalia is classified by the United Nations as a least developed country.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Equidae (sometimes known as the horse family) is the taxonomic family of horses and related animals, including the extant horses, donkeys, and zebras, and many other species known only from fossils.
Eragrostis tef, also known as teff, Williams' lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
The Eritrean Highlands are a mountainous region in central Eritrea.
An independence referendum was held in Eritrea between 23 and 25 April 1993.
The nakfa (ISO 4217 code: ERN) is the currency of Eritrea and was introduced on 8 November 1997 to replace the Ethiopian birr at par.
The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists, both before and during the Ethiopian Civil War.
The Eritrean–Ethiopian War took place from May 1998 to June 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea, one of the conflicts in the Horn of Africa.
Erta Ale (or Ertale or Irta'ale) is a continuously active basaltic shield volcano in the Afar Region of northeastern Ethiopia.
An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively leveled areas having differing elevations.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The birr (ብር) is the unit of currency in Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ግንባር; abbreviated EPRDF but commonly known as Ehadig) is the ruling political coalition in Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Studies refers to a multi-disciplinary academic cluster dedicated to research on Ethiopia within the cultural and historical context of the Horn of Africa.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The European Athletics Indoor Championships is a biennial indoor track and field competition for European athletes that is organised by the European Athletic Association.
The term export means sending of goods or services produced in one country to another country.
‘Ezana of Axum (ዔዛና ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 CE) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan.
The Fakr ad-Din Mosque (مسجد فخر الدين زنكي), also known as Masjid Fakhr al-Din, is the oldest mosque in Mogadishu, Somalia.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fasilides (Ge'ez: ፋሲልደስ Fāsīladas, modern Fāsīledes; 20 November 1603 – 18 October 1667), also known as Fasil or Basilide, was emperor of Ethiopia from 1632 to 18 October 1667, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.
The Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) (Dowladda Federaalka Soomaaliya, حكومة الصومال الاتحادية) is the internationally recognised government of Somalia, and the first attempt to create a central government in Somalia since the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic.
The Federal Parliament of Somalia (Golaha Shacabka Soomaaliya; often Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya; البرلمان الاتحادي في الصومال; Il parlamento federale della Somalia) is the national parliament of Somalia.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis"; Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Fuelling stations, also known as coaling stations, are repositories of fuel (initially coal and later oil) that have been located to service commercial and naval vessels.
Gamo-Gofa-Dawro is an Omotic language of the Afroasiatic family spoken in the Dawro, Gamo Gofa and Wolayita Zones of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region in Ethiopia.
Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Gelawdewos (ገላውዴዎስ galāwdēwōs, modern gelāwdēwōs, "Claudius"; 1521/1522 – 23 March 1559) was Emperor (throne name Asnaf Sagad I (አጽናፍ ሰገድ aṣnāf sagad, modern āṣnāf seged, "to whom the horizon bows" or "the remotest regions submit "; September 3, 1540 – March 23, 1559) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was a younger son of Dawit II by Sabla Wengel.
George Wynn Brereton Huntingford (19 November 1901 – 19 February 1978) was an English linguist, anthropologist and historian.
Gerad Dhidhin (Abdulaahi Kooge Maxamuud Harti, عبد الله كوجى محمود هرتى), also known as Gerad Abdulahi, was the founder of the Warsangali Sultanate in the late 13th century in the territory of present-day northern Somalia.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Ras Gobena Dache (Ge'ez: ራስ፡ ጎበና Goobanaa Daaccee, 1821 - July, 1889) was an ethnic Oromo member of the Shewan aristocrats of central Ethiopia in the mid-19th century.
The genus Rhynchostruthus is a small group of finches in the family Fringillinae.
The Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi), also known as the imperial zebra, is the largest living wild equid and the largest and most threatened of the three species of zebra, the other two being the plains zebra and the mountain zebra.
The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately in length, that runs from Lebanon's Beqaa Valley in Asia to Mozambique in Southeastern Africa.
Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn, الصومال الكبير) comprises the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis live and have historically inhabited.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Guardafui Channel is an oceanic strait off the tip of the Horn of Africa.
The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.
The Gulf of Tadjoura, is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean in the Horn of Africa.
Gundis or comb rats (family Ctenodactylidae) are a group of small, stocky rodents found in Africa.
The Gurage languages (ጉራጌ Guragē, also known as Guragie) are a group of South Ethiopic languages, which belong to the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family.
Haackgreerius is a genus of skinks.
Hadramaut, Hadhramaut, Hadramout, Hadramawt or Ḥaḍramūt (حضرموت Ḥaḍramawt; Musnad: 𐩢𐩳𐩧𐩣𐩩) is a region on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Hadiyya (speakers call it Hadiyyisa, others sometimes call it Hadiyigna, Adiya, Adea, Adiye, Hadia, Hadiya, Hadya) is the Afroasiatic language of the Hadiya people of Ethiopia.
Haemodracon is a small genus of rare geckos from Socotra archipelago.
Haile Gebrselassie (ኃይሌ ገብረ ሥላሴ, haylē gebre silassē; born 18 April 1973) is a retired Ethiopian long-distance track and road running athlete.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
The hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a species of baboon from the Old World monkey family.
Hamer or Hamer-Banna is a language within the South Omotic branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Harar (Harari: ሐረር), and known to its inhabitants as Gēy (Harari: ጌይ), is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.
Harari is the language of the Harari people of Ethiopia.
Hassan Gouled Aptidon (Xasan Guuleed Abtidoon. حسن جوليد أبتيدون) (October 15, 1916 – November 21, 2006) was the first President of Djibouti from 1977 to 1999.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.
Djibouti is a country in the Horn of Africa.
"Eritrea" is an ancient name, associated in the past with its Greek form Erythraia, Ἐρυθραία, and its derived Latin form Erythræa.
This article covers the prehistory & history of Ethiopia, from emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال الفدرالية) and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Ibrahim Adeer (Ibraahin Adeer, ابراهيم أدير) was a Somali ruler.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
The Incense trade route comprised a network of major ancient land and sea trading routes linking the Mediterranean world with Eastern and Southern sources of incense, spices and other luxury goods, stretching from Mediterranean ports across the Levant and Egypt through Northeastern Africa and Arabia to India and beyond.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Injera (Amharic: ənǧära እንጀራ; sometimes transliterated as enjera; or "taita"; Tigrinya: ጣይታ; Somali: Canjeero) is a sourdough-risen flatbread with a slightly spongy texture.
The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is an eight-country trade bloc in Africa.
The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Lij Iyasu, or Iyasu V (ኢያሱ፭ኛ, the Ethiopian version of Joshua), also known as Lij Iyasu (ልጅ ኢያሱ; 4 February 1895 – 25 November 1935), was the designated but uncrowned Emperor of Ethiopia (1913–16).
Jamal ad-Din II (جمال اد الدين) (died 1433) was a Sultan of the Adal Sultanate.
The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about in length, is thrown.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jubba River (Wabiga Jubba, Giuba) is a river in southern Somalia.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Juventus Football Club S.p.A. (from iuventūs, "youth"), colloquially known as Juve, is a professional Italian football club in Turin, Piedmont.
Kafa or Kefa (Kafi noono) is a North Omotic Language language spoken in Ethiopia at the Keffa Zone.
The Kebra Nagast (var. Kebra Negast, Ge'ez ክብረ ነገሥት, kəbrä nägäśt) is a 14th-century account written in Ge'ez, an ancient South Semitic language that originated in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Kenenisa Bekele (ቀነኒሳ በቀለ; born 13 June 1982) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner and the current world record and Olympic record holder in both the 5,000 metre and 10,000 metre events.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Kingdom of Gomma was one of the kingdoms in the Gibe region of Ethiopia that emerged in the 18th century.
The Kingdom of Gumma was one of the kingdoms in the Gibe region of Ethiopia that emerged in the 18th century.
The Kingdom of Jimma was one of the kingdoms in the Gibe region of Ethiopia that emerged in the 19th century.
The Kingdom of Kaffa (c. 1390–1897) was an early modern state located in what is now Ethiopia, with its first capital at Bonga.
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.
The Kunama language has been included in the proposed Nilo-Saharan language family, though it is distantly related to the other languages, if at all.
Kurt-Tucholsky-Preis is a literary prize of Germany.
Lalibela (ላሊበላ) is a town in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia famous for monolithic rock-cut churches.
The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom.
Léonce Lagarde, comte de Rouffeyroux, duke of Enttoto (1860 in Lempdes (Haute-Loire) – 15 February 1936 in Paris) was a French colonial governor of French Somaliland and ambassador.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
A lifestyle magazine is a popular magazine concerned with lifestyle.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Maakhir (Goboleedka Maakhir, ماخر.), officially the Maakhir State of Somalia (Maamul Goboleedka Maakhiran; ولاية ماخر الصومال) was a short-lived quasi-state in northern Somalia.
The Macrobians (Μακροβίοι), meaning long-lived, were an ancient tribal Kingdom of Aethiopia positioned in the farthest land towards the western sunset south of ancient Libya (Africa).
Maduna (Maduuna) is an ancient town in the northern Sanaag province of Somalia.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Mahfuz (or Mohammed) (محفوظ, Harari: ማሕፉዝ) (died July 1517) was a Harari Emir of the city of Harar, and later a Governor of Zeila in the Adal Sultanate.
Mahmoud Harbi Farah (محمود الحربي) (1921 – October 1960) was a Somali politician.
The Majeerteen Sultanate (Suldanadda Majeerteen, سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa.
Malao was an ancient Somali port city in present-day Somalia.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.
Mansur ad-Din (منصور اد الدين) (died 1424) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal and a son of Sa'ad ad-Din II.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
Maritime history of Somalia refers to the seafaring tradition of the Somali people.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Masjid al-Qiblaṫayn (مَـسْـجِـد الْـقِـبْـلَـتَـيْـن; "Mosque of the two Qiblahs") is a mosque in Zeila, situated in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia.
Me'en (also Mekan, Mie'en, Mieken, Meqan, Men) is a Nilo-Saharan language (Eastern Sudanic, Surmic, Southeast Surmic) spoken in Ethiopia by the Me'en people.
Meles Zenawi Asres (Ge'ez: መለስ ዜናዊ አስረስ mäläs zenawi asräs;; birth name Legesse Meles Zenawi Asres 9 May 1955 – 20 August 2012) was the Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 1995 to his death in 2012.
Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG (ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ), baptised as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was Negus of Shewa (1866–89), then Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death in 1913.
Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም, pronounced; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian soldier and politician who was the dictator of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991.
Merca (Marka, مركة) is an ancient port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia.
A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mihrab (محراب, pl. محاريب) is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying.
Military administration identifies both the techniques and systems used by military departments, agencies, and Armed Services involved in the management of the armed forces.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
Sir Mohamed Muktar Jama "Mo" Farah, (Maxamed Mukhtaar Jaamac Faarax; born 23 March 1983) is the United Kingdom's most successful distance runner.
In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (April 7, 1856 – December 21, 1920) was a Somali religious and patriotic leader.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mosylon (Μοσυλλόν), also known as Mosullon, was an ancient Somali trading center on or near the site that later became the city of Bosaso.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The Mudaito Dynasty (Modaytó Dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of the Sultanate of Aussa (Sultanate of Awsa) in Ethiopia.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mursi (also Dama, Merdu, Meritu, Murzi, Murzu) is a Nilo-Saharan Eastern Sudanic language spoken by the Mursi people, in the central Omo region of southwest Ethiopia.
The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of Ethiopia's ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds.
A musketeer (mousquetaire) was a type of soldier equipped with a musket.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.
The Nara (Nera) or Barea (Barya) language is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken chiefly in western Eritrea.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neustadt International Prize for Literature is a biennial award for literature sponsored by the University of Oklahoma and its international literary publication, World Literature Today.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
The Nilotic peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile Valley who speak Nilotic languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.
Noah Rosenberg is a geneticist working in evolutionary biology, human genetics, and population genetics, now Professor at Stanford University.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Nuruddin Farah (Nuuradiin Faarax, نورالدين فارح) (born 24 November 1945) is a Somali novelist.
Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled Ogadēn; Ogaadeen) is the unofficial name of the Somali Region, the territory comprising the eastern portion of Ethiopia.
The Ogaden War was a Somali military offensive between July 1977 and March 1978 over the disputed Ethiopian region Ogaden starting with the Somali Democratic Republic's invasion of Ethiopia.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
The Omotic languages are group of languages spoken in southwestern Ethiopia.
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA) is the United States military operation to combat militant Islamism and piracy in the Horn of Africa.
Opone (Οπώνη) was an ancient Somali city situated in the Horn of Africa.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.
Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.
The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.
Osman Mahamuud (Cismaan Maxamuud, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali king.
Osman Yusuf Kenadid (Cusmaan Yuusuf Keenadiid; عثمان يوسف كينايديض), was a Somali poet, writer, teacher and ruler.
The Osmanya alphabet (Farta Cismaanya; Osmanya), also known as Far Soomaali ("Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah al-ʿuthmānīyah, is a writing script created to transcribe the Somali language.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
The People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) was the official name of Ethiopia from 1987 to 1991, as established by the Communist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam and the Workers' Party of Ethiopia (WPE).
The People's Rally for Progress (Rassemblement populaire pour le Progrès or RPP) (التجمع الشعبي من أجل التقدم) is a political party in Djibouti.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A pillar tomb is a type of monumental grave wherein the central feature is a single, prominent pillar or column, often made of stone.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Puntland (Puntlaand, أرض البنط), officially the Puntland State of Somalia (Dowladda Puntland ee Soomaaliya, بونتلاند دولة الصومال), is a region in northeastern Somalia.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Queen of Sheba (Musnad: 𐩣𐩡𐩫𐩩𐩪𐩨𐩱) is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
Rangeland management (also range management, range science, or arid-land management) is a professional natural science that centers around the study of rangelands and the "conservation and sustainable management for the benefit of current societies and future generations." Range management is defined by Holechek et al.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.
Sabr ad-Din II (الصبر اد الدين) (died 1422 or 1423) was a Sultan of Adal and the oldest son of Sa'ad ad-Din II.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
The Saho language (Tigrinya: ሳሆኛ) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Eritrea, Sudan and Ethiopia.
Sanaag (Sanaag, سناج) is an administrative region (gobol) in northeastern Somaliland.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
The Semien Mountains (Amharic: ስሜን ተራሮች) (or Səmen; also spelled Simien and Simen), in northern Ethiopia, north east of Gondar in Amhara region, are part of the Ethiopian Highlands.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Serie A, also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia.
Shams ad-Din ibn Muhammad (شمس اد الدين بن محمد) (reigned 1472–1487) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal and a son of Muhammad ibn Badlay.
The Shebelle River (Webi Shabeelle, نهر الشبيل, እደላ, Uebi Scebeli) begins in the highlands of Ethiopia, and then flows southeast into Somalia towards Mogadishu.
Sheeko is a glossy lifestyle magazine aimed at Horn Africans (Somalis, Ethiopians and Eritreans).
Shewa (ሸዋ, Šawā; Šewā), formerly romanized as Shoa (Scioà in Italian), is a historical region of Ethiopia, formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire.
A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.
Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
Sidaama or Sidaamu Afoo is an Afro-Asiatic language, belonging to the Highland East Cushitic branch of the Cushitic family.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Silt'e (ስልጥኘ or የስልጤ አፍ) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in central Ethiopia.
The silver dik-dik (Madoqua piacentinii) is a small antelope found in low, dense thickets along the southeastern coast of Somalia and in Acacia-Commiphora bushland in the Shebelle Valley in southeastern Ethiopia.
The sky often has important religious significance.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Socotra سُقُطْرَى Suqadara, also called Soqotra, located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of four islands of the Socotra archipelago.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, is the former ruling Imperial House of the Ethiopian Empire.
Somali architecture is the engineering and designing of multiple different construction types such as stone cities, castles, citadels, fortresses, mosques, temples, aqueducts, lighthouses, towers and tombs during the ancient, medieval and early modern periods in Somalia and other regions inhabited by Somalis, as well as the fusion of Somalo-Islamic architecture with Western designs in contemporary times.
This is a list of Somali aristocratic and court titles that were historically used by the Somali people's various sultanates, kingdoms and empires.
The Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF) are the military forces of Somalia, officially known as the Federal Republic of Somalia.
The Bantu (also called Jareer, Gosha, and Mushunguli) are an ethnic minority group in Somalia who primarily reside in the southern part of the country, near the Juba and Shabelle rivers.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
The Somali diaspora refers to expatriate Somalis who reside in areas of the world that have traditionally not been inhabited by their ethnic group.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Somali Plate, or Somalian Plate, is a minor tectonic plate, which straddles the equator in the eastern hemisphere.
The Somali shilling (sign: Sh.So.; shilin; شلن; scellino; ISO 4217: SOS) is the official currency of Somalia.
Somali studies is the scholarly term for research concerning Somalis and Greater Somalia.
The Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) is a subspecies of the African wild ass.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The Somalia gerbil (Gerbillus dunni) is a rodent species distributed mainly in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti.
Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند, rtl), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
South Yemen is the common English name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية), which existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra.
The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is a mid-ocean ridge located along the floors of the south-west Indian Ocean and south-east Atlantic Ocean.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The Speke's gazelle (Gazella spekei) is the smallest of the gazelle species.
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
Somalia is a federal republic consisting of six states divided into eighteen administrative regions (gobollada, singular gobol), which in turn are subdivided into districts.
The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Sultanate of Aussa (alternate spelling: Awsa, also known as the Afar Sultanate) was a kingdom that existed in the Afar Region of eastern Ethiopia in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Sultanate of Harar was an ancient kingdom centered in Harar, Ethiopia.
The Sultanate of Hobyo (Saldanadda Hobyo, سلطنة هوبيو), also known as the Sultanate of Obbia,New International Encyclopedia, Volume 21, (Dodd, Mead: 1916), p.283.
The Sultanate of Ifat was a medieval Muslim state in the eastern regions of the Horn of Africa between the late 13th century and early 15th century.
The Sultanate of Mogadishu (Saldanadda Muqdisho, سلطنة مقديشو) (fl. 10th-16th centuries), also known as the Kingdom of Magadazo, was a medieval Somali trading empire centered in southern Somalia.
The Sultanate of Showa (Sultanate of Shewa) was a Muslim kingdom situated in the territory of present-day Ethiopia.
The Sultanate of the Geledi (Saldanadda Geledi, سلطنة غلدي) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century.
Suri is a traditional local name for a people living in southwestern Ethiopia.
Susenyos I (also Sisinios, in Greek, Ge'ez ሱስንዮስ sūsinyōs; throne name Malak Sagad III, Ge'ez መልአክ ሰገድ, mal'ak sagad, Amh. mel'āk seged, "to whom the angel bows"; 1572 – 1632) was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1606 to 1632.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) (Ge'ez: ህወሓት), known more commonly and sometimes as Weyane or Second Weyane (Ge'ez: ወያነ/ ካልኣይ ወያነ) (Ge'ez: ህዝባዊ ወያነ ሓርነት ትግራይ, ህዝባዊ ወያነ ሓርነት ትግራይ (ሕወሓት), "Popular revolution (for) the freedom of Tigray") is a political party in Tigray, Ethiopia.
Tigrayans (ተጋሩ) also called Agazian, are an ethnolinguistic group primarily inhabiting the Eritrean highlands and the northern Tigray region of Ethiopia.
Tigre (ትግረ tigre or ትግሬ tigrē), better known in Eritrea by its autonym Tigrayit (ትግራይት), and also known by speakers in Sudan as Xasa (الخاصية ḫāṣiyah), is an Afroasiatic language spoken in Northeast Africa.
Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
The Tigrinyas (also referred to as Biher Tigrinya, Kebessa, and Bihere-Tigrinya) are an ethnic group inhabiting central Eritrea.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The Tour of Eritrea (ዙር ኤርትራ, Giro dell’ Eritrea.) is a multistage bicycle race held annually throughout Eritrea.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) (Dowladda Federaalka Kumeelgaarka, الحكومة الاتحادية الانتقالية) was the internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended and the Federal Government of Somalia was inaugurated.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
A triple junction is the point where the boundaries of three tectonic plates meet.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The term UN mandate is typically used to refer to a long-term international mission which has been authorized by the United Nations General Assembly or the UN Security Council in particular.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Upland and lowland are conditional descriptions of a plain based on elevation above sea level.
Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.
UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
The Walashma dynasty was a medieval Muslim dynasty of the Horn of Africa.
The Warsangali (Qabiilka Warsangeli; قبيلة أوسنجلي.), (also Moorasaante/Awrkii Cirka, Warsengeli, Warsingeli, Oor Singally) is a Somali clan, part of the Harti confederation of Darod sub-clans.
The Warsangali Sultanate (Saldanadda Warsangeli, سلطنة الورسنجلي) was a Somali Sultanate ruling house centered in northeastern of Somalia.
The Warsangli linnet (Linaria johannis) is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.
Wolaytta is a North Omotic language of the Ometo group spoken in the Wolayita Zone and some other parts of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region of Ethiopia.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
A world record is usually the best global performance ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill or sport.
Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi (اليعقوبي), was a Muslim geographer and perhaps the first historian of world culture in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Yeha (ይሐ yiḥa, older ESA 𐩥𐩢 ḤW) is a town in the Mehakelegnaw Zone of the northern Tigray Region in Ethiopia.
Yejju Oromo belong to the Barentu branch of Oromo people.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yeshaq I or Isaac (Ge'ez ይሥሓቅ, yisḥāḳ; throne name: Gabra Masqal II ገብረ መስቀል, gabra masḳal) was Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) (1414–29) of Ethiopia.
Yusuf Ali Kenadid (Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid) was a Somali Sultan.
Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim (Yuusuf Maxamuud Ibrahiim, يوسف محمود ابراهيم) was a Somali ruler.
The Zagwe dynasty (ዛጉዌ ሥርወ መንግስት) was the ruling dynasty of a Medieval kingdom in present-day northern Ethiopia.
Zahra Bani (born 31 December 1979 in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a Somali-Italian javelin thrower.
Zeila (Saylac, زيلع), also known as Zaila or Zeyla, is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.
Zigula (Zigua, Chizigua) is a Bantu language of Tanzania and of Somalia, where it is known as Mushunguli (Mushungulu).
The 2nd World Championships in Athletics under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations were held in the Stadio Olimpico in Rome, Italy between August 28 and September 6, 1987.
The XVth Mediterranean Games Almería 2005 (XV Juegos del Mediterráneo 2005 in Spanish), commonly known as the 2005 Mediterranean Games, were the 15th Mediterranean Games.
The 2011 Djiboutian protests were widespread demonstrations and riots that took place between January and March 2011 in Djibouti, situated in the Horn of Africa.
Africa, Northeast, African horn, Africas horn, Al-qarn al-'afrīqī, Gaaffaa Afriikaa, Geeska Afrika, Greater Horn of Africa, History of the Horn of Africa, Horn African, Horn Africans, Horn of africa, Jasiiradda Soomaali, North East Africa, Northeast Africa, Northeast Africa (disambiguation), Northeast African, Northeast africa, Northeastern Africa, Regio Aromatica, Regio Cinnamonifora, Regio Incognita, Somali Peninsula, Somali peninsula, Somalian Peninsula, The Horn of Africa, Yäafrika qänd, القرن الأفريقي, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ.